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Full text of "Canadian Shipping and Marine Engineering January-December 1913"

Library 
of the 
University of Toronto 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/canshipmarineen1913macl 



V7 

CIRCULATES IN EVERY PROVINCE OF CANADA AND ABROAD 

Marine Engineering 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and development of Merchant and Naval Marine Engineering, 
Shipbuilding, the building of Harbors and Docks, and containing a record of the latest and 
best practice throughout the Sea-going World. Published by 
The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 

MONTREAL, Eastern Townships Bank Bldg. TORONTO, 143-149 University Ave. WINNIPEG, 34 Royal Bank Bldgr. LONDON, ENG., 88 Fleet St. 

Vol. III. Publication Office, Toronto— January, 1913 No. 1 

POLSON IRON WORKS, LIMITED 

TORONTO - - CANADA 

Steel Shipbuilders 
Engineers and Boilermakers 




Manufacturers of 

Steel Vessels, Tugs, Barges, Dredges and Scows 
Marine Engines and Boilers all sizes and kinds 

Works and Office : Esplanade Street East. Piers Nos. 35, 36, 37 and 38 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



THE SOLUTION- 
of the Corrosion Problem 



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WM. BRIGGS & SONS, LTD. 

DUNDEE & LONDON 

Agents for Canada : MACDONALD & SONS, 

176 King St. East, TORONTO. 



Dipper Dredges 

Clam Dredges 

Steel Scows 

Drill Boats 




Equipment of this nature together with Hoisting 
Engines of all kinds are specialties with us. 

Let us figure on your requirements. 

We have the experience necessary to build any- 
thing you need in this line and you will find our 
prices right. 

Send for descriptive matter now. 

M. BEATTY & SONS, Limited 
WELLAND ONTARIO 



The Doty Marine Engine and Boiler Co., Limited 

BUILDERS OF 

High Grade Marine Engines and Boilers 



Fore and Aft Com- 
pound Jet Conden- 
sing Engines. 

Fore and Aft Com- 
pound Surface 
Condensing Engines. 

Triple Expansion 
Engines. 

Stern Wheel Engines 

Double H. P. or 
Tandem Compound. 

Steam Capstans. 
Steering Engines. 

Windlasses. 
Hoisting Engines 
Etc. 




Scotch Marine 
Boilers. 

Fitzgibbon Boilers. 

Firebox Marine 
Boilers. 

Locomotive Boilers. 

Water Tube Boilers 
and 

Vertical Submerged 
Tube Boilers. 



The above two Vessels are owned by Wm. Raima & Co., Port Carling, Out., are equipped with machinery 
built by us, and they write us: 

"That the engines and machinery built by you have given splendid satisfaction, running steady every 
week day without hitch or fault. We must say we are highly pleased with the outfit." 

We obtain many repeat orders because to buy from us is a guarantee of satisfaction. Keep us in mind 
and let us have your enquiry. 

DOTY MARINE ENGINE & BOILER CO , LIMITED 

GODERICH ONTARIO 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell h 



im. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OE CANADA 



1 



SHIP CHANDLERY 



L 




: 



OLD COUNTRY FIRMS 

FOR WHOM WE ARE 

SOLE CANADIAN AGENTS 



CLARKE, CHAPMAN & CO., LIMITED. 

Windlasses, Winches, Hoisting 
Gears, Electric Lighting, Steam 
Pumps, Marine Boilers. 

MURRAY, McVINNIE & CO., LTD. 

Cooking Ranges, Kitchen Utensils, 
Ship Chandlery, Second-hand Ship- 
yard Machinery of all descriptions. 

JOHN HASTIE & CO., LTD. 

Steam, Hand, Electric Steering Gears. 

ANSELL, JONES & CO. 

Reid-McFarland's Patent Steel Self- 
Lubricating Blocks. 

DARLINGTON FORGE CO. 

Steel Castings and Forgings. 

WOODITE COMPANY. 

Woodite Gauge Glass Washers. 



HOME RUBBER CO. (New Jersey, U.S.A.) 

N. B. O. Sheet Packing, Mechanical 
Rubber Goods. 

SHANKS & CO., LIMITED. 

Sanitary Appliances, Folding Lava- 
tories, Plumbers' Fittings, Baths, 
W.C.'s, Etc. 

GIBSON & JONES. 

Patent Gem Flue Cleaners. 

DOBBIE-McINNES, LIMITED. 

Nautical-Navigational Instruments. 

R. B. LINDSAY & CO. 

Lindsay Glasgow Patent High Pres- 
sure Piston Packing. 

HOSKIN & SON, LTD. 

Metallic Ships' Berths. 



WM. McGEOCH & CO., LTD., Ships' Hardware, Electric Fixtures, Lamps. 

J. & A. STEWART & CO., Lignum Vitae, Teakwood 
Mahogany, Hardwoods, Etc. 




WILLIAM 

TORONTO: Head Office. 



C. WILSON & CO. 

Lock 24 Welland Canal, THOROLD, ONT. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 




MARINE CLOSET WITH PUMP ATTACHMENT 





MARINE POP SAFETY VALVE 

Twin type to conform with 
Government regulations. 




Electric Deck Light, 
Heavy Type. 




Brass Binnacle Standard 

We also make short patterns 
in different styles, with or 
without compass. 



MARINE FOLDING LAVATORY 



-MARINE ENGINEERS'. 
SUPPLIES, 

MARINE LAVATORIES, CLOSETS, 

ETC. 

All our goods are of substantial design 
to stand the strain under which Marine 
Goods are frequently subjected. 

They are backed by years of dependable 
service and have proved themselves 
worthy of your complete investigation. 

Do not repair your ship until you enquire 
about our goods. 

We have everything which you need in 
brass work. 




Brass Port Light 

Made in different types and sizes from 
5 inch to 10 inch diam. 



The James Morrison Brass Mfg. Co., Limited 




Reducing Pressuie Valve 





93-97 Adelaide Street West 



TORONTO 



Steamship Telegraph Signal, 
Repeating Type. 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



The World's Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering for 1912 



The year 1912 fully maintained in its achievement record the hopeful outlook which its 
dawn promised, and while in point of fact it did not surpass to any great extent its pre- 
decessor in what might be termed quantity output, it, nevertheless falls to be noted that 
it did so in large measure, relative to vessel types, their propulsion, equipment, and adapta- 
bility to specific services. 



T N some respects there is a remarkable 
similarity between the shipbuilding- 
statistics of 1912 and those of 1911. The 
most casual reference to the first table 
given in this column will show that the 
figures for the two years are curiously 
alike. Take those of the United King- 
dom, for example. There is a difference 
of a little over a hundred in the number 
of vessels launched, but on tonnages of 
considerably over a million there is a 
difference of only about 4,000 tons. All 
over England the difference on figures 
of almost a million and a quarter is only 
about 9,000, while in this case there is 
even a somewhat confusing similarity 
between the two sets of figures — 1,232,- 
390 tons in 1912, as compared with 



1,223,098 tons in 1911. In Scotland there 
has been an improvement in output of 
only some 16,500 tons, while the Clyde 
builders launched in 1912 just about 10,- 
000 tons of new shipping more than they 
did in 1911. The large yards in Belfast 
had a slightly reduced output, and Ire- 
land does not hold its usual high place 
in the tables; but even there the de- 
crease is only a matter of 22,000 tons. 

In the British overseas Dominions 
more work was done than in 1911, but 
the total is not very high, and although 
the figures from that most scattered of 
"districts" must needs be brought to- 
gether, conditions vary so widely that 
no general moral can be drawn from 
them. In countries other than the Bri- 



tish Empire the production shows an 
increase of about 430 in number of ships 
but of only about 168,000 tons in meas- 
urement, while the grand totals for the 
world show that there was a gain, in 
number of vessels of, in round figures, 
380, and in measurement, of 179,000 
tons. Considering that the totals 
run over three and a half mil- 
lion tons this increase is quite insig- 
nificant. It is so small indeed that it 
may be said of all the world, as it may 
be said indeed of almost every indivi- 
dual country and district, that 1912 just 
maintained the very high standard of 
production set by 1911, was equally busy 
all through, and was quite as much dis- 
tinguished by evidences of prosperity 




MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



and enterprise. The marine engineering 
figures tell exactly the same tale, and, as 
may be seen from the table, their simi- 
larity is almost equally marked: 



six distinct yards, and the production 
of the Tyne firm was really the record 
for the year. In the 1912 figures, how- 
ever, there is absolutely no qualification. 



SUMMARY OF WORLD'S SHIPBUILDING. 

1912. 

Vessels. Tons. I.H.P. Vessels. 

England 831 1,232,390 1.263,086 898 

Scotland 520 68S.18S 914.741 557 

Ireland 22 164.748 93.450 24 

TJ. K. totals 1.373 2.0&5.326 2.271.277 1,479 

Dominions 208 36.57S 17.922 152 

Foreign 2.049 1.G4S.310 1.957.606 1.628 

Grand total 3.630 3,770,214 4.246.805 3,259 



1911. 

Tons. I.H.P. 

1,223,098 1.241,172 

671,624 S34.628 

186,825 150,116 



2,081.547 
29,249 
1.480,273 

i91.069 



2,225,916 
12,875 
2,011.663 

4.250,454 



Clyde Still to the Front. 

Were it not that the matter has been 
a commonplace for many years, the re- 
markable position occupied by the Clyde 
in all annual records of shipbuilding and 
marine engineering progress would have 
been considered one of the most aston- 
ishing phases of modern industrial life. 
The following grouping of the United 
Kingdom and British rivers with the two 
principal foreign shipbuilding countries 
shows better than any amount of explan- 
ation coidd do the long lead which the 
Clyde has in everything that pertains to 
its two great trades. It compares very 
favorably with the whole of Germany — 
with a margin of 110,000 tons on the 
right side — it has almost double the out- 
put of the Avhole of the United States — ■ 
although, of course, its figures are more 
complete in the matter of small vessels 
than are those of America — its total is 
less than 58,000 tons short of those of 
the Tyne and Wear combined, and it 
produced during 1912 almost a third of 
the total tonnage of the United King- 
dom, and rather more than a sixth of 
that of the whole world. When it is 
remembered that all this work was done 
within an estuary some twenty miles in 
length, much of it on a narrow river 
crowded with shipping, and all of it in 
an area that, in extent, would scarcely 
be noticed on the map of any country 
other than Great Britain, the full value 
of the Clyde shipbuilding and engineer- 
ing industries may be faintly realized. 
The comparative figures from which the 
morals may be drawn are as follow: 

Vessels. Tons. I.H.P. 

United Kingdom .... 1,373 2.085,326 2,271,277 

The Clyde 389 640,529 878.326 

Germany 408 530.312 640,025 

The Tyne 97 388.370 464,855 

United States 196 321.592 324.208 

The Wear 82 309.934 191,806 

Tees and Hartlepopls 100 261,888 182,210 

Another Tyne Record. 

The Tyne has many shipbuilding re- 
cords to its credit, and its tonnage fig- 
ures for 1912 include still another. For 
the second time Messrs. Swan, Hunter 
& Wigharn Richardson, of Wallsend and 
Walker, launched within twelve months 
a larger tonnage than that of any other 
individual linn. In 1900 their total of 
117,94.'} tons was exceeded by that of the 
American Shipbuilding Company, but 
that "combine" had then in operation 
It may be said that a proportion of the 



firm's production consists of the lifting 
capacity of floating docks, but no reason- 
able deduction on account of these would 
reduce their figures to those of the next 
highest, so that their position is unas- 
sailable. It must be pointed out also 
that in this comparison we have used 
their exact Board of Trade tonnage of 
measured ships, so that no deductions 
can be made for "erections" Their 
"with erection" figures are of course 
considerably higher : 

LEADING SHIPBUILDERS. 

Vessel Tons 

Swan, Hunter & Wigham Rich'son 21 121.281 

The Vulcan Company (2 yards).. 11 96,639 

Workman. Clark & Co 10 85,391 

William Doxford & Sons 18 80.995 

William Gray & Co 20 79,841 

Harland & Wolff 7 77,591 

Clydebank's Record Production. 

The i.h.p. of marine engines produced 
by Messrs. John Brown & Co., of Clyde- 
bank, is easily the largest for the year, 
and larger also than that of any firm 
in any previous year. The work of the 
six leading firms in 1912 was, however, 
remarkable all over. In each case the 
total i.h.p. was more than 100,000, while 
if the limit had been put at that figure, 
Messrs. Cammell, Laird & Co., of Birk- 
enhead, who had 101,350 i.h.p., would 
also have been included. The year was 
indeed notable for the very large amount 
of work done by most of the leading 
firms of marine engineers: 

LEADING MARINE ENGINEERS. 

I.H.P. 

John Brown & Co 178,500 

F. Schichau 143,700 

Vickers (Limited) 136,750 

North- Eastern Marine Co. (3 shops) . . 129.125 

The Wallsend Slipway Co 123,000 

Krupp's Germania Works 121,750 

World's Largest Ships. 

There is really only one "large" ves- 
sel in the 1912 list— the Hamburg-Am- 
erican Company's Imperator, built by 
the Vulcan Company in their new yard 
at Hamburg. The second largest — "the 
White Star liner Ceramic at Belfast — 
would have been a very large ship a 
few years ago, but she is small now by 
comparison with the present largest. 
The following may be considered, from 



a mere tonnage point of view at least, 
as the leading half-dozen ships of the 
year : 

Activity on the Clyde. 

It was said twelve months ago that 
there had never been a year in which the 
shipbuilding and marine engineering in- 
dustries of the Clyde were so intensely 
interesting, or provided so much ma- 
terial for comment as they had done dur- 
ing 1911. These remarks might well be 
repeated now — with renewed emphasis. 
The remarkable elasticity of the trade, 
its capacity for rising to every occasion, 
as well as — unfortunately — for sinking 
at intervals into periods of depression, 
has never been better illustrated than 
during the past three or four years. At 
the end of 1907 the w'ork of the year 
amounted to about 620,000 tons of new 
shipping, at the end of 1910 there were 
only 393,000 tons to the credit of the 
river, and now, at the end of 1912, there 
are over 640,000 tons. These somewhat 
violent fluctuations are in one sense re- 
grettable, as even the times of prosperity 
are overshadowed by the knowledge that 
the ever-possible swing of the industrial 
pendulum will bring again a series of 
lean years. At present, however, there 
is no indication of a falling-off in trade, 
and the high figures representing the 
work done in 1912 may be taken not as 
abnormal or indicating an unjustified 
"boom," but as the legitimate result of 
the regular demands of the trade of the 
world. The firms on the river — there are 
exactly fifty on the list for the year — 
had an extremely busy time, and the re- 
sult is that they improved even on the 
enormous output of 1911 by about 10,000 
tons. The margin on the side of gain is 
very small, representing only a couple 
of tramp steamers, but it is sufficient to 
make 1912 the best year in the history 
of the river, and to show that its limit 
of capacity for undertaking work of all 
kinds has not yet been reached. 

There were, as usual, many different 
types of vessels built in the district. So 
many indeed were the types and so diffi- 
cult is it now to draw lines of distinction 
between some of them that it is hardly 
possible to tabulate them properly with- 
out including some vessels under more 
than one type. The term "turbine 
steamer," for instance, may mean what 
it meant a few years ago, or it may mean 
a war vessel, a "combination" engined 
vessel, a vessel with geared turbines, a 
twin screw, a triple screw, or a quad- 
ruple screw. A "motor vessel," again, 
may mean anything from a little launch 
to a big cargo carrier, or even a gunboat, 



SUMMARY OF LARGEST SHIPS. 1912. 

Vessel Type. Builders Tons. 

[perator — 4 screw turbine The Vulcan Company 52,000 

Ceramic — 3 screw "combination" Harland & Wolff 18.500 

RmpresB of Russia— 4 screw turbine The Fairfield Company 16,860 

Empress of Asia — 4 screw turbine The Fairfield Company 16.850 

<<• loi Twin . r. \ Workman, Clark & Co. 14.500 

Niagara- .'! screw "combination" John Brown & Co. 13,342 

2 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



while of barges, lighters, and such craft 
there is more variety than ever. 

New World's Records. 

There are two clear world's records in 
Clyde marine engineering for 1912. In 
the first place nothing like 878,000 i.h.p. 
has ever been turned out before in one 
year in any single recognized shipbuild- 
ing district, least of all in a district so 
small geographically as that of the 
Clyde. 

The second record is an individual one. 
Messrs. John Brown and Co. 's output of 
178,500 i.h.p. is not only the largest in 
the world for the year, but it is also the 
largest which has ever been manufactur- 
ed in one year by one firm. The next 
highest on record is that of the Vulcan 
Company, of Stettin, in 1911 — 166,250 
i.h.p. The work of the Clydebank firm 
is all the more remarkable, as they are 
the only Clyde company who have i.h.p. 
of six figures to their credit for 1911 
and 1912. 

There is no danger whatever in pre- 
dicting that- — if there is no trouble about 
labor — the year 1913 will be quite as 
busy as were 1912 and 1911. There is 
far more tonnage on hand than there has 
ever been, and as the shipping trade 
continues in a satisfactory condition, 
there is every reason to believe that 
there will be many new contracts in the 
market during the coming months. 

Scottish Shipyards. 

All over Scotland the shipbuilding and 
marine engineering firms were busy 
throughout the year, and the full returns 
of work done show that while 520 ves- 
sels were launched, as compared with 
557 in 1911, the tonnage was 688,188, 
as compared with 671,624, and the i.h.p. 
914,741, as compared with 834,628. 
These figures indicate a decrease of 37 
vessels and increases in tonnage of 16,- 
564 and in i.h.p. of 80,113. There was 
a very slight decrease in the produc- 
tion of tonnage in Aberdeen and Moray 
Firth yards, but there were increases 
on the Clyde, the Forth, and the Tay, 
and prospects generally are good in all 
the districts. The table below shows 
the work done by Scottish builders in 
1911 and 1912: 

English Shipyards. 

All over the English shipbuilding dis- 
tricts there was a steady year's work, 
very much on the lines of that of 1911, 
and, although some centres did more 
business relatively than others, the total 
figures are very much the same as those 



of the previous year. There was a re- 
duction of about 70 in the number of 
vessels launched, an increase of over 
9,000 tons in measurement, and an in- 
crease of about 20,000 in horse-power, 
but on figures running to a million and 



24,206 tons. The decreases were , how- 
ever, only on the Tyne and at Tees and 
Hartlepools yards, the Wear production 
showing an increase. Of the other dis- 
tricts there were increases on the north- 
west coast of England, on the Humber, 



SUMMARY OF ENGLISH 
1912 

Vessels Tons 

The Tyne 97 388,370 

The Wear , 82 309,934 

Tees, Hartlepools 100 261,888 

Mersey-Solway 128 139,001 

Humber 131 48,495 

The Thames 120 14,319 

English Channnel 130 ll.'.i.'H 

Bristol Chan 39 3,701 

Dockyards 4 54,085 

831 232,390 



SHIPBUILDING 



I.H.P. 
404,855 
l!H,xor, 
182,210 
243,480 
62,970 
ic.soo 
ioi .<;:■..-» 
170 



1-03.OS6 



Vessels. 
126 

86 
134 
128 
117 
167 

97 

36 



1911, 
Tons. 
418,325 
286,834 
279,245 
84,085 
44,966 
38,504 
8,829 
3,050 
59,260 

i.-j-j::.ii:is 



i ii r 

421,000 
193,343 
160,040 
245,049 
55,770 
72,751 
90.974 
985 



1,241,172 



a quarter these are scarcely perceptible, 
and the fact that the output was so simi- 
lar in amount to that of 1911 is the best 
possible testimony to the sound condi- 
tion of the industry generally. There 
seemed to be abnormal activity during 
that year, so much so that it would not 
have been surprising if there had been 



at English Channel and Bristol Channel 
yards, and a large decrease on the 
Thames, while the Royal Dockyard ton- 
nage shows a slight decrease. The 
above table shows the production of 
tonnage and horse-power in the different 
English districts as compared with those 
of 1911 



Scale of 

Tons. 
650,000 



FIFTY YEARS OF CLYDE SHIPBUILDING 




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FLUCTUATIONS OF CLYDE SHIPBUILDING TONNAGE SINCE 1802, SHOWING 
CLEARLY THE DECLINE OF 1908, THE IMPROVEMENT IN 1909, THE SLIGHT 
DECREASE IN 1910, AND THE GREAT INCREASES IN 1911 AND 1912. 



a sudden if moderate reaction. Instead 
the activity has been proved quite justi- 
fied, and even in the great north-east 
coast district, which feels first and most 
severely any falling off in the demand 
for cargo-carrying tonnage, there has 
been only a slight reduction in output — - 
about 24,000 tons all over the Tyne, 
Wear, Tees, and Hartlepools. The pro- 
duction of these three districts amounted 
to 279 vessels of 960,198 tons, as com- 
pared with 346 vessels and 984,404 tons 
in 1911 — a decrease of 67 vessels and 



SUMMARY OF SCOTTISH SHIPBUILDING 

1912 

The Clyrle 389 640.529 878,326 

The Forth 32 19,054 7 915 

The Tay 28 17,388 10.400 

The Dee, etc 71 11,217 18,100 

520 688,188 914,741 





1911 




413 


630,583 




31 


11,319 


9,355 


31 


17,303 


14,770 


82 


12,419 


23,614 


557 


671,624 


834,628 



Tyne, Wear and Tees. 

Busy though the Tyne was all through 
the year, it has not equalled its 1911 out- 
put. In this respect it has not kept pace 
Avith its great competitor on the west 
coast. The decrease, however, is not 
serious, and it is made up for to some 
extent by a substantial increase in the 
horse-power of the engines constructed. 

The yards on the Wear improved on 
their 1911 figures by about 13,000 tons, 
and they have on hand sufficient work 
to keep them busy well down through 
the coming year. Prospects are indeed 
exceptionally good on the river, and the 
future of the district is all the more pro- 
mising by reason of the fact that Messrs. 
Swan, Hunter and Wigham Richardson 
are to start shortly a new yard at South- 



3 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



wick for the construction of small ves- 
sels. 

Like the Tyne, the Tees and Hartle- 
pools districts experienced a slight set- 
back as compared with the previous 
year, the decrease in its case amounting 



The plant, on which some $500,000 is 
being expended, is designed for the con- 
struction of vessels of from 300 to 800 
tons, for which, with the growth of Bri- 
tish Columbia, there is an increasing de- 
mand. Except for some Government 



SUMMARY OF IRISH SHIPBUILDING. 

1912. 

Vessels Tons. I.H.P. 

Workman, Clark & Co 10 S5.391 53.400 

Harlan a & Wolff 7 77,591 39,300 

Dublin Dockyard Co 4 1.641 .. 

The Lame Company 1 125 .. 

MaeColl & Company — 750 

22 164.748 93,450 



1911. 

Tons. 
66.399 
11S.209 
1.976 
241 



186,825 



I.H.P. 

51,800 
96.916 



1.400 
150.116 



to about 1S,000 tons. There was, how- 
ever, an increase in the horse-power 
turned out by the marine engineering- 
shops, and all over the work of the year 
was very satisfactory. 

Irish Shipyards . 

There are no records in the Irish 
figures, neither of the Belfast firms hav- 
ing a very high tonnage. 

British Dominions. 

There is a new name this year in the 
list of shipbuilders in the scattered 
dominions of the British Empire — that 
of the "Western Shipbuilding Company 
of Port Arthur, Canada, who made a eood 



work at Sorel, on the St. Lawrence, steel 
shipbuilding in Canada is still confined 
to the lake ports of Ontario. The yards 
are at Kingston, Toronto, Collingwood. 
and Port Arthur. The demand for lake 
tonnage increases with the development 
of the prairie provinces, and during 1912 
the lake yards had all the new work and 
repair work that they could handle. The 
newest of the lake yards is at Port Ar- 
thur. The first vessel was launched 
there in June. It was designed for lake 
and canal service — for the package and 
grain trade. At Port Arthur, where 
there is a dry dock in which the largest 
vessels in service on the lakes can be 
overhauled, there was under construction 



BRITISH COLONIES' SUMMARY. 

1912. 

Vessels. Tons. I.H.P. 

Burn & Co 34 7.098 2,320 

Western Drydock & Shipbuilding Co. 3 6,694 — 

John King & Co 67 5.970 150 

The Collingwood Shipbuilding Co.... 5 4.607 4,300 

Hong Kong & Whampoa 8 1,392 — 

C. Brown & Co 10 1.305 — 

Morts Dock Co 3 1.087 2.860 

Tanjong Pagar Co 15 816 1,270 

G. T. Davie & Sons 1 800 

The Shalimar Works 10 707 72 

United Engineers 12 491 275 

Poison Iron Works 9 466 775 

Morrison, Sinclair & Co 3 462 

W. S. Bailey & Co 15 391 — 

J. Macgregor & Co 1 240 1,000 

D. C. Mulhall 3 321 — 

Other firms 9 3.731 4,900 

208 36.578 17.922 



Tons. 
6,558 

2.3S4 
in. 77:- 



1,187 

337 
398 

357 
290 
149 
145 
6,665 

29.249 



1911. 



I.H.P. 
710 

940 
4.950 



940 
1,360 



85 
473 



307 



3,120 
12,875 



start with a total of nearly 7,000 tons. 
There is another new name— that of the 
United Engineers. Limited, Singapore; 
but as this firm have taken over the 
works of Messrs. Riley, Hargreaves and 
Co., they do not represent a new yard. 

So far only one steel ocean-going ves- 
sel has been built at the Canadian mari- 
time province ports. This vessel was 
launched at New Glasgow in 1908. Since 
then there has been much discussion of 
proposals for shipyards at Sydney, Hali- 
fax and St. John. At one time tonnage 
bounties were expected from the Govern- 
ment, and later much was expected from 
the naval policy of the Laurier Govern- 
ment; but 1912 ended without any pro- 
gress having been made in the revival of 
shipbuilding in the maritime provinces. 
Towards the end of the year, however, 
work was begun on a new shipbuilding 
plant at Coquitlam, near Vancouver. 



at the end of the year a passenger and 
package freight steamer, which will be 
the largest vessel of the fleet of the Nor- 
thern Navigation Company. 

Foreign Shipyards. 

Of the 14 foreign countries in which 
shipbuilding is done there were increased 



tonnages in 11 and decreases in only 3. 
This in itself is sufficient proof that trade 
was good on the average, and that the 
shipping of the world continues to de- 
mand more and more carrying capacity. 
It must be remembered of course that 
war vessels are included in all the figures, 
and that the exclusion of these might 
enable a slightly different moral to be 
drawn with regard to several individual 
countries, but the broad fact that mer- 
cantile shipbuilding had a good year 
would not be affected. The total out- 
put recorded in our returns shows an 
increase of 421 vessels and 168,037 tons 
over that of last year. 

United States — American shipbuilders 
have had a comparatively busy year, 
judging only by their returns of work 
done, which show an increase of about 
53,000 tons and 60,000 i.h.p. It may be 
noted, however, that the increase is ex- 
plained very largely by the fact that a 
battleship and a large collier were 
launched at the Brooklyn and Mare 
Island Dockyards respectively, whereas 
in 1911 no war or other vessels were 
floated from the Government establish- 
ments. The work of the group of yards 
associated under the name of the Ameri- 
can Shipbuilding Company has been de- 
creasing for several years back, and this 
year vessels were launched at only three 
of the establishments. A few years ago 
there were seven, all building lake 
freighters, and the firm almost invari- 
ably had the largest American tonnage, 
while several times they had the largest 
output in the world. This year the work 
of the Newport News Company is easily 
the largest turned out by United States 
firms, but the other leading companies 
also have to their credit good records of 
work : — 

Germany— German shipbuilding has 
been exceptionally interesting recently, 
principally because it is competing with 
that of Great Britain in every depart- 
ment of the industry. The Hamburg- 
American liner Imperator. which was 
launched in May in the presence of the 
Kaiser, is returned by the Vulcan Com- 
pany as of 52.000 tons and 54,500 i.h.p. 
How this compares with the large Cun- 
arder Aquitania at Clydebank cannot be 
stated as yet with any confidence ; but in 
the mere matter of size there is not likely 
to be much to choose between the vessels. 



SUMMARY OF FOREIGN SHIPBUILDING. 

1912. 



Vessels. Tons. I.H.P. 

Germany 408 530.312 646.025 

United States 196 321,592 324.20S 

Holland 705 25S.263 112.859 

France 112 177,883 254.595 

Japan 272 89,925 180.851 

Austria-Hungary 22 83,192 S9.910 

Norway 100 53,256 58,273 

It'ily 62 35,617 201,865 

Denmark 37 27,622 IS 605 

Belgium 18 21.329 9 215 

Spain 10 20,372 37,750 

China 63 13,057 8.260 

Sweden 21 12,286 10.680 

Russia 23 3,604 4.510 

2,049 1,648.310 1.957.006 



Vessels. 
336 
160 
480 
106 
206 
54 
81 
48 
32 
38 
6 

48 
20 
13 

1.62S 



1911. 

Tons. 
418.S82 
268.561 
178.018 
184.411 
S7.304 
68.390 
38.222 
88.814 
18.961 
12.4S9 
6.760 
4.222 
9^734 
94.905 

1.480.273 



I.H.P. 

704.235 

257.825 

101.730 

324.225 

164.935 

4S.4S-. 

41.004 
148.520 

1S.040 
1.798 

10.800 
3.920 

16.931 
169.215 

2.011.663 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



France — The French shipbuilding in- 
dustry is passing through a definite phase 
in its history, the outcome of which may 
be its establishment on a better economic 
basis than it has had in the past. The 
work of the year, so far as tonnage was 



terest. The growth of the trawling in- 
dustry is well shown by the large num- 
ber of trawlers floated. 

Holland. — An exceptionally large 
amount of work has been done recently 
in Dutch shipyards, and the figures 



most interesting of the vessels launched 
was probably the United States trans- 
port steamer Merritt by the Shanghai 
Dock and Engineering Company, but a 
much larger vessel, the Kiang Wah, was 
launched at the Kiangnan Works. 



1911. 



SUMMARY OF AMERICAN SHIPBUILDING. 

1912. 

Vessels. Tons. I.H.P. 

Dockyard warships 2 46,360 35,200 

Newport News Co 12 61,242 62,100 

American S.B. Co 13 38,015 25,460 

Maryland Steel Co 6 36,680 24,000 

New York S.B. Co 13 34,123 39,550 

Great Lakes Works 8 18,603 10,100 

Fore River Co 4 12.780 18,900 

American Car Co 17 11.232 

W. Cramp & Sons Co 16 10,737 31,400 

Harlan & Hollingsworth 6 9.191 9,100 

Toledo Shipbuilding Co 4 6,567 5,370 

United Eng. Works 6 4,957 4,250 

Manitowoc D.D. Co 3 4,807 

Craig Shipbuilding Co 3 3,900 4.100 

The Seattle Co 9 3,424 4,510 

Staten Island Co 8 2,875 2,100 

Union Iron Works 2 1,870 1,250 

Johnston Brothers 3 1,850 

Bath Ironworks 2 1.484 24.000 

Dialogue & Sons 4 1,071 2,350 

Pusey & Jones Co 2 950 2,200 

D. M. Swain 2 700 950 

F. S. Bowker & Son 1 556 

The Dubuque Works 1 500 600 

Gas Engine Co 40 235 1.000 

Other firms 9 6,883 5.368 

W. & A. Fletcher Co — — 10,350 

196 321,592 324,208 

DOCKYARD-BUILT SHIPS. 

Vessel and Type. Dockyard. 

New York — Battleship Brooklyn 

Jupiter — Tur.-elec. collier Mare Island, Cal. 

Total — Two vessels of 46.360 tons and engines of 35.200 i.h.p. 



Tons. 


I.H.P. 


— 

16,061 


IS, 950 


45,174 


25,060' 


14.142 


750 


or>(i 


53 500 


30',994 


loiooo 


39,397 


52,650 


8,862 




32,519 


43,850 


3,718 


8,425 


2.990 


4.500 


990 


1,040 


780 




2,183 




4,844 


3,800 


1.679 


2,600 


2,580 




757 


2,650 


1.341 


3,260 


700 




565 




472 


5,430 


4,757 


13.400 




6,400 


268,561 


257,825 



Tons. 
27,000 
19.360 



I.H.P. 
28,000 
7,200 



concerned, was confined largely to the 
three firms who have each two yards and 
to the yard of the Chantiers et Ateliers 
de France, Dunkirk. 

Italy — There is a great reduction in 
the Italian tonnage; but as we are with- 
out ahy return from the firm of Odero, 
of Genoa, this may to some extent ac- 
count for the apparent falling off. There 
is, however, a large decrease in the work 
of the Ansaldo-Armstrong establishment 
at Sestri Ponente, and also in the ton- 
nage launched from the Royal Dock- 
yards. The i.h.p. for the year is excep- 
tionally high, principally by reason of 
the fact that Zoelly turbines for three 
powerful destroyers were completed at 
Legnano. 

Norway — Perhaps the largest increase 
in tonnage relatively is reported from 
Norway, where the figures have risen 
from 38,000 to 53,000. All the firms 
were busy, and a number of vessels which 
almost if not quite reach the limit pos- 
sible in the yards were built. The great 
majority, however, were steam whalers 
for home owners, but for service in other 
than home waters. 

Japan — The most notable launch of 
the year in Japan was that of the 
cruiser Hiyei at the Imperial Dock- 
yard at Yokosuka. A sister of the 
Barrow-built Kongo, but with all ma- 
terial (as far as possible) made in 
Japan, she is a very remarkable achieve- 
ment. In the building of merchant ves- 
sels there has been a good volume of 
work, but no ship of outstanding in- 



show a considerable increase on those 
of 1911. The work is also even more 
varied than in previous years, the "oil 
engine" figuring much more frequently 
in the returns than it did, although of 
course motor vessels have been built 
and engined in Holland for a good many 
years back. 

Russia — The enormous decrease in 
the Russian tonnage is easily accounted 
for. Four dockyard-built battleships 
were launched in 1911, while the only 
new war vessel floated in 1912 was a 
submarine at Nicolaieff. The two prin- 
cipal yards are well employed, princi- 
pally with naval orders, but apart from 
these there is not much work. 

Denmark — Oil-engined ships are — na- 
turally — a feature of the Danish skip- 
building returns. Vessels of this type 
built at Copenhagen have probably done 
more to bring the marine oil engine pro- 
minently before the public than any- 
thing else, and in 1912 two more were 
launched from Messrs. Burmeister and 
Wain's yard. 

Spain — One of the new Spanish battle- 
ships — 'the Espana — has been launched 
at Ferrol, and a gunboat, a torpedo boat 
destroyer, and four torpedo boats at 
Cartagena. At Bilbao a passenger and 
cargo steamer of 8,000 tons — the largest 
yet built in Spain — is being constructed. 

China — The three Shanghai firms in 
China have been busy recently, and have 
all improved on their 1911 records. The 



FREIGHT RECORD THROUGH SOO 
CANALS. 

"jVyrORE than ten million tons greater 
A than the record of 1910, the pre- 
vious best was the volume of freight car- 
ried through the canals at the Soo dur- 
ing the 1912 season, as shown in the sta- 
t-isical report just issued. While ship- 
ments of practically every commodity ex- 
cept soft coal show an increase over the 
three previous periods, the movement of 
iron ore, 46,303,423 tons, was greater by 
more than 4,699,789 tons, than in 1910, 
the season showing the greatest previous 
shipments. 

Wheat. 

The movement of wheat, 174,086,456 
bushels, was 60,832.895 bushels greater 
than in 1909, while the total grain ship- 
ments show a gain of 12,505,095 bushels 
over the record of that year. 

Coal. 

Although the movement of hard coal 
was delayed in starting by mine difficul- 
ties early in the season, the shipments, 
2,142,485 tons, were 82,276 tons greater 
than the previous high record of 1911. 
The movement of soft coal, amounting 
to 12,789,109 tons, was 483,558 tons bT- 
low 1911, due chiefly to delay in getting 
the product from the mines to the load~ 
ing docks owing to car shortage. 

Lumber. 

Lumber shipments were 667,542,000 
feet, a gain of 64,441.000 feet over the 
high record of 1910. 

Passenger Traffic. 

Passenger traffic shows a considerable 
falling off, the number carried through 
the canals, 66,877, having been 56 fewer 
than in 1910, and showing a loss ofl3,074 
or 16 per cent., compared with 1911. For 
this, the unseasonable cold weather early 
in the year is held chiefly responsible. 



An order in council has been passed 
amending the harbor regulations of Can- 
ada, and prohibiting the discharge or 
disposal of oil, tar or other dangerously 
inflammable material in the waters of 
any harbor of the Dominion. The order 
provides for a fine of $50 for violation 
of its provisions, with a further penalty 
of $10 for every twelve hours during 
which the offence continues. 



mm 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



CANADIAN SHIPBUILDING DE- 
VELOPMENT. 

T N view of Canada's offer of three 
super-dreadnoughts, the keels of 
which will, however, have to be laid 
down in the United Kingdom, it is of 
interest to note that very soon it will 
be possible to build ships in the Dom- 
inion as, according to all accounts, good 
progress is being made with the creation 
of the necessary establishments. In- 
deed, there are many competent authori- 
ties who do not hesitate to say that in 
the near future some of the finest ves- 
sels for the British Navy and mercan- 
tile marine will come from the Dominion. 

Yard at Sydney, C.B. 

The most important enterprise of the 
kind is associated with Sydney, Cape 
Breton, where the British-Canadian 
Shipbuilding Co., in which both the 
Fairfield Co., Govan, and Messrs. John 
Brown & Co., Clydebank, are interested, 
is now laying down plant. A site cover- 
ing some 300 acres has been acquired, 
and, as a result of a plebiscite of the 
ratepayers, the municipal council has 
granted the company a bonus of 1,- 
000,000 dollars ,in return for which, 
however, several important conditions 
have to be observed. 

There are to be eleven slips, while 
the manufacture of guns, gun mount- 
ings and armour-plate will also be un- 
dertaken. In addition, there is to be a 
dry dock 1,150 feet long and 135 feet 
wide, with a depth on the sill at high 
water of 45 feet. Sydney, it mav be 
mentioned, is the headquarters of two 
of the largest coal and steel companies 
in the Dominion, one of the latter hav- 
ing facilities for the production of 250 
tons of pig-iron and 1,000 tons of steel 
daily, so that there will be an abound- 
ance of raw materials at hand. 

Yard at St. John, N.B. 

At St. John, N.B., where big harbor 
works are being carried out by Messrs. 
Norton, Griffiths & Co., the plans in- 
clude a graving dock 900 feet long. It 
is also proposed to make provision for 
a huge shipyard, the firms of Messrs. 
Cammell, Laird & Co. and of Messrs. 
Vickers, Ltd., being prominently men- 
tioned in this connection. The latter 
are, however, at present busy with oper- 
ations at Montreal, where their floatinu 
dock, 700 feet long with a lifting capa- 
city of 25,000 tons, is now available. 
According to the charter, the company 
has the right to manufacture steel in all 
its branches, and to transact general 
Imsiness as shipbuilders and repairers. 

Further, on the Pacific Coast, at Es- 
quimau, B.C., Messrs. Denny Bros., of 
Dumbarton, are interested in a graving 
dock and shipbuilding company, which 
is to receive payment at the rate of 3% 
per cent, for 35 years on an estimated 



expenditure of $2,500,000 for the con- 
struction of a dry dock 900 feet long, 
122 feet wide, and 40 feet deep, while 
the building and repairing of ships will, 
it is expected, give employment to be- 
tween 3,000 and 4,000 men. Other yards 
are being established at Vancouver and 
at Sault Ste. Marie. 

© 

ARCH PRINCIPLE OF SHIP CON- 
STRUCTION. 

A PAPER entitled "Some Notes on 
the Arch Principle of Ship Con- 
struction," by Mr. Maxwell Ballard, 
was read before the North-East Coast 
Institution of Engineers and Shipbuild- 
ers. The author said that in principle 
the arch system was an innovation in 
the form of the upper structure, and a 
reversion to web frame construction, 
consisting as it did of strengthened 
arched girder frames at regular inter- 
vals reinforcing the intermediate usual 
framing. Below the position of the 
normal moulded depth there was no al- 
teration in structure from the ordinary. 
However, in lieu of the usual deck at 
this position, with a bridge or shelter 
deck erection thereon, the structure con- 
sisted of a transverse arch. The upper 
and lower abutments of the arch form- 
ed the termination of the horizontal and 
vertical spans of flat structure of the 
deck and sides respectively, and, in com- 
bination with the other structural ar- 
rangements, afforded the necessary sup- 
port to resist the stresses. The framing 
was regulated by the span of flat side 
in conjunction with the structural ar- 
rangements, while the total depth of gir- 
der was taken in considering the length 



proportions for scantlings. By the 
frame head knees being arranged out- 
side the framing, and by carrying the 
plating back, the deck area was main- 
tained and the capacity for stowage im- 
proved. 

Question of Sheer. 

Longitudinally, it was preferred to 
give a reverse sheer of moderate amount 
to the structure. This was not, how- 
ever, essential to the design, and the 
vessel might be constructed straight or 
with ordinary sheer if desired. The 
theoretical advantage and practical dis- 
advantage of reverse sheer being well 
known, it was necessary only to indicate 
the manner in which the latter had been 
turned to advantage. The arch deck 
height practically corresponded to the 
bridge or shelter deck height, and owing 
to this increased height of weather deck, 
the reverse sheer, which was moderate 
in amount, did not bring the deck down 
to the highest point of the ordinary 
sheer line at the forecastle front. This 
longitudinal camber being only some 2 
ft. or 3 ft. for accessibilitj" and naviga- 
tion, the deck was to all intents and pur- 
poses level, and the camber formed a 
desirable means of draining water to the 
scuppers. At the extremities of the ves- 
sel, forecastle and poop erections were 
constructed, though this was optional in 
the case of the latter. Any arrange- 
ment of accommodation desired might 
be fitted to suit the owner's require- 
ments, and a bridge erection for passen- 
gers or cargo could, if desired, be con- 
structed. 

Behavior at Sea, 

After briefly outlining the results of 
technical investigations into the arch 



AIM II I'lMXCII'l.K (IF SIlII'v CONSTRUCTION (AYRK-RAI.LARD PATENT). 




MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



principle of ship construction as regards 
transverse and longitudinal strength, re- 
serve buoyancy and freeboard, the au- 
thor gave some details regarding the 
behavior of arch vessels at sea. Theo- 
retical considerations would indicate 
that, owing to the massing of weight 
amidships in conjunction with the longi- 
tudinally redistributed structure, the 
pitching and vertical motions would be 
favorably affected and reduced relative- 
ly to ordinary vessels. Further, owing 
to the vertical distribution of cargo and 
the transverse form, a reduction in roll- 
ing might be expected. It was antici- 
pated that, in view of the preceding, 
and also of the increase in freeboard, 
together with the absence of "wells" to 
fill with seas, the vessels would be more 
dry and comfortable sea boats and main- 




By arrangement with 

tain their sea speed better. Reports 
from captains served to confirm the 
opinion that in the arch type there was 
distinctly less pitching and 'scending 
than in vessels of the ordinary design. 
This was most noticeable when the ves- 
sel was laden with a more or less 
homogeneous cargo, such as coal. 

While the writer anticipated a reduc- 
tion of pitching, he did not expect an 
appreciable improvement in rolling mo- 
tion. Experience, however, showed that 
the rolling motion was most easy, and 
there seemed to be an actual reduction. 
In heavy weather the author has caused 
the vessel laden with coal to be put beam 
on to seas for the purpose of measuring 
the rolling and noting the effects, and 
under these trying conditions, the steady 



movement and gentle behavior well sup- 
ported the captain's remark that the 
Edeiior was the best sea boat lie had 
ever been on. As proof of his confidence 
and practical belief in the seagoing qual- 
ities of the design, the author mentioned 
that he crossed from Libau in the early 
months of last year in the Edenor with- 
out any webs in the hatchways to sup- 
port the covers. 

Commercial Considerations. 

As regards the commercial side of the 
arch design, he made a comparison with 
ordinary types of vessel in two ways, 
the draft, speed and specification being 
identical in both: — (1) — Upon the basis 
of the same deadweight carrying power, 
and (2) — upon the basis of the same di- 
mensions. Estimates had been made em- 



PILOTS WE HAVE MET. 

bracing comparisons between a three 
island type vessel, a vessel which was 
practically a shelter decker, and one of 
the arch design. The basis for all the 
figures was the three islander, and while 
the actual total figures were not of pri- 
mary importance, the differences had 
been gone into with extreme carefulness 
and were as agreed to by a local firm 
of shipbuilders. The vessels selected for 
the comparison were of about 6,200 tons 
deadweight upon a draft of 22 ft. 6 in. 
and speed of 9 knots. 

Owing to the economy in the distribu- 
tion of material in the arch type, where- 
by a large saving was effected, a smaller 
vessel was required to fulfil the same re- 
quirements as to deadweight. The sav- 
ing of material was effected not by re- 
7 



duction of scantlings, which were up to 
lull rule requirements, hut through re- 
distribution of material, by which the 
whole elements of design were so affect- 
ed as to permit of a reduction in the 
dimensions. The saving in capital out- 
lay was further increased by a reduction 
in cost of propulsion and maintenance, 
both of which were due to the reduction 
in dimensions previously mentioned. 
The power was less on account of the 
lessened displacement of some 400-450 
tons. The coal consumption works out 
at some 5 per cent, less for the same 
deadweight earning power. The saving 
in maintenance and running cost effect- 
ed should run proportionately with the 
dimensions of the vessels. 

As compared with both the ordinary 
types of vessel, the hold capacity of the 




"The Syren and Shipping" 

arch vessel was considerably increased 
in spite of the reduced dimensions. This 
was undoubtedly a commercial gain for 
some trades — particularly colliers, in 
which about 2 to 2% cu. ft. per ton in- 
crease was given in under-deck capacity. 
The erections, however, added a la rue 
amount of capacity to the vessels, and 
taking the total capacity there was a 
decrease as compared with the ordinary 
vessel; but it should be pointed out that 
in actual trading the difference was not 
that indicated, for there was better 
stowage in the arch design on account 
of fewer obstructions. 

In dealing with the second compari- 
son, upon the same dimensions, vessels 
of typical collier and Baltic size had 
been selected, the figures again being 




MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



strictly relative. The comparative fig- 
ures for the two vessels of the three 
island type and the arch design showed 
a saving in weight of material of about 
15 per cent., giving, of course, the cor- 
responding' increase in deadweight of 
between 4 and 5 per cent.; this was ex- 
tremely important because it involved 
a reduction in capital outlay and inter- 
est, and afforded greater earning power. 
In the writer's opinion it was particu- 
larly desirable for the special conditions 
of the coal trade, where in normal times 
the profit on the amount of coal handled 
was relatively small. It would be noted 
that the ratio of deadweight to net ton- 
nage was improved while the hold ca- ' 
pacity was increased. The latter again 
indicated that the arch design was not 
merely a deadweight carrier. 

® ■ 

"EMPRESS OF RUSSIA" AND 
"EMPRESS OF ASIA." 

T T is announced that these two fine 
turbine-driven quadruple-screw mail 
and passenger steamers, now completing 
by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and En- 
gineering Co. for the Canadian Pacific 
Railway Co.'s Pacific service, are to sail 
on April 1 and May 27. The vessels are 
to proceed to the Far East via the Suez 
Canal; and as they are each of about 
15,000 gross tonnage, they will be the 
largest steamers which have so far used 
the canal. The "Empress of Russia" 
and "Empress of Asia" are to take up 
their future service at Hong Kong, and 
passengers going out by them will have 
the opportunity of returning home 
across Canada via the Canadian Pacific 
Railway, and tlaenee by the same com- 
pany's mail steamers to Liverpool, thus 
encircling the world. 

© 

INDICTMENT OF QUEBEC PILOTS. 

/ T S HE Shipping Federation of Canada 
lias taken a strong stand on the 
matter of an investigation of the pilot- 
age system between Quebec and Father 
Point as a result of a report made to 
that body by Captain H. E. Webb, ma- 
rine superintendent of the Hudson Bay 
Steamship Company, lately returned 
from a voyage to the Arctic on the 
steamer Beothic. The report has creat- 
ed a sensation in shipping circles, in- 
asmuch as it relates the startling fact 
that the Beothic while travelling 160 
miles in perfect weather conditions, was 
twice driven ashore. Pilot Plante was 
at the time in charge of the vessel. The 
damage sustained in the second mishap 
was considerable. The officials of the 
Hudson Bay Co. are particularly in- 
censed about the matter, and have de- 



termined to give all possible informa- 
tion to the Government on the matter. 

Log of the Beothic. 

The story from the log of the Beothic 
as related by Captain Webb is that the 
steamer was driven ashore twice with- 
in twelve hours. She left Quebec on 
September 18th. The weather was 
fine and clear, and the machinery and 
steering gear in perfect order. At 2.45 
p.m., while steaming at a rate of about 
twelve knots, the ship went ashore near 
Madame Island. The bottom was of a 
soft clayish nature there, and the ship's 
hull was not damaged. 

The grounding occurred shortly be- 
fore low water, so that by waiting un- 
til 7.45 p.m. for high tide, she was float- 
ed without assistance. She continued 
on her voyage, and when nearing Hare 
Island, about 60 miles above Father 
Point, at 1.15 a.m., September 19, went 
ashore again on a rocky bottom. Had 
the vessel not been built for the Arctic 
she would have, in Captain Webb's 
opinion, been completely wrecked. As 
it was, her strong plates were consider- 
erably torn, but because of the urgency 
of her mission with loads of supplies 
for Hudson Bay posts, she was unable 
to return to Quebec, and after she had 
been released at high tide at 7.30 a.m. 
was obliged to proceed leaking. 

The Beothic is at present at St. 
John's Nfld., having returned from the 
Arctic. An estimate has not yet been 
made of the damage she sustained, but 
it is known to be heavy. 

@ 

STRICTER STEAM BOAT INSPEC- 
TION. 

T T is reported that one of the results 
of Commissioner R. A. Pringie's in- 
quiry into the recent sinking of the 
steamer Mayflower, near Barry's Bay, 
will be an amendment of the regula- 
tions governing the inspection of steam- 
boats, making the law more stringent. 
The inspection of inland shipping under 
the act at present is somewhat lax, and, 
in the case of the Mayflower, the faulty 
position of the engine, it is asserted, 
could have been foreseen. Resulting vi- 
bration loosened the boat's caulking. 

@ 

19 LAKE VESSELS WERE LOST. 

TVllNETEEN vessels were lost on the 
A ^ great lakes last year, an exception- 
ally small total, according to the annual 
report of Wm. Livingstone of Detroit, 
president of the Lake Carriers' Associa- 
tion, which was read recently. Loss of 
life was also small as compared with 
former years. The report said 33 per- 
sons were drowned or killed, and of this 



number, 16 were of the crew of the 
schooner Rouse Simmons, the "Christ- 
mas tree" ship, which left Northern 
Michigan for Chicago last November, 
and was undoubtedly destroyed during 
a storm on Lake Michigan. Thirteen of 
the ill-fated ships were steamers, three 
were barges, two were tugs and one a 
schooner. The most important loss was 
the steamer James Gayley, which sank 
in collision with the steamer Rennselaer 
on Lake Superior. The combined loss 
of cargo and ship was about $300,000. 

Mr. Livingstone said the year of 1912 
on the great lakes "had shattered every 
precedent," and "the business outlook 
for 1913 left little to be desired so far 
as the prospective volume is concerned." 

© 

SHIPBUILDING AMALGAMATIONS. 

'TpHE agreement which has been ar- 
rived at between Messrs. Barclay, 
Curie & Co., of Glasgow, and Messrs. 
Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson, 
of Wallsend-on-Tyne, whereby the two 
concerns will become, for all practical 
purposes, one organization, represents a 
form of working understanding which 
has come into much favor within recent 
years. It exists between Messrs. Har- 
land & Wolff, of Belfast, and Messrs. 
John Brown & Co., of Clydebank ; be- 
tween the Fairfield Shipbuilding & En- 
gineering Co., of Glasgow, and Messrs. 
Cammell, Laird & Co., of Birkenhead, 
and to pass from shipbuilding to ship- 
ping, between Messrs. Henderson Bros, 
(the Anchor Line), of Glasgow, and the 
Cunard Co., of Liverpool. It is not sim- 
ilar, however, to the bargain made be- 
tween Messrs. Harland & Wolff and the 
London & Glasgow Shipbuilding Co., of 
Glasgow. In that case, the Clyde firm 
was absorbed by the Belfast company, 
although the yard is still known locally 
by its old name. 

Messrs. Barclay, Curie & Co. are one 
of the oldest and best known of Clyde 
shipbuilding firms. At present they 
have over 80,000 tons of new work on 
hand, and when their yard at Elderslie 
is in full working order their average 
annual output in times of normal trade 
should be about 50.000 tons. They will 
continue to build their larger vessels in 
their old yard at Whiteinch and will lay 
down their smaller ships at the Elderslie 
establishment, which they acquired early 
in 1912 from the trustees of Messrs. 
John Shearer & Sons. At present they 
are laying down there one of the smaller 
type of British India liners. 

© 

Mr. Hugh A. Allan, chairman of the 
Allan Line Steamship Co., has joined 
the Committee of the British Corpora- 
tion for the Survey and Registry of 
Shipping; 




PACIFIC 





COA5T 



VANCOUVER SHIPMASTERS MEET. 

A PPRECIATION of what has been 
done by the Dominion Govern- 
ment to provide aids to navigation in 
British Columbia waters, was freely ex- 
pressed at the annual meeting of the 
Vancouver Shipmasters' Association, 
January 3. Among those present were 
Captains J. L. Anderson, Newcomb, Wil- 
bur, Smith, Dawe, Best, Donald, Lindall, 
Anderson, Stewart (hon. sec), Nichol, 
Tanlle, Irvine, Gunn and McLennan. 
Captain Anderson presided and Captain 
W. G. McLennan was elected president 
in succession to Captain L. Rogers. 

Aids to Navigation. 

After reviewing the year's work of 
the association, Captain Stewart submit- 
ted the twelfth annual report, which 
stated in part : 

"Many matters have been dealt with 
throughout the year. Foremost among 
these have been additional aids to navi- 
gation, which are of paramount assist- 
ance to our members in these new waters, 
and which will materially assist them to 
more successfully carry out their pro- 
fession in these dangerous and narrow 
channels of our coast. We have achieved 
much as regards lights, fog signals, buoys 
and marks to guide the mariner, and I 
must say that the government has done 
good work of late in establishing the 
necessary aids, as recommended. In fact, 
we think they have even excelled of late, 
seeing that they have but a limited and 
not over modern equipment for dealing 
with such a large seaboard as we have in 
British Columbia. 

Mariner's Work More Difficult. 

"We are aware of the increased pas- 
senger and freight traffic, which has 
recently taken place on our northern 
coast, and this, together with competi- 
tion for it, has called upon the master 
mariner to do in the darkness of the 
night what was previously done during 
daylight. We do not wish it to be in- 
ferred that the mariner cannot do his 
work during the night, but we think any 
reasonable person will agree that such 
work cannot be done so easily nor with 



the same degree of safety as in daylight. 
An error in judgment cannot be called a 
criminal act, even although the conse- 
quences may be serious, if the mariner 
has exercised a reasonable amount of 
care in his attempt to carry out his ar- 
duous profession. 

Must Go On Fighting. 
* "It is clear to us that we must con- 
tinue in the good work and point out 
from the practical observations and ex- 
perience of our members all those aids 
necessary in order to minimize pos- 
sible danger of the sea. We memorial- 
ized the government on other matter, of 
which you are all aware, and although 
we succeeded in some cases, we have 
others still to keep on with, and it is our 
duty to patiently continue our work and 
endeavor to get all we possibly can that 
will protect and advance the profession. 
Our membership has been increased dur- 
ing 1912 by the addition of twenty new 
members, and that is an excellent addi- 
tion for a port like Vancouver. Our 
finances are in good shape, and we cannot 
but be impressed with the satisfactory 
results of the past year." 



COQUITLAM SHIPBUILDING YARDS 
/ TpHE machinery to be used at the 
yards of the Coquitlam Shipbuild- 
ing Company has been delivered by the 
Pacific Machinery Company, having 
come by scow from Seattle to Swen- 
zisky's Landing at the end of Pitt 
River Road. The machinery, the value 
of which is about $22,000, is now being 
placed in position. It is of the most 
modern type, having a capacity of 
25,000 to 30,000 feet a day. It will be 
driven by four electric motors, using 
450 horse-power, the electricity being 
obtained from the Western Canada 
Power Company, who are now engaged 
in constructing a 12,000-volt line to the 
yards. Poles have already been erected 
for this purpose along the roads from 
the company's main cable lines at 
Kingsway, along Broadway and down 
Harbor Street to the wharf. 

Mr. L. D. Shafner anticipates that 

9 



after sawing up enough lumber to com- 
plete the saw mill and other buildings 
in the yard, he will be able to begin the 
actual construction of his first ship, 
which will be about 125 feet long. Lum- 
ber is being obtained at St. Mary's 
Heights, and in addition to the limits 
already acquired there, Mr. Shafner has 
let a contract to clear all streets on the 
property of the Terminal Company in 
that region, the logs to be brought 
down on the miniature railway now laid 
down to the yards along Pitt River 
Road. 

© 

VICTORIA'S SURPRISING ASSER- 
TION. 

•HpHE "Victoria Colonist" makes this 
unique claim: The development of 
the port of Victoria continues in ever-in- 
creasing ratio. No more striking figures 
of the growth of Canada's Pacific Gate- 
way can be found than those which tell 
of the shipping inward and outward here, 
making this by all odds, the first port in 
the Dominion. 

For the month of December there was 
a total of 845 vessels and 065,261 tons of 
foreign and coastwise shipping at this 
port, making the figures for the nine 
months of the fiscal year as follows: 
Foreign — Vessels. Tonnage. 

In 1,525 1,465,974 

Out 1,401 1,482,704 

Total 2,926 2,948,678 

Coastwise — 

In 2,698 1,938,336 

Out 2,855 1,767,852 

Total 5,553 3,706,188 

Grand total 8,479 6,654,866 
Already the figures for three-fourths 
of a year are close on the heels of the 
whole previous fiscal year, and when a 
comparison is made with so modern a 
date as the twelve months from April 1, 
1909, to March 31, 1910, it will be seen 
that the record has been far surpassed. 
For the latter complete year, which it- 
self was far in advance of any former 
year, the grand total showed 7,254 ves- 
sels and 4,826,769 tons. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



WILL ALLOW PONTOON RAFTS. 

/ Tp HE Committee of the British Board 
of Trade appointed after the Ti- 
tanic disaster to enquire into life-saving- 
appliances, has issued a report in which 
it is stated that an "unswampable" 
self -emptying lifeboat which provides 
adequate shelter is the ideal appliance 
for life-saving at sea, but as provision 
for such craft is impossible in the ma- 
jority of eases, the committee says they 
have had to consider the competitive 
merits of other types. 

While the deck lifeboat practically 
fulfils the requirements, it is less handy 
for conveying passengers from ship to 
ship than the ordinary open boat. In 
foreign going ships, where the boat ac- 
commodation is large, the committee re- 
commends that pontoon rafts should be 
allowed, provided that the passengers 
carried by this do not exceed 25 per 
cent, of the total aboard such a ship. 
It is added by the committee that the 
risk of panic in small excursion steam- 
ers is very great, and that it would be 
lessened by the provision of buoyant 
deck seats or similar appliances. 

@ 

STIGMA ON THE ST. LAWRENCE. 

"D ELIEVING that as a result of the 
numerous accidents occurring to 
shipping on the St. Lawrence, the route 
has received a material setback, Mr. E. 
X. Lewis, M.P. for West Huron, has 
prepared a resolution which he will sub- 
mit to Parliament, reading as follows: 

"That whereas navigation of the Gulf 
and Kiver St. Lawrence has been un- 
satisfactory, but can be made absolutely 
safe barring negligence ; therefore, in 
the opinion of this House, a committee 
of the House should be appointed forth- 
with to investigate the system of and 
aids to navigation now in use on the St. 
Lawrence Eiver and Gulf of St. Law- 
rence, and a comparison made of same 
with those now in use on the Great 
Lakes and connecting rivers therewith 
a report to be made of such investiga- 
tion at the earliest possible date." 

In this connection, a circular has been 
sent out to all interested in shipping 
on the St. Lawrence, showing that re- 
cent accidents on that river have 
given the route a serious setback in the 
eyes of marine insurance men in the 
Old Country, and that the proposed re- 
duction in rates will also receive a 
serious setback. 

Buoying of the River. 

The circular also raises the question 
as to whether the St. Lawrence is as 
well buoyed as the inland rivers connect- 
ing with the Great Lakes, where com- 
paratively few accidents happen in those 
congested and narrow parts. The circu- 



lar asks whether the system of buoys is 
better on the inland, rivers or whether 
the lake captains, being their own pilots, 
make themselves more familiar with the 
channels and thus avoid disasters. Spar 
buoys, it is suggested, might be used on 
the St. Lawrence in addition to the gas 
buoys, or by sufficient permanent marks 
on the shore. 

Grain Export. 

"When one considers," the circular 
continues,, "that the amount of grain 
carried this year from the port of 
Montreal exceeds very little the total 
amount of grain carried fifteen or 
twenty years ago and that 43 per cent, 
of our grain goes by the port of Buffalo, 
the matter of the safety of the St. Law- 
rence is one that should receive careful 
attention, for what is the use of build- 
ing new canals and endeavoring to con- 
centrate the grain trade to this port if 
the outlet to the ocean is such a hazard- 
ous one that the rates of insurance are 
so high that the shippers are forced to 
ship by other routes. If it is the fault 
of the pilots that are now given sole 
charge of the vessels entering into this 
port and out again, would it not be 
cheaper to the country to pension off all 
the pilots and take off the restrictions 
that now require a pilot to bring the 
vessel up or take it down the river, and 
leave the matter optional to the vessel 
owners themselves." 

— m — 

ISHERWOOD SHIPS. 

A TOTAL of 240 vessels, representing 
1,078,151 gross register tonnage, 
were, or are being, built by 56 firms of 
shipbuilders for 79 firms of owners from 
September, 1907, to the end of last year. 
In the United Kingdom there are 145 
vessels on the Isherwood system at work, 
representing 710,671 tons; in the United 
States 53 vessels, of 201,137 tons; in 
Germany 22 vessels, of 109,197 tons; in 
Holland 10 vessels, of 26,386 tons; in 
Canada 5 vessels, of 15,800 tons ; in Bel- 
gium 4 vessels, of 11,460 tons; and in 
France 1 vessel, of 3,500 tons. Of the 
oil tank steamers contracted for last 
year, the majority are of the Isherwood 
type, and up to the present, 81 vessels 
of this class have been built, or are in 
course of construction, in the following- 
countries: — In the United Kingdom, 52 
vessels of 291,553 tons; in Germany, 12 
vessels of 69,200 tons; in the United 
States, 15 vessels of 38,850 tons; in 
France, one vessel of 3,500 tons; and in 
Canada, one vessel of 2,400 tons. 

During the past year, 46 vessels, ag- 
gregating about 211,886 gross register 
tons, were completed, included in this 
number being the passenger liner Vestris, 
built at Belfast and representing the 
latest addition to the lleet of Messrs. 
Lamport and Holt, of Liverpool; the 



12,500 tons d.w. intermediate liner 
Maidan, built at Port Glasgow for 
Messrs. T. and J. Brocklebank, of Liver- 
pool; and the 11,000 tons d.w. ore car- 
rier James A. Farrell, built at Lorain for 
the Pittsburg Steamship Co., of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, for service on the Great 
Lakes. This last vessel is one of two 
duplicates of the William P. Palmer or- 
dered by the same owners. The two 
13,000 tons d.w. colliers Orion and Jason, 
built at Sparrow 's Point, Maryland, for 
the naval department of the Government 
of the United States, are also on the 
Isherwood system. 

@ 

EXPECT ICEBERGS IN FEBRUARY. 
/ T S HE iceberg season, which began un- 
A usually early last year, the first 
drift of bergs appearing to the vision 
of high latitude skippers, mostly in com- 
mand of oil tankers, in January, may 
begin next month. The hydrographic 
experts say in the January pilot chart 
that "field ice may be expected about 
February 1." It may come before, how- 
ever, the fierce north-westerly gales of 
December contributing to the ice move- 
ment toward the steamship lane. The 
Hydrographic Office at Washington an- 
nounced recently, having in view the 
possibility of the ice coming down lower 
than normally, that the southerly tracks 
beginning on January 15 and ending on 
August 14, when all fear of bergs is 
past, would be slightly lower than the 
present winter tracks, but away south 
of berg danger.- 

The Hydrographic Office has had a 
conference with the steamship repre- 
sentatives, and they have agreed to 
have their commanders cross, when 
westbound, 47 degrees west longitude, 
in 41 degrees north latitude; eastbound 
skippers will cross 47 degrees west 
longitude in 40 degrees north latitude. 
This is in pursuance of the suggestion 
of Captain Jamison, of the American 
liner St. Paul. 

The new lanes will be more comfort- 
able in the bitter early months of the 
year, as much colder weather and heavy 
gales will be avoided. The new routes 
are not so slow as those adopted just 
after the Titanic disaster, but they are 
subject to change in case ice comes down 
in unusual quantity later. The impres- 
sion of navigators is that the bergs will 
be numerous this season because of the 
heavy weather that helps to detach them 
from the glaciers. 

Warning to Steamers. 

The ice season is supposed to begin 
in earnest in April, but sometimes bergs 
have drifted pretty close to the lanes in 
the latter part of March. The Ameri- 
can Hydrographic Office, in a red-letter- 
ed notice at the top of the January pilot 
chart, says: — 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



"Steamers are warned not to use the 
northern routes which heretofore were 
used during the period from August 24 
to January 14 when bound east, and 
from August 15 to January 14 when 
bound west." 

The office also says in the notice that 
the routes adopted for the season be- 
ginning in the middle of this month and 
ending in August are the "regular 
southern routes, standard since 1898." 

© 



LAKE STEAMER "EASTON." 

"T^HE Canadian Lake steamer Easton, 
here illustrated, was built last year 
by the Sunderland Shipbuilding Co., to 
the order of J. & J. T. Matthews, To- 
ronto, Ont. She is of the single deck 
type, and takes the highest class of the 
British Corporation for her particular 
service. 

Her leading dimensions are: Length, 
B.P., 250 feet; breadth, 42 feet 6 inch- 
es, and depth 18 feet 6 inches. Deck- 
houses are placed aft over machinery, 
with sun deck above ,and over the top- 
gallant forecastle is fitted a Texas house. 
The vessel is fitted with clear holds 'for 
the carrying of grain in bulk, and is 
built with deep Cantilever frames in 
order to dispense with pillars. Accom- 
modation for captain and owner is pro- 
vided in house on forecastle deck and 
for officers and engineers aft, whilst the 
sailors and firemen are berthed in fore 
end of boiler room casing. The saloon 
is in a deckhouse at the after end, and 
is fitted up in polished hardwoods. A 
complete installation of electric light 
is fitted, and all living rooms are heat- 
ed by steam. The deck machinery con- 
sists of four steam winches, steam steer- 



ing gear, and direct steam capstan wind- 
lass. 

The main engines are by the 
North-Eastern Marine, Eng., Co., Ltd., 
Sunderland, and have cylinders 17 inch- 
es, 28 inches and 46 inches diameter by 
33-inch stroke, steam being supplied by 
two large boilers working at a pressure 
of 185 lbs. per square inch. 

The Easton is the most recent of a 
large number of vessels constructed by 
the Sunderland Shipbuilding Co. to the 
order of the Matthews Co., and since 
crossing the Atlantic and going into 
commission last fall, has proved herself 
a valuable addition to their fleet. 



WHERE SAILORS ARE SCARCE. 

T_TARDLY ever before were sailors 
known to be so scarce, it being al- 
most impossible at the present time for 
vessels at New England ports to secure 
crews, says the Kennehunc Journal. 
White crews seem to be a thing of the 
past on board the larger sized coastwise 
craft, and the colored sailors who of late 
have been filling their places seem to be 
drifting into other pursuits. Many of the 
latter secured places as firemen on board 
steamers at the time of the unsuccessful 
strike of the Coastwise Union last May, 
and have held on to the jobs ever since. 
At any rate, very few of them have been 
seen in this port of late, and, despair- 
ing of getting a crew here, the owners ol 
the schooners Clarence H. Venner and 
Malcolm Baxter, jr., have engaged the 
Boston tug Baxter to tow the two vessels 
to Philadelphia, where they are under 
charter to load coal. The tug will get 
$625 for the tow. 



C ARTH AGENIAN ' S NARROW 
ESCAPE. 

A NARROW escape from destruction 
from lire was reported by the Allan 
Line steamer Carthaginian, which ar- 
rived at St. John's, Newfoundland, Jan- 
uary 11, from Liverpool. The steamer 
left Liverpool December 28 for St. 
John's, Halifax, N.S., and Philadelphia. 
Captain McKillop said that when she 
was three days out, her cargo caught 
fire in some unexplained manner. The 
flames spread so rapidly that it was ne- 
cessary to pump an enormous amount of 
water into the vessel to drown them 
out. The fire was finally extinguished, 
but for twelve hours the water was 
knee-deep on the lower deck. It is esti- 
mated that repairs to the vessel will 
cost $10,000. A large part of the gen- 
eral cargo was damaged. 



® 

GREATEST SIDEWHEELER 
AFLOAT. 

'TpHE passenger steamer Cee-and-Bee, 
built for the Cleveland and Buffalo 
Transit Co., of Cleveland, and launch- 
ed recently from the Wyandotte yard 
of the Detroit Shipbuilding Co., is the 
largest sidewheeler in the world. The 
vessel is of the following dimensions : 
Length over all, 500 feet ; extreme beam 
over guards, 97 feet 8 inches; depth 
of hull, moulded, 23 feet 6 inches. 

Her crank shaft and piston rods are 
among the largest forgings ever built in 
the United States. Her guaranteed 
speed is 22 miles an hour, from dock to 
dock, and to make it she will develop 
twelve thousand horse-power. 




CANADIAN LAKE STEAMSHIP "EASTON." 
Built to the order of J. & J. T. Matthews, Toronto, by the Sunderland Shipbuild'uj 

11 



Co., Sunderland, England. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



The MacLean Pub. Co., Ltd. 

(ESTABLISHED 1888.) 
JOHN BAYNE MAC EE AN ... President 
H. T. HUNTER - - - General Manager 

PUBLISHERS 

MarineEngineerjng 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and develop- 
ment of Merchant and Naval Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, 
the building of Harbors and Docks, and containing a record of 
the latest and best practice throughout the Sea-going World. 



H. V. TVRKELL, Toronto 
PETER BAIN, M.E., Toronto 



Business Manager 
Editor 



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Phone Central 12960 
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140 S. Dearborn St. 



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Vol. Ill 



JANUARY, 1913 



No. 1 



CHICAGO DRAINAGE CANAL DECISION. 

/~\N January 11th, the Hon. Henry L. Stimson, U.S. 

Secretary of War, issued his reply to the application 
of the Sanitary District of Chicago for leave to divert 
additional water, for sewage purification purposes, from 
Lake Michigan. As was confidently anticipated by all 
who had any real knowledge of the points at issue, Chi- 
cago 's petition was refused for reasons which Secretary 
Stimson sets forth in his report. He states that he reached 
the following conclusions : 

First:— That the diversion of 10,000 cubic 
feet per second from Lake Michigan, as applied 
for in this petition, would substantially interfere 
with tlie navigable capacity of the navigable 
waters in the Great Lakes and their connecting 
rivers. 

Second : — That being so, it would not be ap- 
propriate for me, without express Congressional 
sanction, to permit such a diversion, however 
clearly demanded by the local interests of the 
sanitation of Chicago. 

Third: — That on the facts here presented, no 
such case of local permanent necessity is made 
evident. 

Fourth: — That the provisions of the Can- 
adian treaty for a settlement by joint commission 
of "questions or matters of difference" between 
the United States and Canada offer a further 
reason why no administrative officer should auth- 
orize a further diversion of water, manifestly so 
injurious to Canada, against Canadian protest. 
The application of the Sanitary District was for per- 
mission to divert 10,000 cubic feet of water per second, 

12 



in place of the 4,167 cubic ft. at present allowed them. The 
petition was an entirely selfish one and naturally met with 
strong opposition from the shipping interests on the 
Great Lakes. Counsel for the Sanitary District was un- 
able to contest the evidence that so large an increased 
diversion would seriously lower the depth of water in all 
the Lakes, putting forward only the really childish argu- 
ment that such a reduction was of no consequence, because 
of the well-known fact that wind and other natural 
causes produce even greater changes of depth. The Chi- 
cago scheme would, of course, have only magnified this 
trouble. 

Observations during the last 46 years show that such 
a drain would reduce the lake levels from 4.8 inches on 
the St. Lawrence River to 6.9 inches in Lake Huron and 
Michigan, at mean lake levels, the lowering effect being 
much greater at low water periods when the additional 
shortage would be most keenly felt. This reduction, it is 
said, would substantially injure all the American and 
Canadian harbors on the Great Lakes, and at Montreal, 
the river level probably would be lowered 12 inches. The 
United States has spent over $90,000,000 on these harbors, 
and the Canadian Government has improved over 50 of 
its harbors, which would suffer. Reconstruction of the 
American and Canadian canals might even be necessary 
owing to the reduction of the depth of water over the sills. 

Secretary Stimson 's report further asserts that the 
application rested solely upon the alleged sanitary needs 
of Chicago that even the projected deep waterway from 
the Great Lakes to the Mississippi would require not over 
1,000 cubic feet of water per second, and that a greater 
flow would be dangerous to navigation and threaten over- 
flow. With the claim of the vital interests of the city on 
one side, and the broad interests in the nation's commerce 
on the other, Secretary Stimson expresses grave doubt 
as to his authority to grant such a permit without the 
direct sanction of Congress. He is not persuaded that 
the amount of water applied for is at all necessary to the 
proper sanitation of Chicago. The evidence indicates to 
him that at bottom the issue comes down to one of cost, 
and that Chicago's problem of sewage disposal, though 
larger, is the same as that which confronts all the rapidly 
growing lake cities. He is satisfied that it would be pos- 
sible in orre of several ways to at least so purify the 
sewage of Chicago as to require very much less water for 
its dilution than is now required in its unpurified con- 
dition. 

The proposition to erect compensating works to main- 
tain the lake levels is declared to be entirely within the 
purview of Congress, and furthermore, this could only 
be done by joint consent of Canada. Speaking of the 
Waterways Treaty of 1909, Secretary Stimson says: — 
"The treaty contains provisions in its Article 10 by which 
any questions or matters of difference arising between 
the high contracting parties involving the rights, obliga- 
tions, or interests of the United States or of the Dominion 
of Canada, either in relation to each other or to their 
respective inhabitants, may be referred for decision to an 
international joint commission established by the said 
treaty. The hearing before me brought forth the fact that 
the Government of Canada regards the proposal contained 
in this application as one which affects the material 
interests of that country. The establishment by formal 
treaty between the two countries of a tribunal with juris- 
diction to decide just such questions seems to me to afford 
an additional reason against the assumption of jurisdiction 
to decide the question by an administrative officer of one 
of those countries." 



MabineNews 




E/LwSoURC 




Quebec — Tenders addressed to Mr. 
Raoul Renault, secretary-treasurer of the 
Quebec Harbor Commission, will be re- 
ceived up to January 31, for the re- 
moval of from 2,500,000 to 5,000,000 
cubic yards of materials, chiefly sand, 
down to a depth of from 35 to 47 feet 
below low water. 

Vancouver — According to a wireless 
message, the steamer Cheslake, Captain 
Coles, of the Union Steamship Company, 
capsized at Yanda, Tuxedo Island, 60 
miles from here, on January 7, four lives 
being lost. 

Quebec — The steamer Arctic will be 
utilized as a lightship next summer and 
be stationed at Traverse. In the mean- 
time the engines and machinery will be 
removed. The Ai'ctic will be refitted 
with new machinery, and in the summer 
of 1914 will be despatched to the Hud- 
son Bay in connection with construction 
work. 

St. John, N.B. — A falling off is report- 
ed in lumber shipments from St. John, 
N.B., during 1912, and is attributed to 
the great demand for tonnage and the 
high freights for general merchandise. 
Shipments from St. John to trans- 
Atlantic ports fell to 82,040,963 super- 
ficial feet, against 125,237,141 in 1911. 

Wireless on Fishing Vessels — The 
French Government is planning to grant 
a bounty to each fishing: vessel equipped 
with wireless apparatus and an annual 
allowance for maintenance. 

Ice-Breaking — An ice-breaking steam- 
er built in Sweden for the Russian Gov- 
ernment has successfully cut its way 
through ice fields 30 feet thick with only 
half its normal power. 

H. M. S. Natal— The British cruiser 
Natal, which brought home the body of 
Ambassador Whitelaw Reid, will remain 
in port two weeks to repair the damage 
she suffered on the passage from Ports- 
mouth. 

S. S. Olympic — The provision of an in- 
ner skin of a completely novel type has 
been included among the alterations to 
the White Star liner Olympic. The work 
is nearly complete, and the vessel will re- 
sume her sailing early in the spring. 

Echoes of the Titanic Disaster — Claims 
exceeding $10,000,000 for loss of life due 



to the sinking of the Titanic, have been 
filed in court against the White Star 
Line. One woman claims $1,000,000 for 
the loss of her husband. 

British Shipbuilding Combine. — We 
are informed that Messrs. Swan, Hunter 
and Wigham Richardson, Ltd., ship- 
builders and engineers, Wallsend and 
Newcastle, have joined interests with 
Messrs. Barclay, Curie & Co., Ltd., the 
shipbuilding and ship-repairing firm, of 
Whiteinch, Glasgow. The two firms 
have made an exchange of shares with 
a view to ensure community of interests. 
The names of the two companies and 
their management remain the same as 
formerly. 

Terry Turbines. — The United States 
Navy has ordered four 10-k.w. Terry 
turbine driven sets for use on a de- 
stroyer. 

Montreal. — The contract for an addi- 
tion to the Harbor Commissioners' ele- 
vator No. 1, whereby 2,600,000 bushels 
of grain may be handled instead of a 
million bushels as at present, has been 
let to the John S. Metcalf Co. for $600,- 
000. Work on the additions will pro- 
ceed as fast as possible in order to be 
ready to cope with the grain rush of 
1913. 

Collingwood. — The annual meeting of 
the Farrar Transportation Co. will be 
held at Collingwood, Ont., on Tuesday, 
January 28th, when the annual financial 
statement will be placed before the 
shareholders. The season of 1911 has 
been the best in the history of the com- 
pany, and as a result the shareholders 
will receive a dividend of ten per cent, 
with a bonus of five per cent, and yet 
leave a large sum standing. The net 
profits for 1912 show an increase of 112 
per cent, over 1911, and of 147 per cent, 
over 1910, and the assets exceed the li- 
abilities by $140,067. The gross earn- 
ings amounted to $173,181 and the net 
earnings to $82,598. Deducting from 
this the general expenses, the net profit 
for the year amounts to $73,338. The 
company's assets are valued at $489,013, 
and the liabilities, including stock held 
by the shareholders, amount to $348,945. 

Collingwood. — The new steamer North 
American, of Chicago, Duluth & Geor- 
gian Bay Transit Co., which will sail 
13 



into Collingwood next summer, was 
launched at Detroit on Thursday, Janu- 
ary 16, at the Eeoi'se yards of the Great 
Lakes Engineering Works. 

Nanaimo. — When leaving here on 
Thursday, January 16, with a cargo of 
powder, the steamer Oscar took fire, and, 
getting beyond control, was beached on 
Protection Island. The powder explod- 
ed, destruction resulting in Nanaimo of 
several thousand dollars worth of pro- 
perty. Every plate glass window facing 
the water front was broken, and a num- 
ber of persons were seriously cut. The 
crew escaped before the explosion. 

Midland. — The by-law granting a 
bonus to the Midland Dry Dock Co., car- 
ried at the election on January 6, by an 
overwhelming majority, there being only 
46 votes against it. The. Dry Dock Co. 
will commence work at once on the 
construction of a floating dock to cost 
about a quarter of a million, and capable 
of lifting the largest steamers on the 
Great Lakes. The company consists of 
Midland men, and is capitalized at $250- 
000. The purpose is to acquire suitable 
property and construct a dry dock, the 
first unit of which will be capable of 
handling vessels of the class of the 
Waubic, and this, it is estimated, will 
cost in the neighborhood of $150,000, 
which sum the company agrees to spend, 
exclusive of lands. It will be built next 
season, and is to be followed by a second 
unit, which will increase the capacity 
of the dock to take in vessels of the 
class of the Midland Prince. Such 
other extensions will be made as the 
requirements of the trade may warrant. 
In connection with the above outlay, and 
in consideration of an agreement where- 
by the company is to employ at least 60 
men for 300 days of the year, the town 
has agreed to give a bonus of $25,000 
to assist in the purchase of lands that 
may be required. 

Sault Ste. Marie. — Work will be be- 
gun on or before April 1 on the erection 
of a dry dock and shipbuilding plant in 
this city to cost $1,500,000. The plant 
will be completed in one year. The con- 
tract will be awarded, it is said, to Lon- 
don, Eng., contractors. 

West Fort William.— The Consolidat- 
ed Elevator Co. is reported to have pur- 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



chased from the C.P.R. 400 ft. of water 
frontage immediately east of the pre- 
sent site of the Consolidated elevator 
on the Kaministikwia river at West Fort 
"William. Ont., on which it will construct 
a terminal elevator with a store capa- 
city of 2,000,000 bushels. 

Vancouver. — The West Vancouver 
Ferry Co. is inviting tenders for the 
building of two twin screw steamboats, 
each having the following dimensions: 
—Length, 95 feet; breadth, 18 feet; 
depth, 9 feet: to be fitted with triple 
expansion, surface condensing engines, 
and water tube boilers. T. F. Merrick 
is Secretary. 

Empress of Midland. — Shipbuilders 
along the lakes are being asked for 
prices for lengthening th e Inland Lines 
steamboat Empress of Midland, by 72 
feet. 

St. Lawrence Pilotage. — Following on 
the representations made to the Gov- 
ernment by A. Allan, President, and T. 
Robb. Manager and Secretary, Ship- 
ping Federation of Canada, notice of a 
resolution was given in the House of 
Commons, Dee. 18, calling for the ap- 
pointment of a special committee to in- 
vestigate and report on the whole sys- 
tem of pilotage on the St. Lawrence 
route and the Great Lakes. 

Prince Rupert. — The British Colum- 
bia Fisheries Co. 's steam trawlers, Can- 
ada and Triumph, arrived at Prince 
Rupert, B.C., Nov. 23, from Grimsby. 
Eng., a trip of 16,000 miles. 

C.P.R. Officers Pay. — It is announced 
that the C.P.R. has increased the pay 
of its officers on cargo boats, the new 
rates being, chief officer, $80 a month, 
rising to $85 after the first year; sec- 
ond officer, $60, rising to $65 after the 
first year; third officer $55, rising to 
$60 after the first year, being an aver- 
age increase of $10 a month. 

Washington, D.C.— Col. Goethals, 
chief engineer of the Panama Canal, 
told a sub-committee of the House that 
the canal will have been fully fortified 
before it is opened. 

Hamilton. — The Harbor Commission- 
ers hope to induce the Government to 
spend $500,000 on Hamilton Harbor this 
year. 

Halifax, N.S. — The Uranium, which 
grounded off Chebucto Head recently, 
was floated on January 17, and came 
into the harbor here under her own 
steam. 

Toronto. — The steamer Frontier, 
which was last season operated by the 
People's Line between Toronto and Lew- 
is! mi, is to be sold by public auction on 
Saturday, January 25th, to satisfy the 
claims of Captain James Quinn and 
others. The sale has been ordered by 
Mr. R. S. Stonehouse, marshal of the 



Toronto Admiralty district. The boat 
is tied up at the Poison Iron Works 
shipyard, and the sale will take place 
there. 

Montreal. — Owing to the unusual 
mildness of the season, navigation is ex- 
pected to open much earlier this year 
than last. Already the Marine and 
Fisheries Department is pushing work 
ahead at Sorel, and the Shamrock and 
other craft belonging to the Depart- 
ment are being overhauled, so as to be 
in readiness for the annual spring task 
of laying the buoys in the ship chan- 
nels as soon as opportunity offers. 

Georgian Bay Canal. — The Canadian 
Parliament will probably appropriate 
$3,000,000 for Georgian Bay Canal con- 
struction. This first appropriation will 
be sufficient to permit of the prepara- 
tion of contract plans and the begin- 
ning of preliminary construction work. 

Charlottetown, P.E.I.— On Friday, 
January 3, the firemen on the Dominion 
Government steamer Earl Grey struck, 
and the steamer, packed to the hatches 
with cargo, including a large quantity 
of perishable products, was tied up all 
day. The strikers demanded three four 
hour watches instead of two of six hours. 
Mr. D. Nicholson, M.P. (Conservative) 
for Queen's County, took the responsi- 
bility of putting on additional men to 
allow increasing the number of watches, 
declaring he would fight it out with the 
Government later. 

Sarnia. — A. J. Bonah, captain of the 
tug Fisher of the Reid Wrecking Co., 
was fined $100 by Magistrate Leggatt in 
the Police Court at Windsor on Friday, 
January 3, for disobeying the orders of 
Harbormaster Goodchild. The tug was 
towing a barge near the Livingstone 
Channel. The Harbormaster ordered 
Captain Bonah to slow down, but in- 
stead he gave full steam ahead. An ap- 
peal will be made. 

Charlottetown, P.E.I. — The Government 
is about to award to a British firm the 
contract for the Prince Edward Island 
car ferry, for which tenders were called 
some months ago. It is understood the 
figure slightly exceeds half a million 
dollars. 

North Vancouver. — The ferry board 
was surprised recently to learn from 
their solicitor, R. L. Reid, that in order 
to make an extension to the present 
wharf on Lonsdale avenue to occupy 
the 100 feet of extra foreshore now 
being applied for, a special Dominion 
Act will be necessary. 

Vancouver. — That early action will be 
taken by the Government towards the 
dredging of False Creek is indicated by 
the fact that tenders are being called 
for doing what will be the largest dredg- 
ing contracf ever planned for British 
Columbia. The Department of Public 
14 



Works is calling for the tenders, which 
are to be received up to the end of 
January. 

Vancouver. — Another liner of the 
same type as the Niagara is to be built 
for the Union Steamship Company of 
New Zealand, according to an announce- 
ment made by Sir James Mills, the com- 
pany's managing director. The vessel 
will be of 14,500 tons, and it is consider- 
ed likely that she will be put on the run 
between the Antipodes and San Fran- 
cisco during the Panama-Pacific Ex- 
position. 

Sydney. — The Dominion Coal Com- 
pany have purchased two more steamers 
to add to their fleet. They are the 
Corunna and the Nevada, which are at 
present lying in the harbor of Sydney. 
Each has a carrying capacity of about 
1,400 tons. 

Owen Sound — The report has been 
current here for some time that the 
Dominion Transportation Co. will put an 
extra boat on their north shore line next 
season, and that all the boats will call 
at Port McNicoll. 

Port McNicoll.— The Orillia- Packet 
says : — Provision is made for the con- 
struction of another unit to the big C. 
P. R, elevator at Port McNicoll, and the 
work will be gone on with in the spring. 
With the extension this will be the 
largest elevator on the Great Lakes, and 
the company's storage capacity will be 
of immense proportions. This year it 
is intended to use a number of vessels 
for storage at that point, which will 
result in sufficient grain being on hand 
to keep that part of the freight depart- 
ment busy all winter. 

Collingwood. — The Collingwood Ship- 
building Co. are constructing the largest 
bulk freighter ever built in the British 
Empire to the order of the Chicago and 
St. Lawrence Navigation Co., and at 
the same time are engaged on two steel 
dredges for the Dominion Department 
of Public Works. Around the- com- 
pany's piers are lying a number of steel 
freighters, nearly all of which will re- 
quire repair work before going into com- 
mission next spring. 

Fort William. — The Calgarian. sister 
ship of the Hamiltonian and the second 
vessel to be constructed at the Western 
Dry Dock and Shipbuilding yards, was 
launched recently, being christened by 
Mrs. L. H. Wallace, wile of the manager 
of the works. The function was per- 
formed without any great ceremony, and 
the only difference at the works was the 
number of people who were present. 
The Calgarian is the property of the 
Canadian Inter-Lake Line, in whose 
service she will ply between the Twin 
Cities and other eastern Canadian ports. 

Vancouver. — Damaged through the re- 
cent storm, stays in the English Bay 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Pier have given way to such an extent 
as to make it risky for any great crowd 
to assemble on it. Many 16-inch tim- 
bers were broken by the force of the 
wind and waves. The park commis- 
sioners have had an engineer make a 
thorough examination of the structure, 
and steps will be taken to have it pro- 
perly strengthened. 

Lunenburg, N.S. — The crew of the 
British schooner Aldine, numbering' 
probably six men, are believed to have 
perished in a gale on Christmas Eve off 
the Maine Coast, near St. Pierre. At day- 
break the wreck of the vessel was found 
on the north side of St. Pierre roads. 
The Aldine was a three-masted vessel 
of 112 tons, owned by A. V. Conroy of 
Lunenburg, N.S. 

The Orient Steam Navigation Co. is 
considering the formation of a subsi- 
diary company to act as its insurance 
company. A separate company, known 
as' the Orient Underwriting Fund, Ltd., 
with a capital of $100,000, will be es- 
tablished. 

Oil for British Navy. — It is reported 
in well-informed circles that the British 
Government has placed contracts for 
sixty-one million gallons of oil for use 
in the navy. No less than twenty-nine 
oil steamers are being built. One com- 
pany that had a commission for oil tank 
steamers had to refuse another for nine, 
owing to inability to undertake the 
work. It is expected that the order will 
go to American shipbuilding concerns. 

Midland. — John McDonald, an em- 
ployee of the Canadian Dredge Com- 
pany, was instantly killed by the snap- 
ping of a cable attached from the tug 
D. S. Pratt to the freighter Midland 
King, which was being moored into win- 
ter quarters on Monday, December 23. 

Windsor — Navigation on the Detroit 
River for the season of 1913 was open- 
ed on January 1, by the sand steamer 
John M. McKerehey, which brought 
down a cargo of sand from points along 
the St. Clair River. 

Kingston. — When the steamer Wolfe 
Islander was on her way over from 
Wolfe Island with farmers for market 
on Saturday, December 28, fire started 
from an unknown source in the wheel- 
house, and there was almost a panic. 
The men on the boat acted promptly, 
however, and with the use of a hose soon 
had the fire out. The steamer was half- 
way across the harbor when the fire was 
discovered. 

Sarnia. — The steamer Hamonic of the 
Northern Navigation fleet has been put 
into the Reid Wrecking Company's dry- 
dock at Port Huron so that repairs can 
be made to underwater parts. Repairs 
will be made to the barge Hustler so 
that she will be ready for the opening of 



navigation in the early spring. The 
work will cost when completed several 
thousands of dollars. 

Owen Sound. — It is stated on good 
authority that the financing of the mil- 
lion and a half dry dock proposition has 
been completed. Next spring may see 
the breaking of the sod. With the iron 
working industries already secured, or 
about to come, the dry dock would cer- 
tainly round out the town's manufac- 
turing activities. 

Port Arthur. — Arrangements .have 
been made by which American vessels 
presenting themselves at Port Arthur 
and Fort William after December 5th, 
midnight, when ordinary insurance ex- 
pired, will be permitted to load up with 
grain, remain at these poi'ts, and on 
their first trip in the Spring, deliver 
their cargoes at Point Edward, Goderich 
or Georgian Bay ports. 

Port Huron. — The N. N. Co.'s steamer 
Hamonic is undergoing some bottom re- 
pairs in Reid's dry dock here. 

Sarnia. — If the plans of several Sar- 
nia and Port Huron capitalists carry, a 
new boat line will be operated next sum- 
mer out of this port to the town of Bay- 
field, in Huron county, Ontario, on the 
shore of Lake Huron. The line will op- 
erate as passenger and freight, and 
will touch at all the little lake points 
where there is no rail connection. Be- 
sides several local men, Messrs. Everett 
of Cleveland are also interested. It is 
reported from Ottawa that the harbor 
at Bayfield is to be dredged and a dock 
built. " 

Sarnia. — The Reid Wrecking Com- 
pany have undertaken to turn over the 
sand barge Hustler, which sank recently 
near Algonac, and was brought to this 
port later in a capsized condition. The 
wrecker Manistique and two powerful 
tugs made several efforts to roll her 
over, but were prevented by the smash- 
ing of steel cables and ropes. 

St. John's. — Captain Burke and the 
eight members of the crew of the fishing 
schooner Evelyn were hauled to safety 
up the steep cliffs at Isle Aubois cove by 
the fisher folk at that hamlet on Fri- 
day, January 10, after the Evelyn had 
been dashed to pieces on the ledges off 
the shore. Hope of reaching shore 
safely was slight until a boat, manned 
by three Aubois fishermen, put out from 
shore and reached the Evelyn's side. 
When the transfer of the schooner's 
crew from their wrecked vessel to the 
small boat had been accomplished, and 
the boat headed for shore, the wind 
shifted, and the small craft was carried 
out of its course, and was thrown on a 
narrow shelf of rock at the foot of the 
cliffs a mile down the coast, whence they 
were pulled to safety by means of ropes. 
15 



Montreal. — W. G. Ross, Chairman of 
the Harbor Commissioners, stated in 
the course of a speech delivered on 
board the tug Sir Hugh Allan on Fri- 
day, Jan. 3, during a trip down the river 
to which the Commissioners had invited 
a number of newspapermen and others, 
that the navigation season this year 
would witness the advent of a new line 
of steamers to Montreal, though as yet 
he was not free to say what that line 
was. Opinion is general that La Com- 
pagnie Generale Transatlantique is the 
line to which Mr. Ross referred. 

Vancouver. — The fishery protection 
cruiser, Newington, Captain Barnes, 
which has been patrolling off the coast 
of Vancouver Island and adjacent wa- 
ters, has resumed her duties. She went 
to Victoria recently to refit. The Qua- 
dra, Captain MacPherson, is also under 
orders to sail and will take material to 
the new lighthouse at Langara, from 
Prince Rupert. She will also take sup- 
plies to Triangle Island for the light- 
house and wireless station there. 

@ 

FATAL STEAMER CASUALTIES. 

'ip HE mortality from the wreck or 
A damage of steamers belonging to 
the United Kingdom in the ten years 
ending with 1910 inclusive, was as an- 
nexed : — 



Year 


Crew 


Passengers 


Total 


1901 .. 


. . 327 


8 


385 


1902 .. 


. . 460 


674 


1134 


1903 .. 


. . 364 


22 


386 


1904 .. 


. . 305 


9 


314 


1905 .. 


. . 328 


111 


439 


1906 .. 


. . 180 


5 


185 


1907 .. 


. . 452 


89 


541 


1908 .. 


. . 282 


88 


370 


1909 .. 


. . 396 


117 


513 


1910 .. 


. . 526 


141 


667 



The annual returns show violent fluc- 
tuations; this is due to the effect exerted 
upon the total for any one year by some 
special catastrophe. Account should be 
taken of the gradual increase in the 
number of steamers in operation. 

© 

TO LIVERPOOL VIA RED RIVER. 

T^- AVIGATION by the Red River, 
Lake Winnipeg and the Nelson 
River to Hudson's Bay is contemplated 
in steps that are being taken toward 
making the Red River of the north a 
permanent navigable highway. The new 
route when completed would be 1,200 
miles shorter to Liverpool than the pres- 
ent route, and will give an outlet for the 
grain to the world's market by water 
with but two handlings en route. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



ATLANTIC 



CURRENTS 
BERGS. 



AND ICE- 



T"vR. MYERS COPLANS, Demonstrator 
*^ of Bacteriology and Public Health 
in the University of Leeds, recently re- 
turned from his voyage in the North 
Atlantic, says the Yorkshire Post, which 
was undertaken for the purpose of 
studying the currents and composition 
of the water. In view of the Titanic 
disaster, the investigations which are 
now proceeding promise to be of the ut- 
most value to the shipping world, as 
well as of great interest from a purely 
scientific point of view. 

In May last, in "Nature," Dr. Cop- 
lans had a note on "A Method of De- 
tecting Icebergs in Water," and it is 
the method there indicated which he 
has put to a severe test in the stormy 
Atlantic. In order that the nature of 
the work may be better understood, it 
is necessary to recall one or two well- 
known facts concerning sea water and 
ieebersrs. Icebergs are formed from 



affords hopes of greater success than 
mere temperature, because it has been 
proved that in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of an iceberg the temperature may 
be as high, or even higher, than that of 
the normal ocean water. Particularly is 
this the case in the dangerous part of 
the ocean south of Newfoundland, 
where the influence of the Gulf Stream 
vitiates the significance of thermometer 
readings from this point of view. The 
difficulty with electrical apparatus has 
been its sensitiveness to variations of 
temperature, but in the apparatus which 
Dr. Coplans has devised, there is an au- 
tomatic correction for varying tempera- 
tures; it is, in fact, a compensating 
salinometer. During the whole time 
that the ship is at sea, the salinometer 
is working, and, fitted with a recorder, it 
will give a continuous record of the sal- 
inity of the water through which the 
ship has passed. Its warning is instan- 
taneous, because in the ice zone any 
marked diminution in salinitv would 



that there is a considerable variation 
even in this relatively small difference 
in depth. This is due to the newly lib- 
erated fresh water (being of a lesser 
density than salt water) floating on the 
surface. A great river discharging into 
the deep ocean mixes its contribution 
pretty thoroughly with the ocean water. 

Scope of Test Performed. 

The tests which Doctor Coplans has 
just completed were made on board the 
Royal Mail Liner Royal Edward. This 
vessel took the "short cut" across the 
Atlantic, along the track which at cer- 
tain seasons of the year is regarded as 
dangerous on account of ice. On the 
journey no fewer that 34 icebergs were 
sighted. A continuous record was made 
of the salinity of the ocean from Avon- 
mouth to Rimouski, through the Strait 
of Belleisle, and on to Montreal. The 
record was subsequently continued from 
Montreal up the St. Lawrence, through 
Lake Ontario to Niagara. Owing to 




OIL ENGINE PROPELLED SHIP "CALGARY," BUILT BY SWAN. HUNTER & WIGHAM RICHARDSON, LTD., WALLSEND- 
ON-TYNE, FOR THE CANADIAN LAKES SERVICE. She is 256 ft. over all. 42 ft. 6 in. beam, 19 ft. moulded depth, and is 
designed to carry 110,000 bushels of grain on a load draft of 14 ft. The auxiliary machinery is steam operated, steam being gen- 
erated in a boiler burning oil fuel. 



fresh water, and as they float about in 
the salt water of the ocean they are con- 
tinuously melting. The fresh water di- 
lutes the sea water, and in the neigh- 
borhood of the berg the result is that 
the sea is less saline than the normal. 
These variations may be indicated by 
specific gravity, but the test could not be 
made sufficiently delicate at sea. Chemi- 
cal analysis is also out of the question 
for the mariner. Moreover, both of these 
tests must be intermittent, and more or 
less casual. At the Titanic inquiry it 
was suggested that temperature might 
afford reliable information with regard 
to the proximity of a large mass of ice, 
but Dr. Coplans' observations go to 
show that temperature alone is a very 
unreliable guide. 

Recording Salinometer. 

Electricity, therefore, has been 
brought in as a method of testing. It 
has been found from experiment that, 
whereas the conductivity of water de- 
rived from an iceberg may be expressed 
at 90, the conductivity of sea water is 
50,000. This wide range of variations 



cause the navigator to suspect the prox- 
imity of ice. 

Influences Affecting Salinity. 

It will be obvious that other causes 
besides melting ice may lead to a dimin- 
ution of salinity — such, for example, as 
the effluent from a great river, or the 
persistence of a strongly marked fresh- 
water current such as those from the 
Arctic regions. Already Dr. Coplans 
has discovered that both the St. Law- 
rence and the Severn have an influence 
on the salinity of the sea at far greater 
distances than has hitherto been sup- 
posed. The new apparatus has, there- 
fore, to be read in the light of geogra- 
phical position. It may, however, be 
possible to differentiate between estuary 
dilution and dilution due to an iceberg 
by fitting two sets of apparatus. If we 
take the depth of a modern liner at 30 
or 35 feet, one apparatus fitted just be- 
low the water line and another at the 
lowest possible point in the ship would 
show no difference in salinity under nor- 
mal conditions. In the neighborhood 
of an iceberg, however, it has been found 
16 



dense fog prevailing in the Strait of 
Belleisle during the return journey, the 
ship's course was altered for Cape Race 
and the south coast of Newfoundland, 
so affording an opportunity for the ef- 
fect of the River St. Lawrence to be 
traced to its ocean limits. The apparatus 
was installed in the hold of the ship, 20 
feet below the surface, and as it was 
not fitted with a recorder it needed con- 
tinual watching. The records were 
taken in duplicate — one set by the 
ship's officers and the other by Doctor 
Coplans, with the assistance of the chief 
engineer, Mr. W. Boddey. Complete 
meteorological records were also taken, 
and Lieut. C. de V. Le Sueur. R.N.R, 
acted as cartographer. 

Test Phenomena. 

All the data thus obtained have vet 
to be analyzed and correlated, but some 
very interesting phenomena were reveal- 
ed by the instrument. The first thing 
that struck the observers was the very 
long distance out to seas — much farther 
than had hitherto been supposed to be 
the case — at which the influence of the 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



River Severn on the salinity of the 
ocean could be traced. Confirmatory 
evidence of this permeation of river 
water through the ocean for long dis- 
tances was afforded on the other side by 
the St. Lawrence. Dr. Coplans had pre- 
viously suspected that icebergs followed 
definite tracks; indeed this idea is sug- 
gested by the charts issued by the Brit- 
ish Government, showing, amongst other 
things, the position of observed icebergs. 
Some of these tracks were discovered on 
the voyages out and home, being indicat- 
ed by a great variation in salinity. The 
investigators also found a very strong- 
ly marked Arctic current, consisting of 
water of greatly diminished salinity and 
of a very low temperature. As between 
this current and the normal ocean, there 
was a diminution of 25 per cent, in sal- 
inity. On the eastward side of this cur- 
rent, for about 500 or 600 yards, the 
temperature of the water was just 
about freezing point. The currents have 
seasoned changes in direction, but other- 
wise are constant. 

These two experimental trips across 
the Atlantic have opened up a wide field 
for further investigation, and in view of 
the great interests concerned in the 
navigation of the North Atlantic, there 
is no doubt that the matter will be still 
further pursued. 

■ © 

BOLINDER MARINE OIL ENGINE. 

INHERE are few marine engineers 
working on vessels using oil as a mo- 
tive power, who have not been bothered 
with the reversing arrangements hitherto 
placed on the market by firms manu- 
facturing marine oil engines. They 
will, therefore, be interested in a crude 
oil engine, recently introduced into 
Canada by the Canadian Boving Co., 
Ltd., of Toronto, an engine which re- 




BOLINDER MARINE OIL ENGINE. 



verses more easily than a steam engine. 
This is the Bolinder semi-Diesel engine, 
made in types for both land and marine, 
one each of which has been installed 
near the Canadian Boving Co. 's office, 
Toronto, for exhibition purposes. These 
were recently seen under test by a 
member of the staff of Marine Engin- 
eering of Canada, on which occasion 
they gave proof of everything claimed 
for them by their manufacturers. 

Cycle of Operations. 

The engine works on what is known 
as the 2 cycle principle, that is to say, 
there is one impulse each revolution. 
The working cycle is as follows : — 

When the piston (A) at the end of its 
outward stroke is moving in towards 
the ignition chamber (E), the neces- 
sary air for combustion is drawn 
through the air valves (B) into the en- 
closed crank housing, and at the same 
time the air in the cylinder (D) is be- 
ing compressed. 

When the piston (A) has reached its 
extreme inward position, a certain 
amount of crude oil is injected into the 
ignition chamber (E) through the 
nozzle (F), and the fuel charge ex- 
plodes the expanding gas, driving the 
piston outward towards the shaft. 
During the outward stroke of the piston, 
the air in the crank housing is com- 
pressed. As the piston nears the end of 
its stroke, the exhaust port (G) opens, 
and immediately after, the inlet air 
port (H). 

The burnt gases escape by the ex- 
haust port (G), while the compressed 
air in the crank housing entering the 
cylinder by the port (H), completes the 
scavenging work and furnishes the 
cylinder with air necessary to make up 
the next fuel charge. It will be noticed 
that the ignition chamber (E) has two 
ports; by this means it is blown 
through with fresh air every revolution, 
an important feature for securing a 
rapid and effective ignition. The piston 
is now on the inward stroke again and 
the cycle is completed. 

Simplicity and cheapness of opera- 
tion are two good points in the Bolinder 
crude oil marine engine that cannot be 
overlooked. The 12 h.p. engine on ex- 
hibition in Toronto consumes 1.02 gals, 
of crude oil per hour, at a cost of eight 
cents a gallon. An engine of the same 
size using gasolene would consume 1.5 
gals, an hour, which, taking the cost of 
gasolene as 24 cents a gallon, runs the 
operating cost up to 32 cents an hour. 

Simple Speed Regulation. 

The engine is easily regulated, and 
this feature is highly important in the 
case of marine engines. From full 
speed to the merest rotation movement 
is accomplished by the simple regula- 
tion of a spring governing the fuel sup- 
ply. This fact, coupled with the effi- 

11 



cient direct reversing system, has 
brought this prime mover a large de- 
gree of popularity. The reversing 




SECTION OF BOLINDER OIL ENGINE. 



feature has created the greatest in- 
terest among shipping men because of 
its simplicity and reliability; a small 
lever only being used for changing the 
direction of rotation 

Forced lubrication for both cylinder 
and bearings has been adopted for this 
engine, the device being a Bolinder 
patent. The supply of oil can be ad- 
justed to suit requirements. 

® 

COMMON SENSE FLUE CLEANER. 

npHE Garlock Packing Co., Ltd., of 
Hamilton, Ont., are handling a flue 
cleaner, which carries the name of 
"Common Sense." It was given this 
name because it never gets stuck in a 
flue, and will pass all welds or collapses. 
The common sense is in the design. The 
makers claim that the ordinary fiue- 
cleaner fails to get the flue clean be- 



"COMMON SENSE" FLUE CLEANER. 

cause it only rubs the baked carbon, 
which cannot be rubbed off; also, that 
some run so hard, because the rub is 
almost square across the flue. This 
flue cleaner is adjustable to wear, the 
latter coming on the cutters or knives 
without injury to the frame. By pass- 
ing a file over the knives the latter can 
be sharpened. 




ASSOCIATION AND PERSONAL 



A Monthly Record of Current Association News and of Individuals 
who Have Been More or Less Prominent in the Marine Sphere 



Mr. Robert Curr, naval architect, has 
been appointed a Lloyds surveyor at 
Port Arthur, Ont. 

* * * 

Capt. James Gaudin, wreck commis- 
sioner for British Columbia, died on 
Monday. January 13. 

Sf * * 

Capt. F. Davis, of the steamer Scot- 
tish Hero, has been appointed to the 
captaincy of the Mars, the largest boat 
of the Canada Interlake Steamship Co. 

* * « 

Capt. Bertham has been appointed to 
the command of the C.P.R. steamship 
Empress of Eussia, and will be succeed- 
ed on the Empress of India by Capt. 
Harley, heretofore chief officer. 

* * # 

Capt. Thomas Gaskin, formerly of 
Kingston, died in Buffalo on Sunday, 
January 12. He has been sailing Unit- 
ed States steamers for several years. 
The remains were taken to Kingston 
for burial. 

* * • 

Lieutenant-Colonel William Patrick 
Anderson, chief engineer, Department of 
Marine and Fisheries, Ottawa, received 
the decoration of Commander of the Or- 
der of St. Michael and St. George in the 
distribution of New Year honors by 
King George V. 

» * • 

Capt. Tait, Vancouver, has been ap- 
pointed master, and W. H. Partington, 

formerly of the Princess Charlotte, chief 
officer of t he steamship Kestrel, recent- 
ly sold by the Dominion Government. 
The Kestrel left Victoria recently for 
Fanning Island, for trading among the 
Pacific Islands. 

* * * 

Shipping Honored. — Among those 
honored by the King with knighthoods 
on the first of the year were three men 
well known in the shipping world. They 



LICENSED PILOTS. 

River St. Lawrence. — Captain Walter 
Collins, 43 Main Street, Kingston, Ont., 
Captain M . McDonald, River Hotel, 
Kingston, Ont. ; Captain Charles J. Mar- 
tin, 13 Balaclavia Street, Kingston, Ont. ; 
Captain T. J. Murphy, 111 William St., 
Kingston, Ont. 

River St. Lawrence, Bay of Quinte, 
Murray Canal. — Captain James Murray, 
106 Clergy St., Kingston, Ont.; Captain 
James H. Martin, 259 Johnston Street, 
Kingston, Ont. ; John Corkery, 17 Rideau 
Street, Kingston, Ont. ; Captain Daniel 
H. Mills, 272 University Avenue, Kings- 
ton, Ont. 



ASSOCIATIONS 

DOMINION MARINE ASSOCIATION. 

President — James Playfair, Midland ; Coun- 
sel — F. King, Kingston, Ont. 



GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE 
RIVER RATE COMMITTEE. 
Chairman — W. F. Wasley, Gravenhurst, Ont. 
Secretary — Jas. Morrison, Montreal. 

INTERNATIONAL WATER LINES 
PASSENGER ASSOCIATION. 
President — A. A. Heard, Albany, N.Y. 
Secretary — M. R. Nelson, New York 



THE SHIPPING FEDERATION OF CANADA 
President — A. A. Allan, Montreal ; Manager 
and Secretary— T. Robb, 526 Board of Trade, 
Montreal. 



SHIP MASTERS' ASSOCIATION OF 
CANADA. 

Grand Master — Capt. J. H. McMaugh, Tor- 
onto, Ont. ; Grand Secretary-Treasurer — Capt. 
H. O. Jackson, 376 Huron St., Toronto. 



GRAND COUNCIL, N.A.M.E. GRAND 
OFFICERS. 
James T. McKee, 268 Douglas Avenue, St. 
John, N.B., Orand President. 

Thos. Tberiault, Levis, P.Q., Grand Vice- 
President. 

Neil J. Morrison, P.O. Box 238, St. John, N.B., 
Grand Secretary-Treasurer. 

Jno. A. Murphy, Midland, Ont., Grand Con- 
ductor. 

George Bourret, Sorel, P. Q., Grand Door- 
keeper. 

Richard McLaren, Owen Sound, Ont. 
L. B. Cronk, Windsor, Ont. 

Grand Auditors. 



are : Mr. Thomas Benjamin Bowring, 
senior, London, director of Messrs. C. 
T. Bowring & Co., Ltd., shipowners and 
merchants; Mr. Arthur Holland, head 
of the firm of Messrs. Arthur Holland 
& Co., shipowners; and Mr. Richard 
Mathias, member of the firm of Messrs. 
J. Mathias & Sons, shipowners, Cardiff. 

© 

TUG LAUNCHED AT POLSON'S. 

Op HE Fredericton, a new steel tug 
for service in salt water, was suc- 
cessfully launched at the beginning of 
the year from the Poison Iron Works, 
Toronto, under the auspices of T. H. 
Schwitzer, mechanical superintendent of 
the Department of Public Works at Ot- 
tawa. The new vessel is 80 feet long, 20 
feet beam, and 10 feet deep, and will be 
stationed in the lower St. Lawrence. 

Her machinery consists of a compound 
surface condensing engine, having cylin- 
ders of 12 and 26 inches diameter by 18 
inches stroke. The boiler is of the 
Scotch type, 10 feet diameter by 11 feet 
long, with a working pressure of 150 lbs. 
There is also an electric light and search- 
light installation forming part of the 
equipment. She will be used in connec- 
tion with dredging work on the New 
Brunswick coast. 

* 

CORRUGATED SHIPS. 
iw AVAL-CONSTRUCTOR David W. 

Taylor, U.S.N., will conduct a series 
of tests on models of ships with cor- 
rugated sides at the Washington navy 
yard during this winter. Four merchant 
ships of this type, built in England, have 
proved successful. It is hoped that the 
same idea may be applied to battleships 
with a marked saving in propulsive 
power. Two outward curves, 23 inches 
deep, run the length of the ship between 
the load water line and the bilge. Be- 
tween the convex curves is a concave 
surface of equal depth. 



Directory of Subordinate Councils for 1913. 



Name. 



No. 



l'resideut. 



Address. 



Secretary. 



Address. 



Toronto, 

St. John, 

Colllngwood, 

Kingston. 

Montreal, 

Victoria, 

Vancouver, 

Levis, 

Sorel, 

Owen Sound, 

Windsor, 

Midland, 

Halifax, 

Siult 8. Marie, 

Charlottetown, 



A. J. Fisher, 
J. F. Matthews, 
Andrew Kerr, 
A. E. Kennedy, 
A. F. Hnmelln, 
Alex McNivern, 
A. S. DeGruehy, 
Helalre Mercler, 
Geo. Bourret, 
H. W. Fletcher. 
Alex. McDonald, 
Jos. Sllverthorne, 
D. J. Murray, 
Thos. O'Reilly, 
J. K. Sutherland. 



490 Concord Ave. 

50 Douglas Ave., 

Box 343, Collingwood, 

395 Johnston Street, 

3208 Le Tang Street, 

P. O. Box 234, 

Boom 23, Williams Bldg., 

Bienville. Levis, 

Sorel, P.Q.. 

630 4th Ave. East, 

Windsor, Ont., 

Midland, 

Victoria Rd., Dartmouth, 
Sault Ste Marie. 
Chnrlottetown. P.E.I.. 



E. A. Prince, 
G. T. G. Blewett, 
Robert McQuade, 
■Tames Gillie, 
O. L. Marchand, 
Peter Gordon, 
E. Read, 
Jules Lecours, 
Al. Charbonneau, 
E. J. Riley, 
Nell Maltland, 
Jno. A. Murphy, 
Chas. E. Pearce, 
Geo. S. BlKfrnr, 
Lem Winchester. 



ul 101m Grove, Toronto. 

65 Harrison St., St. John, N.B. 

P.O. Box 97, Collingwood, 

101 Clergy St., Kingston, Ont. 

St. Vincent de Paul, P.Q. 

808 Blanchard St.. Victoria, B.C. 

859 Thurlow St. 

Bienville, Levis. P.Q. 

P.O. Box 132, Sorel, P.Q. 

1030 1st Ave., Owen Sound, Ont. 

221 London St. W., Windsor, Ont. 

Midland, Ont. 

Portland Street. Dartmouth, N.S. 

Sault Ste Marie, Ont. 

302 Fltzrov St.. Chnrlottet'n. P.E.I. 



13 



MA TUNE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Garlock 
Marine Packings 

For years have stood the severest tests 
under many and various conditions 




Garlock High Pressure Ring! 




Garlock High Pressure Diagonal 




Our handsome 1913 
catalog, fully illustrat- 
ed — over 100 pages, 
showing Packings for 
every purpose, will 
soon be completed. 

II 

Let us enter your 
name for an early 
copy. 



Garlock Square Flax 



The 
Garlock 
Packing 

Co. 

Hamilton 

-iii 

BRANCHES: 

Montreal Toronto 
Winnipeg 
Vancouver 




Garlock High Pressure Spiral 




Garlock Low Pressure Diagonal 




Garlock Gum Gore 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Regrinding Valves 

THE ever-increasing demand to-day 
by marine engineers and shipown- 
ers in general is for valves that will 
sive absolute reliable service and de- 




Removing Union Ring 



pendability under high pressures and 
severe conditions, and that are free 
from unnecessary renewal of discs and 
repair parts. To meet this demand, the 
Penberthy regrinding valve has been 
designed. It is the result of many years 
of practical experience in the manufac- 




Inserting Pin 

ture of high-grade brass goods, and em- 
bodies the latest mechanical construc- 
tional ideas. It is claimed to be the 
heaviest regrinding valve manufactured, 
and the distribution of metal is such 
that parts subjected to the greatest 
strain and Avear have proportionately 




Applying Oil and Emery 



heavier walls. For the present there is 
only illustrated the medium pattern 



type, which is guaranteed to stand a 
constant working pressure of 200 
pounds. 

Constructional Detail. 

A sectional view of the regrinding 
valve is illustrated herewith, which will 
give the reader an intelligent idea of 
the design, construction and general fea- 
tures. It will be noticed that the re- 
strictive areas are largely in excess of 
the area of the pipe. The long sweep 
of the body permits easy flow of steam 
or liquids, thereby reducing friction to 
a minimum and giving long life to the 
body. The pipe threads are long and 
have the full standard depth, while the 
hexagon ends of the body have large and 

~ — _ 




Regrinding 



heavy faces. This heavy construction 
with the increased thickness of metal 
in the wall near the hexagon insures 
against the severest of strains. 

The union hub ring is extra heavy, 
and secures hub to body, making a 
steam-tight and rigid connection. The 
threads on the hub end of the body be- 
ing on the outside make the above con- 
nection absolutely non-corrosive and 
permit free accessibility to the valve at 




Removing Packing Gland 



any time without strain or injury to 
same. The method used in securing the 
stem to the disc is novel, for in order to 
remove the disc from the stem it is only 
necessary to place the small square on 
the bottom of the disc in a vise or 
wrench and unscrew same by means of 
a wrench. 

Attention is called to the threaded 
part of the stem, which also is a feature 
of the Penberthy regrinding valve. All 
20 



threads are of full depth, clean-cut and 
true to standard. They are so designed 
that every thread is utilized when open- 
ing and closing valves, thereby overcom- 
ing all dangers from "stripping" 
threads. 



r 




Repacking 



Method of Regrinding. 

The method of regrinding, as illus- 
trated herewith, is a simple operation, 
and can be accomplished by first remov- 
ing the union ring or nut which fastens 
the trimming's to the body of the valve. 
This is easily done, as the threads which 
hold the ring to the body are outside 
of the latter, and are immune from cor- 
rosive action of scale or lime. When 
this is done, insert pin through the slot 
in the disc lock nut and hole in the 
stem, which firmly secures the disc to 
the stem. By applying a little oil and 
fine emery, or if this is not available, a 
little soap and fine sand to this disc, 
and returning the trimmings to the 
body, the valve is ready for regrinding. 
To regrind, allow the bottom of the hub 




[NCH SECTIONAL VALVE. 



MAR.INE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



23 



to work in the neck of the valve body, 
slightly elevated from the top, so as to 
cause the disc and seat to come in con- 
tact with each other, and by rotating 
the trimmings back and forth the re- 
grinding operation is accomplished. 
Care should be taken that all abrasive 
or foreign materials are removed from 
seat and disc before and after regrind- 
ing, also that small inserting pin is re- 
moved before putting trimmings back in 
place. When reground, the valve is as 
good as new, at practically no addition- 
al cost. 



from Trieste to Canada. Montreal will 
probably be the landing port in summer 
and St. John in winter. Mr. G. M. Bos- 
worth, vice-president of the C. P. R., 
would not confirm or deny the rumor. 
"The company," he said, "have not 
made any definite decision regarding such 
a service, and as the matter stands now 
it is only a rumor." 



Vessels Net Lives 
Number. Tonnage. Lost. 

Sailing .... 24 935 IS 

Steam 12 10,556 22 



NEW AUSTRO-CANADIAN LINE. 

The C. P. R., it is rumored, will 
shortly inaugurate an Austro-Canadian 
steamship service having a direct line 



BRITISH WRECKS REPORTED IN 

NOVEMBER. 
/ T S HE number and net tonnage of Bri- 
tish vessels respecting whose loss re- 
ports were received at the Board of 
Trade during the month of November, 
1912, and the number of lives lost are 
as follows: 



Total... 36 11,491 40 
The above table is a record of "re- 
ports received" in the month, and not 
of wrecks which occurred during the 
month. Many of the reports received 
in November relate to casualties which 
occurred in previous months. The fig- 
ures include the losses of eight sailing 
vessels of 384 tons belonging to British 
possessions abroad, involving the loss of 
the lives of six persons. Casualties not 
resulting in total loss of vessels and the 
lives lost by such casualties are not in- 
cluded. 



Rudd & Owen's 

ROSPHALTIC SOLUTION 

REQUIRES NO STIRRING. 

Complete homogeneityof the molecules insures 
greater elasticity and very much greater covering- 
power than is found in any other covering, 
rendering this Anti-corrosive the most eco- 
nomic arid the best ever applied to Iron. 



JAS. BUCKLEY 
1 15 St. Nicholas Building, 



Montreal. 



Reed's 

Engineers 9 Hand Book 

to the Board of Trade Examinations for Certificates of 
Competency as First and Second Class Engineers. 

Illustrated by 413 Diagrams and 40 large Plates 

This Book is not only a complete and up-to-date Hand 
Book to the B.O.T. Examination, but is also a valuable 
Cyclopedia of information on Marine Steam Machinery. 

Nineteenth Edition 14s. net. 

Off all Engineering Booksellers. By post, 15s. 6d. 

Complete Catalogue free on Application 

THOMAS REED & CO., Ltd. 
184 High Street West, - Sunderland, England 



MARINE ENGINEERING 

OF CANADA 

is edited and published with a view to providing for all sections of marine 
men, an attractive and newsy record of Shipbuilding, Engineering, Harbour, 
Port and Dock Progress and Development throughout the Dominion of 
Canada and over the World. 

One Dollar per year is our regular subscription rate 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 

143 UNIVERSITY AVE., TORONTO 

Date 1912 

Gentlemen, — 

Please find enclosed herewith $1.00, being subscription to Marine Engineering of Canada. 

NAME 

RANK OR POSITION 

ADDRESS IN FULL 



24, 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



ROBERT CURR 

Naval Architect and Marine Surveyor 

Plans and specifications furnished for all types 
of vessels. Careful attention to superintending 
of construction and repairs. 

Observatory Mariaggi Hotel. Port Arthur. Ont. 
Phone 1553 



ONE INCH SPACE 
$15 A YEAR 



THE DIXON MFG. CO. 

Mfrs. of 

High-Class Marine Gasoline Engines and 
Marine Motors, Experimental Machinery, 
Gray Iron, Brass and Bronze Castings. 
Repair work a specialty. 
Address: COLLINGWOOD, ONT. 
Tel. No. 164. 



BREWER & McBRYDE 

NAVAL ARCHITECTS • MARINE BROKERS 

142 Hastings St., Vancouver, B.C. 



15 years' 



practical experience designing all 
types of vessels. 



THOS. G. BISHOP 

ENGINEER AND MACHINIST 

Marine and General Repairs, Gas and 
Gasoline Engine Repairs a Specialty 

PHONE 38 
FOOT OF PRINCESS ST.. KINGSTON, ONT. 



DAVIS DRY DOCK COMPANY 

Builders of Wood and Steel Passenger 
Steamers, Tug, Steam and Gasolene 
Engines of all Descriptions. New 
catalogues February 1st. 

KINGSTON, ONTARIO 



Office 'phone 528. 



Privite 'phones 437 and 49 



Donnelly Salvage and 
Wrecking Co., Ltd. 

Kingston, Ont. 

Tugs, Lighters, Divers, Steam Pumps, 
etc., supplied on shortest notice. 

700 Ton Lighter with McMyler clam 
shell Derrick. 

Tug "Saginaw" has two 100-ton Pull- 
ing Machines with 4,000 feet of l£ inch 
Steel Cable, and two 3-ton anchors, 
always ready for work. 

JOHN DONNELLY, Pres. and Gen. Mgr. 



J. J. TURNER & SONS 

Peterborough, Ont., and Regina, Sask. 



The largest manufacturers and dealers 
in Canada of 

Sails. Horse Blankets, 

Tents, Lap Rugs, 

Flags, Canoes and Row 

Life Belts, Boats, 

Life Buoys, Vessel, Yacht, Boat. 
Waterproof Cloth- and Canoe Sails 

ing, made by Expert 

Coal Bags. Sail Makers. 

Tents to Order and Camping Outfits to rent. 

Write for Catalogue. 




With Exceptional Facilities for 
Placing 

Fire and Marine Insurance 

In all Underwriting Markets 



Agencies : TORONTO, MONTREAL, 
WINNIPEG, VANCOUVER, 
PORT ARTHUR. 



K5 




MORRIS, 
BULKELEY 
& HALLIDAY 



MARINE ENGINEERS 
and NAVAL ARCHITECTS 

Specialists in 

Steel and Wood Vessels 

17 Promis Bldg. 514 Hoiden Bldg. 

VICTORIA. B.C. and VANCOUVER, B.C. 



GEORGIAN BAY SHIPBUILDING 
& WRECKING COMPANY 

MIDLAND, ONTARIO. 

Yachts. Jugs, Dump Scows 
and Repair Work a Specialty. 
All Kinds of Wrecking and 
Diving. 



BELL TELEPHONE: 
Office No. 163 Residence No. 149 

P. O. Box 83. 
D. G. DOBSON, - General Manager 



ENGINEERS 

BOILERMAKERS 

BLACKSMITHS 




W. J. C. White 
22 Prince St. MONTREAL 



Phone M. 2435. 




59 ft. Canadian Tugs 

Hulls finished and marked for erection 
at shortest notice. 



Geo. Brown & Co. 



SHIPBUILDERS 



GREENOCK 



SCOTLAND 



MARINE ENGINEERINGS OF CANADA 



BRONZE- BRONZE 1 



At Th* JOINT 



MANGANESE BRONZE 



propJTler 

WHEELS 




We guarantee 
a 

Tensile strength 
of 75,000 lbs. 

We are the only 
firm that manufac- 
tures Manganese 
Bronze of this ten- 
sile strength. 



Write to-day for our descriptive booklet. 



Lumen Bearing Co. 

WESTON ROAD ard C.P.R., TORONTO, ONT. 



Solid Drawn Copper 
and Brass Tubes 

all classes of Seamless Brass and Copper Tubes for 
Locomotive, Marine and General Engineering Purposes 

Made to 

Builders' own specifications to "British Standard" 
or to British Admiralty Tests and Requirements. 

Now largely used in Canada by the 

Principal Locomotive Works. Car Builders, 
Railway and Shipbuilding Companies. 

MANUFACTURED BY 

The Yorkshire Copper Works, Leeds, Eng. 



SOLE AGENTS IN CANADA 

MACHAN & HEBRON 



55 St. Francios Xavier St. 

Send for our prices. 



MONTREAL 




No Rust 

No Corrosion 
No Leak 

No Trouble 

Dart Unions make connections in or 
out of line and time after time. 

Not affected by 
Expansion 

Contraction 

Vibration 

Dart Unions are efficient 

Guaranteed two for one to give 
you satisfaction in every way. 

Sold at Every Port. 

Dart Union Co., Ltd., Toronto, Can. 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Collingwood Shipbuilding Co., Limited 

Collingwood, Ont. 3 Canada 




Canadian Government Steamer "ESTEVAN"— 212 -200 v x 38 v x 17 -6. 
Built by Collingwood Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. 

Steel and Wooden Ships, Engines, Boilers, 

Castings and Forgings 

PLANT FITTED WITH MODERN APPLIANCES FOR QUICK WORK 

Dry Docks and Shops Equipped to Operate 
Day or Night on Repairs 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



CIRCULATES IN EVERY PROVINCE OF CANADA AND ABROAD 

Marine Engineering 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and development of Merchant and Naval Marine Engineering, 
Shipbuilding, the building of Harbors and Docks, and containing a record of the latest and 
best practice throughout the Sea-going World. Published by 
The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 

MONTREAL, Eastern Townships Bank Bldg. TORONTO, 143-149 University Ave. WINNIPEG, 34 Royal Bank Bldg. LONDON, ENG., 88 Fleet St. 

Vol. III. Publication Office, Toronto— February, ioi3 No. 2 

POLSON IRON WORKS, LIMITED 

TORONTO - - CANADA 

Steel Shipbuilders 
Engineers and Boilermakers 




Manufacturers of 

Steel Vessels, Tugs, Barges, Dredges and Scows 
Marine Engines and Boilers all sizes and kinds 

Works and Office : Esplanade Street East. Piers Nos. 35, 36, 37 and 38 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



THE WORLD'S LARGEST LINER 



S.S. " IMPERATOR " 



> 
■r. 
O 
K 
OS 

o 
o 

:- 
2 
<C 

Q 
OS 
O 

u 
w 

OS 
w 
Q 

o 




50,000 Tons. 



13 
M 
O 

►3 
> 

d 
z 

o 
z 

o 
w 

i-3 

z 
o 

W 

»— i 
O 
Q 
c/i 



The entire interior surfaces of the Enormous Bunkers 

(Compartments liable to severest corrosion.) 

Coated with BRIGGS' Bituminous 

ENAMELS AND SOLUTIONS 

WM. BRIGGS & SONS, Ltd., Dundee & London. 

Agents for Canada : 
MACDONALD & SONS, 176 King St. East, TORONTO. 



Dipper Dredges 

Clam Dredges 

Steel Scows 

Drill Boats 




Equipment of this nature together with Hoisting 
Engines of all kinds are specialties with us. 

Let us figure on your requirements. 

We have the experience necessary to build any- 
thing you need in this line and you will find our 
prices right. 

Send for descriptive matter now. 

M. BEATTY & SONS, Limited 
WELLAND ONTARIO 



The Doty Marine Engine and Boiler Co., Limited 

BUILDERS OF 

High Grade Marine Engines and Boilers 



Fore and Aft Com- 
pound Jet Conden- 
sing Engines. 

Fore and Aft Com- 
pound Surface 
Condensing Engines. 

Triple Expansion 
Engines. 

Stern Wheel Engines 

Double H. P. or 
Tandem Compound. 

Steam Capstans. 
Steering Engines. 

Windlasses. 
Hoisting Engines 
Etc. 




Scotch Marine 
Boilers. 

Fitzgibbon Boilers. 

Firebox Marine 
Boilers. 

Locomotive Boilers. 

Water Tube Boilers 
and 

Vertical Submerged 
Tube Boilers. 



1 lie above vessel is owned by The Canadian Dredging Co., .Midland. Out. The propelling engines, size 1G and 32 bv 26 in. 
stroke lore and Aft Compound, were built and installed bv us. The engines have given splendid satisfaction to the owners, 
who recently ordered a 15 and 30 by 24 in. stroke engine of the same type from us. We are also building the same size 
engine lor The Boone Dredging Co.. Toronto, and one of larger size for The bake Winnipeg Shipping Co.. Winnipeg, whom 
we supplied with twin engines two years ago; a number of smaller sizes for former customers are also under construction at 
our works. 

We obtain many repeal orders because to buy from us is a guarantee of satisfaction. Your enquiry will receive prompt attention. 

DOTY MARINE ENGINE & BOILER CO., LIMITED 

GODERICH ONTARIO 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



MAIM NK ENGINEERING OF CANADA 




SHIP CHANDLERY 




32 



f 
t 



OLD COUNTRY FIRMS 

FOR WHOM WE ARE 

SOLE CANADIAN AGENTS 



CLARKE, CHAPMAN & CO., LIMITED. 

Windlasses, Winches, Hoisting 
Gears, Electric Lighting, Steam 
Pumps, Marine Boilers. 

MURRAY, McVINNIE & CO., LTD. 

Cooking Ranges, Kitchen Utensils, 
Ship Chandlery, Second-hand Ship- 
yard Machinery of all descriptions. 

JOHN HASTIE & CO., LTD. 

Steam, Hand, Electric Steering Gears. 

ANSELL, JONES & CO. 

Reid-McFarland's Patent Steel Self- 
Lubricating Blocks. 

DARLINGTON FORGE CO. 

Steel Castings and Forgings. 

WOODITE COMPANY. 

Woodite Gauge Glass Washers. 



HOME RUBBER CO. (New Jersey, U.S.A.) 

N. B. O. Sheet Packing, Mechanical 
Rubber Goods. 

SHANKS & CO., LIMITED. 

Sanitary Appliances, Folding Lava- 
tories, Plumbers' Fittings, Baths, 
W.C.'s, Etc. 

GIBSON & JONES. 

Patent Gem Flue Cleaners. 

DOBBIE-McINNES, LIMITED. 

Nautical-Navigational Instruments. 

R. B. LINDSAY & CO. 

Lindsay Glasgow Patent High Pres- 
sure Piston Packing. 

HOSKIN & SON, LTD. 

Metallic Ships' Berths. 



WM. McGEOCH & CO., LTD., Ships' Hardware, Electric Fixtures, Lamps. 

J. & A. STEWART & CO., Lignum Vitae, Teakwood 
Mahogany, Hardwoods, Etc. 





WILLIAM 

TORONTO: Head Office. 



C. WILSON & CO. 



i 

Lock 24 Welland Canal, THOROLD, ONT. ! 



2 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 




Reliable Water Column 

With heavy water gauge 
mountings, marine gauge 
cock, high and low whistle 
alarm. 




Brass Binnacle on Polished 
Brass Pedestal 

We also make short patterns in dif- 
ferent styles, with or without com- 
pass. 




Electric Deck Light, 
Heavy Type. 



The Quality of 

MORRISONS' 

Engineers 
Supplies, 
Brass Goods, etc. 

Is the Best Assurance of 
Efficient Service 

We know that ships are subjected to 
a great amount of strain at times, 
and in making' goods for them we 
see that they are extra strong, so as 
to resist all strain and give longer 
and more economical service. 

We will be pleased to receive in- 
quiries on any goods in which you are 

interested. Our prices are right for 
that of unexcelled quality. 

Write to-day. 



The 

James Morrison Brass 
Mfg. Co., Limited 




J.M.T. Valve 

Renewable disc made stand- 
ard and extra heavy pattern, 
screwed or flanged. 



IN 2 



-12 m li 



93-97 Adelaide Street West, 



Toronto 



We make a large variety of 
Steam Whistles from 2 inch 
diam. to 14 ins. diam, — for all 

uses. 



The advertiser would like to know where you saiv hi* advertisement — tell him. 



Oil-E ngined Ship " Fordonian," Canadian Interlake Line, Ltd. 



The past year has been remarkable for development and progress in oil engine propulsion, 
applied to cargo vessels, and for the requirements of grain transportation on our Great 
Lakes, there is much to recommend its adoption on a large scale by shipping companies. 
We look for an increased number of vessels so equipped being added to the Lakes fleet 
during the coming season 



/ T S HE builders of the Fordonian, the 
Clyde Shipbuilding and Engineer- 
ing Co., Ltd., Port Glasgow, are the first 
firm on the Clyde to put to sea a vessel 
propelled by two stroke cycle Diesel 
oil engines. 

Vessel Features. 

The leading dimensions of the ship 
are 250 ft. long, 42 ft. 6 in. beam, 16 ft. 
10 in. moulded depth to the main deck, 
and 26 ft. 6 in. to the awning deck. The 
Fordonian has a 2-ft. frame pitch, and 
a deadweight cargo-carrying capacity of 
3.300 tons on 16 ft. 6 in. draught. The 
draught on service is restricted to 14 ft., 
and the dead-weight capacity is thus 



any one of the many locks through 
which she passes in her regular trading. 
There are two independent controls from 
the bridge to the engine-room telegraph, 
and the steam steering-engine is oper- 
ated by rods from the bridge. 

As with sister-ships, there are two 
masts with derricks on each, and the 
chart-house and navigating bridge are 
situated right forward. The rudder is 
balanced and is of large area. In the 
trials the vessel turned almost in her 
own length, and when the helm was put 
hard over she almost came to a dead 
stop. The propeller is 11 ft. 9 in. in di- 
ameter by 9 ft. pitch. 



round the whole of their periphery, and 
communicate with an exhaust-belt of 
large cross-sectional area running round 
the cylinder. The water spaces are 
large, as the elevation of the cylinders 
show, and ribs are cast on the inside of 
the cylinder to aid water circulation and 
to give to the cylinder-wall strength to 
resist the direct pull passing through it. 
Two Unit Arrangement. 
The piston of the Carels engine is in 
two pieces, the top piece being carried 
by a shoulder on the piston rod, and the 
bottom piece or shroud at its bottom, 
by another shoulder on the piston rod. 
The forming of the piston in two pieces 




FORECASTLE DECK 



FIG. 1. OIL ENGINBD SHIP "FORDONIAN" — CANADIAN INTERLAKE LINE. 



reduced to 2,200 tons. She is built to 
Lloyd's highest class for the Canadian 
Interlake Line, for grain-carrying on the 
Great Lakes. The vessel conforms to the 
standards of Canadian Lake practice in 
that she has a steering-pole out forward 
to make quite handy the control from 
the forward bridge, a large number of 
hatches, and inward opening cargo-doors 
on the port and starboard sides to facili- 
tate the rapid removal of cargo. The 
cofferdam at the forward end of the fore 
hold is unusual in such vessels, and is 
intended to preserve the cargo from 
damage should the ship spring a leak 
as a result of coming in contact with 



Propelling Machinery. 

The main propelling engine is a four- 
cylinder two-stroke cycle single-acting 
Carels type of Diesel oil engine. The 
cylinder dimensions are 460 mm. (18.1 
in.) diameter by 820 mm. (32.25.) stroke, 
and the engine runs normally at about 
100 revolutions per minute. It will be 
seen that in their main features, steam 
engine marine practice has been closely 
followed. The bed-plate is of cast iron 
and is of the usual marine design, hav- 
ing a flat bottom and being supported 
in the centre as well as at the sides. 
The cylinders have separate liners press- 
ed in, and the liners have exhaust ports 
21 



makes for simple castings, and when 
the high temperatures are considered, 
this is a desirable end. Water cooling is 
adopted for the piston. 

The arrangement of the engine into 
two units of two cylinders each permits 
of a two-piece crank-shaft in inter- 
changeable halves, of the vertical spiral 
drive for the valve gear being taken 
from the centre of the engine, and also 
of the scavenging-pumps being driven 
from the two centre cross-heads by 
links, as with the air-pump of steam-en- 
gines. The dimensions of the double- 
acting scavenging air-pumps are 27 1 / 4 
in. in diameter with a 23%-in. stroke. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



There is a ratio of free air compressed 
for scavenging to combustion air taken 
into the main cylinders of 1.65, which 
is higher than the usual practice. The 
pressure of the scavenging air is 3 lbs. 
per sq. in. There are four valves in the 
cylinder-head for the inlet of the scav- 
enging air to cope with the large volume 
of low-pressure air used in the engine. 

The exhaust is led down by bent cast 
iron pipes from the cylinder-belt to the 
main exhaust pipe running- along the en- 




EXGIXE DETAIL, "FORDO XI AN." 

gine to the cast iron silencer. These 
bends have internal water injection, and 
the silencer is also internally water-cool- 
ed and is of the cascade design. This 
very effectively silences the exhaust, but 
it is difficult to judge the combustion of 
the engine at the overboard exhaust, 
since the water must cleanse unbumt 
products. The exhaust is led overboard 
under the counter. The funnel is for 
the exhaust gases from the donkey- 
boiler. The crank-shaft is built up, 
since the large stroke-bore ratio permits 
of this construction, and the connecting- 
rod is standard marine practice. 



Lubrication. 

The system of lubrication is interest- 
ing. For the main bearings, solidified 
oil is used, for the crank-pin bearings 
the ordinary drip-feed suffices, and the 
bearing pressures for the main and 
crank-pin bearings are respectively 
about 300 lbs. and 650 lbs. per sq. in. 
For the lubrication of the cross-head 
bearing, a small lubricating-oil forcing- 
pump is attached to each crosshead, and 
worked by the swing of each connect- 
ing-rod. This system of lubrication per- 
mits of an open crank-case, and the bot- 
tom end bearings can always be easily 
felt by the engineer on watch. There are 
two guides for each, such being Messrs. 
Carels' practice for oil-engines. The 
piston is lubricated by four Mollerup 
lubricators, which force the oil between 
the piston and the cylinder; there are 
four inlets to the cylinder, arranged to 
enter on the fore-and-aft and athwart- 
ship centre lines. 

Valve Gear and Control. 

The feature about the valve-gear is the 
wedging action whereby the starting air 
is gradually cut out and the fuel-oil 
gradually cut in. This gives an even 
turning moment all the time. At the 
commencement, the air pressure, 800 
lbs. to 1,000 lbs. per sq. in., ensures that 
there is a large starting torque; fur- 
ther, the design of the starting-valve 
mechanism necessarily gives that large 
starting torque at all positions of the 
cranks, and the wedge action makes for 
an even turning moment throughout the 
period of engine acceleration. There is 
no shock due to the air being suddenlv 



cut off and the fuel suddenly cut in. It 
is a gradual process, the one merging 
into the other. 

The control of the engine is by means 
of one wheel and two levers on the 
starting platform; one lever X, fig. 2, 
controls the compressed air engine, 
which gives the cam-shaft its angular dis- 
placement by raising or lowering the 
vertical driving-shaft, and also gives the 
manoeuvring-shaft its fore-and-aft 
movement. The other lever, W, con- 




EXGIXE DETAIL. " FO R DO X I A X." 

trols the fuel. The wheel V, Fig. 2 which 
is operated by hand, gives the manoeuvr- 
ing-shaft its rotary motion. Hand 
control is also provided by the handle 
on the column, which actuates a shaft 
running fore and aft on the engine, and 
so sets all the fuel-pump suction-valves. 
The small dial seen above the hand- 
wheel indicates the position of the 
valve-gear. Although compressed air is 
used, as stated, for actuating the ver- 
tical shaft, causing the angular rotation 
of the cam-shaft and the rotation and 
displacement of the manoeuvring-shaft, 
emergency hand-gear may be used — viz., 
wheel T, Fi°-. 2. 




MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



The valve and manoeuvring-gear at 
first sight, may appear complicated, but 
this is not the case. It is true that, 
compared with some designs, it is com- 
posed of many parts, but the function of 
each is simple and definite. This vessel 
on her regular route from Montreal to 
Port Arthur must pass, each trip, 
through some 30 to 40 locks, and this 
demands manoeuvring qualities far 
above the average, and that the engines 
must be capable of being stopped, start- 
ed, and reversed in a very short time. 
Stopping from full speed ahead was on 
trial accomplished in two or three revo- 
lutions of the main engines, and re- 
versals from full ahead to astern took 
six seconds. A trial manoeuvring was 
made, and reversals were carried out 
from orders given from the bridge to 
correspond with the actual conditions 
in service of this vessel; 63 reversals 
were accomplished in 42 minutes, with 
more than half of the high-pressure 
compressed air still unused. The auxili- 
ary steam-driven compressor was, of 
course, in use for this trial. 

The system of having one fuel-pump 
for each cylinder makes for easy regu- 
lation of the quantities of fuel-oils sup- 
plied, and so permits of a very slow 
speed of revolution. On the trial trip 
forty-six revolutions per (minute was 
the minimum attained; but when the 
final tuning-up has been accomplished, 
and all cylinders at all speeds are devel- 
oping exactly the same power, a minimum 
speed of revolution of about thirty-five 
revolutions will no doubt be achieved. 
No governor is fitted, as rough weather is 
not normally encountered, and the heavy 
fly-wheel, some 9 ft. in diameter and 
about 7 tons in weight, is relied upon. 

Compressor Unit. 

The compressed air for the injection 
of the fuel-oil into the working cylin- 
ders, and also for the starting of the en- 
gine, is supplied by a Reavell's marine 
type reversible three-stage compressor. 
The compressor is an integral part of the 
Diesel engine, and as such is rightly 
driven from the main engine. The Rea- 
vell compressor is bolted on to the bed- 
plate at the forward end, and is driven 
by a pin off the crank-shaft. The 
stroke is 8 in. (7% in. net), allowing for 
the in. auxiliary ports; and the di- 
ameters are : two low-pressure cylinders, 
15 in.; one intermediate cylinder, 9^2 
in.; and one high-pressure, 4% in. The 
volume of free air per minute dealt with 
by this compressor is 6,200 litres, and it 
was noted on trial that the air was sup- 
plied cool. This is an important point, 
as explosions have been put down to lub- 
ricating oil in suspension in the heated 
air. This compressor has multitubular 
inter-coolers. 



As well as the main compressor and 
the scavenging air-pumps, the cooling- 
water and bilge pumps are driven off 
the main engine. The cooling water and 
bilge pumps are driven off the scaveng- 
ing air-pump links in the same way that 
these pumps are driven off the links of 
the air-pump with mercantile steam-en- 
gines. The bilge-pumps in this engine 
are of larger capacity than is usual, be- 
cause, it will be remembered, the cooling 
water from the pistons and guides drains 
to the bilges, as well as any leakage oc- 
curring with the plungers for water pis- 
ton-cooling. The cooling water from the 
cylinders and cylinder-covers is led to a 
trough placed high up in the engine- 
room, in which trough all discharges are 



vided is about one hour. The remainder 
of the auxiliaries are normal steam prac- 
tice, and call for no special mention. 

The weight of the main engine alone is 
about 100 tons, and if the auxiliaries are 
included, all ready for work, 150 tons 
is the weight of machinery aboard. 
There is fuel storage in two oil-tanks 
placed on both sides of the oil-fired 
donkey-boiler, and two ready-use tanks 
are placed aft of the engine-room, and 
are provided with steam heating coils, 
whilst the oil is filtered, on its way to 
the fuel-pumps of the main engines, 
through 15-gallon filters in the engine- 
room. In all, 105 tons of oil fuel is car- 
ried, whereas with the sister steamships 
250 tons of coal is required. The con- 




ENGINE DETAILS, "PORDONIAN.' 



visible. From there the water goes 
overboard. 

Auxiliaries. 

The auxiliaries are steam-driven from 
a cylindrical donkey-boiler, situated aft 
on the awning-deck in the fore part of 
the engine-casing. The boiler is fitted 
with the Wallsend Slipway and Engin- 
eering Company's oil-burning gear. The 
boiler uses exactly the same kind of 
fuel as the main engines. The auxiliaries 
are : the dynamo, auxiliary compressor, 
ballast-pump, oil-fuel pumps, three 
winches, a windlass, and steering-gear. 
The auxiliary steam-driven compressor 
is of half the capacity of the main com- 
pressor, and runs normally at 300 revolu- 
tions per minute. Air storage for start- 
ing purposes is provided by four welded 
steel bottles, of 23% in. diameter by 8 
ft. long, and that for fuel injection by 
one bottle, 1 ft. in diameter by 3 ft. long. 
The pressure of the fuel injection air 
and the starting air is 850 lbs. per sq. 
in., and for slow-running engines, such 
as this, this pressure is quite usual prac- 
tice. The time taken by the auxiliary 
compressor to fill up the air storage pro- 
23 



sumption per day for all purposes is 5 
tons of oil fuel, against 14 tons of coal. 

Fuel Consumption. 

The fuel consumption of this engine 
is 0.47 lb. per brake horse-power per 
hour, and this is good practice for two- 
stroke cycle engines with the scavenging- 
pump and air-compressor driven on the 
main engine. Inspection of an indicator 
diagram showed that combustion was 
good and that the bore-stroke ratio 
adopted by Messrs. Carels, together with 
the main features of the scavenging de- 
sign, ensured an efficient and complete 
combustion. The pressure of compres- 
sion is 490 lbs. per sq. in. The fuel in- 
jection line showed a good adjustment 
of the fuel-valve for the fuel used, 
which was Scotch shale oil. The mean 
effective pressure from this card is 90 
lbs. per sq. in., and is the usual figure 
under normal conditions, without any at- 
tempt at forcing. The indicated horse- 
power at 102 revolutions per minute and 
90 lbs. per sq. in. is 970; 10 knots were 
achieved with the engines doing 128 revo- 
lutions per minute. The maximum revo- 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



lutions were 140, the normal about 102, 
and the minimum, 46. The results will 
undoubtedly be improved upon when 
the engines are finally tuned up, as prior 
to the trial trip they had only been run 
in dock trials for twelve hours in all. 
This is exactly the same treatment as is 
given to steam-engines. 

The general arrangement of the en- 
gines and auxiliaries is well thought out 
to give the greatest possible immunity 
from breakdown. This is. a point of 
some importance with single-screw ships 
propelled by a comparatively new prime 
mover. This type of engine seems very 
suited to the propulsion of cargo boats, 
and the saving in space consequent upon 
the adoption of the Diesel engine for 
this ship is five frame spaces, aggregat- 
ing 10 ft., some 33 per cent, of the ma- 
chinery. 

@ 

A LARGE RUDDER. 

THE accompanying cut shows the 
rudder for the Allan liner Cal- 
garian, now being built in the yard of 
the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineer- 
ing Co., Ltd., at Govan, Glasgow. The 
rudder, which is believed to be the lar- 
gest ever made in two pieces — the top 
portion weighing 27 tons and the bottom 
portion 15 tons, came from the Sheffield 
Works of Cammell, Laird and Co., The 
spigot and faucet joint is planed, and 
the pieces connected by sixty 2Hin. di- 
ameter turned and fitted steel bolts. The 
body of each portion of the rudder has 
been cored out, leaving a wall of a mini- 
mum thickness of 2in. The stalk was 
cast solid and afterward bored out to 
ensure perfect soundness, and also for 
lightening purposes. 

The total height of the rudder is 26 ft. 
6in., the extreme width 21ft., and the 
total weight 42 tons. The casting w,as 
completely machined at Cammell, Laird's 
Grimesthorpe Works. The upper por- 
tion of the rudder, owing to the excep- 
tional overall size, was transported by 
road to Manchester docks, for shipment 
to Govan. Cammell, Laird have just 
completed and delivered' two similar 
rudders to the Fairfield yard, for two 
steamers for the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way Co., but these were slightly less in 
width and weight than that shown. 

@ 

THE CUNARD LINER AQUITANIA. 

O ') far as the shipbuilding industry of 
the Clyde is concerned, the greatest 
event of the present year will be the 
launch of the huge Cunard liner Aqui- 
tania by John Brown & Co., Clydebank, 
from which establishment and from 
practically the same berth, the Cunard 
Company's Lusitania was launched 



about six years ago. The precise date 
of the launch has not yet been officially 
announced, but it is understood that 
provisional arrangements are being made 
for floating the vessel either on Tuesday, 
April 22nd, or Wednesday, April 23rd. 
The hull of the vessel is fully plated 
from stern to stern, only a few open- 
ings having been left along the bilges for 
the admission of workmen and materi- 
als. All the decks, transverse and longi- 
tudinal bulkheads and other structural 
essentials have been completed. The 
standing ways are almost w 7 holly laid, 
and the work of temporarily fitting the 
sliding ways and launching cradle is very 
shortly to be proceeded with. 

Dimensions and Tonnage. 

The launching weight of the Aqui- 
tania, including launching cradle and 
sliding ways, will be somewhere in the 




RUDDER FOR ALLAN' LIXE S.S. 
CALGARIAN. 



neighborhood of 27,000 tons; in this res- 
pect exceeding the corresponding weight 
of the Hamburg- America Company's 
new leviathan Imperator, launched 
from the Vulcan yard at Stettin on May 
23rd last, and now approaching com- 
pletion at Hamburg. The gross ton- 
nage measurement of the German ship 
has been given as 50,000 tons, and that 
figure at least will be reached, if not con- 
siderably exceeded, by the new Cunard- 
er. Strict reticence, as is well known, 
has been maintained with regard to her 
exact dimensions, but it has been openly 
and frequently claimed, without correc- 
tion, that as regards dimensions, general 
arrangement, and propulsive efficiency, 
if not of absolute speed, the new vessel is 
intended to vie with the Imperator. The 
dimensions of the Imperator are: — 
Overall length, 919ft.; beam, 96 ft.; and 
tonnage, 50.000 gross. If, as is be- 
24 



lieved, the Cunarder is somewhere in 
the neighborhood of 900ft in length on 
the load-line, the advantage will lie with 
her as regards tonnage at least. 

Speed Feature. 

Regarding speed, there is doubt as to 
the intended qualities of the new Cun- 
arder as compared with those of her 
German rival, because in neither case 
has any certain pronouncement been 
made. Both vessels will be propelled 
by turbines driving quadruple screws. 
In the case of the German liner, the ag- 
gregate power to be developed has been 
given as 72,000 S.H.P. The turbine gen- 
erators are 18ft. diameter, the shaft- 
ing 18in. diameter, and the propellers 
16ft. diameter. It has been authori- 
tatively stated that the Aquitania has 
not been designed with the view of 
eclipsing, or even rivalling, the speed 
obtained by the 25 1 ^-knot Lusitania and 
Mauretania, but that, with the other 
great aims in her design, and construc- 
tion as a modern ocean liner of the 
highest class, a speed of 23 knots will 
content the owners; and, as is most 
likely, may quite satisfy the average 
voyager. 

Construction Provisions. 

The berth on which the Aquitania is 
being constructed,, while virtually that 
on which the Lusitania was built, was 
subject to some extension and consoli- 
dation for the much larger and heavier 
ship. Before laying the keel blocks in 
March, 1911, it was found necessary to 
lengthen considerably the berth and alter 
its angle to the river, principally to se- 
cure a freer launching run. To deal ef- 
fectively with the work of construction, 
the builders also installed a very com- 
plete arrangement of electric jib cranes 
having lattice girder standards. 

Structural Features. 

While no information as to structural 
detail or scantlings is available, it goes 
almost without saying that every care 
and attention ha 1 ? been given to the vital 
question of water-tight subdivision and 
life-saving appliances. In addition to 
numerous transverse water-tight bulk- 
heads extending well above the load 
water-line, the hull is subdivided by 
strong longitudinal water-tight bulk- 
heads arranged in a similar manner to 
those in the Lusitania and Mauretania. 
The new vessel has also a water-tight 
lower deck extending throughout her 
whole length. The total number of per- 
sons she will be capable of carrying ap- 
proaches 4,500. and the provision to be 
made in the way of lifeboat accommoda- 
tion—taking t ho form of ordinary life- 
boats, motor boats, and decked lifeboats 
with collapsible sides — will be ample 
for all on board. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Machinery and Hull Fittings. 

The turbines will be arranged in series 
upon the same system as that adopted in 
the case of the recently completed 
French liner France, and followed in 
the Imperator and the other two large 
vessels now being built for the Ham- 
burg-American Line. Steam will be pro- 
vided by cylindrical Scotcli boilers work- 
ing under forced draught. The after 
portion of the hull, corresponding to 
the "deadwood, " is cut away in the 
same manner as in the Mauretania and 
Lusitania. The stern frame, rudder 
and propeller brackets, which are of 
massive construction and of cast steel, 
were supplied by the Darlington Forge 
Co. — which firm was responsible for the 
same details not onlv of the Lusitania 



shafts 20ft. and diameter of bosses 4ft. 
3in. The distance between the forward 
and the aft brackets is 86 ft. 

General. 

The propellers and the rudder have yet 
to be fitted to the hull, but this, like the 
closing in of the shell, the painting of 
the huge structure, and the other neces- 
sary work pertaining to the launching 
make-up, will not overtax the working 
forces at Clydebank in order to have 
all in readiness for the 22nd or 23rd 
April. About one year will be occupied 
in completing the vessel afloat, and she 
should be ready for trials in the spring 
or early summer of 1914, the immense 
ship being thus completed within the 
period of two years. The Aquitania will, 



and west coasts of the Dominion. With 
regard to the Pacific coast, we are forced 
to the riinclusion that warship construc- 
tion there would be at present carried 
on under such difficulties as to supplies 
of labor and material as to render 
prices for the building of your proposed 
warships quite prohibitive. On tihe 
Atlantic coast our consideration of suit- 
able localities for the proposed works 
has mainly been confined to Sydney and 
St. John. 

Too Much Ice at Sydney. 

As regards the former, we cannot find 
that there is any prospect of immunity 
from serious interference during the 
winter from pack ice, which in our opi- 
nion would be most detrimental to the 




NEW C.P.R. LINER "EMPRESS OF ASIA." AS SHE WILL APPEAR WHEN COMPLETED. 



and Mauretania, but also of the White 
Star liners Olympic and Titanic. 

The stern frame and propeller brack- 
ets are cast of Siemens-Martin mild 
steel of special quality. The rudder is 
of solid cast steel, built in three sec- 
tions, while the rudder head, 25 inches 
outside diameter, is of forged ingot steel 
of the quality used for gun jackets. The 
weight of the stern frame and brackets 
is 130 tons, of which 50 tons is repre- 
sented by the main piece of the stern 
frame, which was cast in one piece; 33 
tons by the after brackets, and 35 tons 
by the forward brackets. The forward 
brackets have centres of shafts 57ft. 
and diameter of bosses 4ft. 3in., whilst 
the after brackets have centres of 



for a time at any rate, be the largest 
vessel sailing, under the British flag, 
although she will ultimately be deprived 
of this distinction by the White Star 
liner Britannic, now on the stocks at 
Belfast. 



HOW ST. JOHN LOST A SHIPYARD. 

p UBLICATION is made of the tender 
Messrs. Cammell, Laird & Co., Ltd., 
of Birkenhead, England, made to the late 
government for the construction of ships 
at St. John, N.B. In their tender they 
say : 

We have carefully studied the com- 
parative claims of numerous locations, 
both on the St. Lawrence and on the east 
25 



operations connected with the building, 
docking or repairing of vessels of every 
class, but especially with warships. We 
believe that strategically and practically 
the only location which will meet with 
approval is one in which there should be 
no possibility of interference from ice 
during the winter months. 

We have therefore decided upon St. 
John, N.B., as affording the most nat- 
ural and advantageous site for the pro- 
posed shipyard, dry dock and other as- 
sociated works, and we enclose two 
plans, No. 1 being a key plan show- 
ing the proposed site, and No. 2 being 
a complete proposition for a shipbuild- 
ing plant capable of handling the larg- 
est amount of warship construction 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



■which is likely to be required for many 
years. 

Started to Come Here. 

In order to acquire the site for the 
proposed shipyard, we have entered in- 
to negotiations with a firm of con- 
tractors located in Canada, and pro- 
vided satisfactory arrangements can be 
entered into with this firm in respect 
to the provision and handing over of 
the site with the necessary buildings, 
launching ships, etc., etc., we are pre- 
pared to equip the same with sufficient 
machine tools, power plant, cranes and 
other requisites for carrying out the 
programmes of your department. 

Our price for each of the four cruis- 
ers of the improved Weymouth type 
will be the sum of $1,950,000, and our 
price for each of the six destroyers of 
the "River" class of the Acorn type 
will be the sum of $580,000. The ves- 
sels when completed will be handed 
o\er to the Minister of the Naval 
Service in the harbor of St. John." 

Deposit Was Returned. 

Messrs. Cammell, Laird and Co. put 
up a deposit of $100,000. Their tender 
was the lowest. The old Government 
returned the deposits of all tenderers 
except Messrs. Cammell, Laird and Co. 
They did not, however, accept this 
tender, but left it to the new Govern- 
ment, which returned the deposit and 
decided on the new naval plan now be- 
fore the Canadian people. 

@ 

PRIZE FOR LEYLAND LINER. 

\TtT ITH one of the most valuable 
marine prizes brought to Halifax 
in recent years, the Leyland liner De- 
vonian, from Boston to Liverpool, ar- 
rived there on February 4, towing the 
crippled French liner Mexico, of the 
Compagnie General Transatlantique, 
from New York to Havre. 

Late Thursday evening, January 30, 
the Devonian, after an almost twenty- 
four hours search over the waste of 
waters south of Sable Island, directed 
only by the wireless "S.O.S. " call for 
help, succeeded in locating the Mexico. 
Shortly after midnight a cable had been 
passed to the crippled liner, and the 
prows of the ships were towed toward 
the nearest port of refuge — Halifax. 
At the end of four days of strenuous 
combat with head winds, huge seas, and 
adverse weather conditions, the Mexico, 
with her rescuer plowing along four hun- 
dred yards ahead, pulled into port, her 
propeller shaft broken, her decks washed 
by the seas, and her cargo so shifted 
that the ship had a list of fifteen degrees 
to the starboard. The Devonian re- 
mained in over night, sailing again the 
next morning, after having replenished 
her bunkers for the voyage to Liverpool. 



NEW STEAMER LINTROSE. 

Op HE mail and passenger steamer 
"Lintrose" which is being built to 
the order of the Reid Newfoundland Co., 
of St. John's, Newfoundland, at the 
Neptune Works of Swan, Hunter & Wig- 
ham Richardson Ltd., was successfully 
launched on Tuesday, January, 21. 

The vessel is very finely modelled and 
is exceptionally strongly constructed 
for running through ice, which she will 
frequently encounter on her service, 
between Newfoundland and the main- 
land. She is to have accommodation 
for over 80 first class passengers, includ- 
ing three special rooms for one pas- 
senger each and a ladies' room holding 
ten. The passengers will have a fine 
smoking room on the promenade deck 
and a dining saloon with ladies ' room on 
the shelter deck, all amidships. In the 
after part of the vessel there will be 
accommodation for 150 second class 
passengers. Both the promenade and 
:the shelter deck will form spacious) 
promenades for passengers. 

The steamer will be fitted with single 
screw triple expansion engines, 
supplied with steam by three 
large boilers, the whole being 
constructed at the Neptune Works. 
The machinery is expected to propel the 
vessel at a speed of 15y 2 knots per hour. 
She is 225 feet in length by 37 ft. beam, 
and in addition to the usual installa- 
tions of electric light, steam heating, 
etc., will be fitted with wireless tele- 
graphy. 

The christening ceremony was grace- 
fully performed by Miss Lois Reid. 
daughter of the President of the com- 
pany, and among those present at the 
ceremony were Mr. H. D. Reid, vice- 
president of the Reid Newfoundland 
Co. and Mrs. W. D. Reid, wife of the 
president of the company and others. 

— ® 

TITANIC DISASTER DELAYS SHIP- 
BUILDING. 

'TpHE Montreal superintendent of the 
1 White Star line, Mr. P. V. G. Mit- 
chell, states that one of the effects of the 
Titanic disaster has been to retard the 
construction of nearly every big vessel 
on the stocks of European shipbuilding 
yards, in order that additional safety 
appliances may be installed. Infor- 
mation has just been received in Mont- 
real that the mammoth liner "Olympic" 
practically re-built, will shortly leave the 
Belfast yards of Messrs. Harland and 
Wolff, and will sail from Southampton 
for New York on April 2. Into the 
'Olympic' there has been introduced an 
inner skin of heavy steel plates, continu- 
ing in effect the present double bottom, 
but bringing it well above the water line. 

*: 26 



and providing considerable additional 
protection throughout the hull. 

A number of additional bulk-heads of 
exceptional strength are being placed 
throughout the steamship, several of 
them reaching as far as the (B) 
deck which is forty feet above the water 
line. These new bulkheads and the new 
inner skin will greatly increase the 
liner's capacity for floating after .a 
possible injury, and enhance the margin 
of safety far beyond previously recog- 
nized standards. 

The new 'Britannic' is one of the 
vessels whose construction has been de- 
layed in order that she might benefit by 
the bitterly learned lessons of the 
'Titanic,' but this 50,000 ton triple screw 
steamer is expected to be ready for the 
Atlantic trade next year. Similar safe- 
guards to those which have been put 
i::to the 'Olympic' will be introduced 
into the 'Britannic' 

® 

THE HEIGHT OF BIG WAVES. 

O AILORS in modern times have never 
seen such waves as those described 
by early navigators, which were reported 
to rise to the height of 100 or even 130 
feet. La Perouse asserted that he saw 
waves in the Pacific towering to a height 
of nearly 200 feet. 

In these more prosaic days we can 
only say that the highest wave yet 
measured had an altitude of about 52 
feet. That was in the Southern Ocean, 
a little north of the Antarctic Contin- 
ent; and it is quite certain that the 
highest waves ever seen in that region 
did not exceed 58 feet. The highest 
waves ever observed in the Indian Ocean 
were about 40 feet, while those in the 
North Atlantic are from 25 to 29. and in 
the Mediterranean from 16 to 19 feet. 

Even the smallest of these mighty 
waves has great destructive power, for 
they often travel .at a speed of 25 miles 
an hour. A wave 30 feet high contains 
thousands of tons of water, and when 
this immense force is exerted against 
any structure, the ruin wrought is like- 
ly to be impressive. 

The great size of waves in high south- 
ern latitudes is explained by the fact 
that south of the Cape of Good Hope 
and Cape Horn there is neither wind- 
ward nor leeward shore, and the prevail- 
ing winds are westerly. Thus, when a 
westerly gale springs up, it finds a long 
westerly swell, the effect of a previous 
wind, still running. The newborn wind 
increases the steepness of this swell and 
forms majestic storm waves that some- 
times reach a length of twelve hundred 
feet from crest to crest. The average 
lieight in feet of sea waves is about 
half the velocity of the wind that caus- 
es them, reckoned in miles per hour. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



The St. Lawrence River Pilotage Investigation 

The commission appointed by the Dominion Government to in- 
vestigate pilotage conditions as they presently exist on the St. 
Lawrence, has commenced its sittings, and the accompanying 
data contain a condensed account of the proceedings vp to the 
time of our going to press. 



/ Tp HE inaugural sitting of the recently 
appointed Pilotage Commission, 
consisting of Captain Lindsay, wreck 
commissioner, Montreal; Mr. Thomas 
Robb, secretary of the Shipping Federa- 
tion, and Mr. A. Lachance, of the Que- 
bec Pilotage Association, took place on 
Thursday morning, February 13, in the 
Council Chamber of the Board of Trade, 
Montreal. The session was devoted 
chiefly to the administration of the 
Montreal Pilotage Association since its 
functions were taken over from the Har- 
bor Commissioners, dealing particularly 
with the apprentice pilot. 

In opening the session, Capt. Lindsay, 
who presided, read a communication 
from the Minister of Marine and Fish- 
eries, stating that the Commission owed 
its origin to the large number of strand- 
ings that have taken place on the St. 
Lawrence route during the past few 
years, for which the pilots have been 
held largely responsible. 

Capt. James Riley, superintendent of 
the Montreal Pilots' Association, was 
the first witness to be examined, and an 
inquiry into the personnel of those in 
charge of the piloting headquarters at 
Montreal and Quebec, and their duties 
and efficiency, was made. The matter 
of the pilot apprentices was then taken 
up and formed the feature of the in- 
vestigation. 

Apprentice Pilots. 

Capt. Riley said that at the present 
time the association was running short 
of apprentice pilots. The number of 
licensed pilots, he said, was limited to 
50. The apprentice pilot, during his 
long term of apprenticeship received no 
remuneration, while the requirements 
were severe and entailed years of 
service. Thirty trips must be made on 
the river by junior apprentices, and 
three trips to Europe, after which he 
graduates into the rank of selected ap- 
prentice, calling for fifty more trips be- 
fore he became qualified to have his 
name placed upon the waiting list. For 
this he received no remuneration, and 
even after having qualified he was liable 
to remain inactive on the waiting list 
for years, during which time he must al- 
ways hold himself in readiness for ser- 
vice. During his course of apprentice- 
ship he was also compelled to be in con- 
stant readiness to go up the river with 
regular pilots, which prevented his ac- 
cepting regular employment, and kept 
him idle. 



It is likely thai I his matter will be 
taken up by the commission, and efforts 
made to establish some basis of re- 
muneration for apprentices. Other mat- 
ters, such as courses to be laid down on 
the river, reports made by pilots when 
detention occurs, and the examination 
of pilots, were investigated. Referring 
to the examinations, Capt. Riley said: 
"They are very gruelling, and occupy 
about two days, the examinations being 
conducted by a committee appointed by 
the Minister of Marine and Fisheries." 

One Pilot for the Season. 

At the second day's hearing of the 
commission, the first witness examined 
was Mr. Leslie Ward, joint manager of 
the New Zealand Shipping Co., who said 
that the pilotage system adopted by 
them, that of employing one pilot for 
the entire season, was more satisfactory 
than the choosing of different pilots 
from the waiting list as they were 
needed. 

The Signal Service. 

Mr. Tancrede Robillard, who has 
charge of the Signal Service of Mont- 
real, was then examined, and questioned 
regarding the means of communication 
along the St. Lawrence route, and the 
facilities for reporting strandings, ob- 
structions, etc. He said that between 
Montreal and Quebec there were twelve 
signal stations, eight of which were in 
commission day and night. The ad- 
visability of having a night service for 
the remaining four was discussed, and 
action will probably be taken in this di- 
rection. Communication by telephone 
and Marconi in case of emergencies was 
also discussed. 

Mr. Alberto Angers, a member of 
the Pilot Association Committee, said 
that the pilots now on their list were all 
good men. were giving satisfactory ser- 
vice, and that no complaints had been 
received from the steamship companies. 
The question of special pilots selected 
by steamship companies was raised, Mr. 
Angers stating that this system met with 
the approbation of the Pilot Association. 

The Survival of the 'Fittest.' 

In dealing with the official waiting list 
or tour de role, as it is called, Mr. Ang- 
ers gave a luminous account of the trib- 
ulations of the old system before the 
waiting list was established. "Two pil- 
ots would get on a ship," he said, "and 
a fight would determine who took her 
up or down the river, while the amazed 
27 



Captain would be a silent onlooker, fear- 
ing to interfere lest both should desert 
him. Then, too, the pilots in those days 
had a disconcerting habit of getting 
drunk, and no association existed to 
reprimand them." 

Numerous practices were in vogue to 
secure the piloting of a ship, he contin- 
ued, oft-times the aspiring pilot getting 
a school boy to write a letter to the cap- 
tain informing him of the self-constitut- 
ed fact that he was the allotted pilot. 
This he would present saying, 'I am 
your pilot,' and if he was first on board, 
he probably would be, if no pilot of 
more muscular build arrived. The es- 
tablishment of the association and the 
tour de role, brought order out of this 
cliaos and to-day the system in vogue 
ran smoothly and satisfactorily. 

When asked where the pilots stood 
respecting compulsory pilotage, he said : 
"We don't want compulsory pilotage, 
and will take good care that it does not 
come," giving as his reason that it 
would make the Association responsible 
for damages. 

A Sensation. 

The mention of graft and corruption 
in connection with the employment of 
pilots by certain steamship lines creat- 
ed a stir. Mr. Angers was asked to pre- 
pare a written report regarding this mat- 
ter, and hand it to the Commission. Deal 
ing with the remuneration of pilots. Mr. 
Angers said, "There is no good living 
in it for anybody; one-fourth of what 
we earn must go for expenses. " 

Tariff Pilotage Fees. 

With regard to the tariff pilotage 
fees, Mr. Andrew Allan, who was the 
star witness, expressed himself willing- 
to see that tariff increased. He thought 
the Montreal pilots deserving of con- 
sideration, and from discussions that had 
taken place at meetings of the Shipping 
Federation, thought that many other 
shipowners would agree with him, but 
he was decidedly in favor of the system 
of special pilots, as otherwise the largest 
vessels would not come to Montreal. 

Suggestions re Apprentices. 

The chairman of the commission, Cap- 
tain Lindsay, made a suggestion of 
which more may yet be heard, that 
something might be done along the 
lines of the Mersey Harbor Board, to 
which apprentices on the Mersey are 
bound, receiving in return board, lodg- 
ing, and education free. On the Hoogly 
and the Thames, candidates for a pilot's 
license were apprenticed to Trinity 
House on somewhat similar terms. 

Commissioner Lachance suggested 
that the selected pilots ■ might be ap- 
prenticed to the Marine and Fisheries 
Department, and the suggestion seemed 
to meet with approval. The consensus 
of opinion among all present was that 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



selected apprentices should be main- 
tained during their apprenticeship, 
though there seemed considerable doubt 
as to who would do the maintaining. 

Captain Riley's Plan, 

Captain Riley finally submitted a sug- 
gestion, which met with much favor, 
for the amelioration of the condition of 
the selected apprentices. The other ap- 
prentices he pointed out could hire them- 
selves to barges and colliers and earn 
a livelihood without difficulty. During 
the last nine years, apprentices had been 
licensed at the rate of only five in two 
years. He thought the number of se- 
lected apprentices should be only four 
instead of seven, as they could then 
make their 50 trips in less time than 
now. Again, in October or November, 
they could be allowed to ship as third 
mates on seagoing ships for the winter. 
The Elder-Dem2ister Co. were often will- 
ing to allow candidates for a pilot's li- 
cence to ship as third mates. At present, 
the selected apprentices had to go to 
New York or Halifax to get a ship be- 
cause the navigation season was over 
by the time they had made their 50 
trips. The total number of apprentices, 
including the selected, should be limited 
to 20. 

Allan Line Regular Pilots. 

Among other features of Mr. Allan's 
evidence, in the course of which he paid 
a high encomium to the work done by 
Captain Riley, as superintendent of pil- 
ots, were that the Allan line employed 
five regular pilots on their steamers be- 
tween Montreal and Quebec. He be- 
lieved the system of special pilots was 
a very satisfactory one. The control of 
the pilots was much better vested in a 
master mariner of commanding person- 
ality and with ideas of discipline, than 
in such a body as the Harbor Commis- 
sioners. He was not there to pay com- 
pliments but Captain Riley's control of 
the pilotage system could not in the 
opinion of witness, be improved upon. 
No board could do as well, for it was 
unlikely that its members would have 
knowledge of the handling of ships and 
navigation. 

Mr. Allan also advocated that the 
present system of oral examination of 
candidates for the position of pilot 
should be supplemented by written 
papers, so that a record might remain of 
the candidate's attainments, especially 
in mathematics and navigation. He 
thought a pilot should be retired at the 
age of 65, but that a position on shore 
should, if possible, be found for him 
then, and recommended the signal ser- 
vice as a most suitable department for 
the employment of the superannuated 
pilot. 

Shortcomings of Pilots. 

A scene seemed likely when Captain 
Riley, superintendent of pilots, refused 



to produce certain papers for which the 
commission asked, on the ground that 
they related to past shortcomings on the 
part of certain pilots for which they 
had already been punished, and that to 
make the papers public would be. in 
effect, to punish the men again. Finally, 
Captain Riley yielded to the demand of 
the commission, under protest, stipulat- 
ing also that the contents of the papers 
should not be published. 

Earnings of Pilots. 

The evidence given by pilots at the 
morning session went to show that the 
emoluments of their calling are un- 
certain. Pilot Hamelin stated that he 
knew of one pilot last year who had 
made $4,000. He himself had made about 
$1,500, and the least any pilot had made 
was about $700. Another witness testi- 
fied that after taking a ship to Quebec 
he had waited there nearly three weeks 
before getting a ship for the return trip, 
and after deducting his expenses for the 
period, he was $5 short. 

A suggestion made by Pilot Angers 
appeared to impress the commission. It 
was in effect that all pilots should be 
placed on the tour de role, but ship- 
owners should be free to select the pilot 
they desired from the waiting list in- 
stead of being limited as to choice to the 
three first names. 

Reporting Accidents. 

"What makes Commissioner La- 
chance think accidents occur in the St. 
Lawrence River which are not report- 
ed?" asked Pilot Wilbred Gauthier. 
"Our orders from the steamship com- 
panies are to report accidents, and there 
is also a by-law to that effect, and Capt. 
Riley is very insistent that such reports 
shall be made. There was a rumor that 
the Tunisian had touched at Cap a la 
Roche. It was false, but because of it. 
Captain Riley returned my report for 
an account of the accident to be added, 
and I returned it to him saying there 
was nothing more to report. Coming 
up from Quebec we are always near the 
bottom and banks of the channel, and 
sometimes it is believed a ship has 
touched when she has not." 

Asked by Captain Lindsay as to what 
reports he had heard which inspired 
his question, Commissioner Lachance 
stated he had been told the Victorian 
had touched at Cap a la Roche and that 
no enquiry was held. 

Captain Lindsay explained that Capt. 
Riley always reported every accident, 
however slight, to Ottawa, and then ,if 
it was sufficient^ serious, the Marine 
Department ordered an investigation. 

Must Select Their Pilot. 

Mr. W. R. Eakin, manager for Mc- 
Lean, Kennedy & Co., said that his firm 
felt with regard to outside steamers con- 
28 



signed to them that they should have 
the privilege of selecting the pilot in- 
stead of being tied down to one of the 
three first names on the tour-de-role. 
His only objection to any pilot now on 
the tour-de-role was that he did not 
know what the man's abilities were. He 
had formerly known one man on the 
tour-de-role that he would not have for 
the Head line on any consideration. 

Mr. I). W. Campbell, who was the 
next witness, argued on somewhat simi- 
lar lines. Pilot Hamelin had for a num- 
ber of years proved himself a good man 
as pilot for the Elder-Dempster boats, 
but now he was leaving the line, as he 
was not making enough money, and so 
wished to go on the tour-de-role instead. 
Mr. Campbell wished that it might be 
made worth Hamelin 's while to stay by 
allowing him to pilot the number of out- 
side steamers consigned to the Elder- 
Dempster Co. as agents. The other 
pilots, however, objected to his piloting 
any but the South African .boats. These 
were the largest freight steamers out of 
Montreal, and were loaded with cargoes 
of exceptional value, and the owners ob- 
jected to be forced to take any pilot 
that might be on the tour-de-role. The 
pilot who handled a given steamer re- 
peatedly, became acquainted with the 
peculiarities of that steamer, and so was 
the best pilot for it. 

Competence of Captains. 

Mr. W. I. Gear, of the Robert Re- 
ford Co., expressed the opinion that a 
captain who had traded to the St. Law- 
rence for one year was competent to 
handle his ship without the assistance 
of a pilot. Mr. "Wilbrod Gauthier, pres- 
ident of the Montreal Pilots' Associa- 
tion, took exception to the view express- 
ed by Mr. Gear, and Pilot D. Perrault 
urged that a new branch should be es- 
tablished for pilots of slow vessels, as 
15 hours on the bridge was too much 
for any man. Pilots of slow vessels 
should be relieved at Three Rivers. 

Upon the suggestion of Mr. F. E. 
Meredith, K.C., who appeared for the 
Shipping Federation, it was decided to 
call a special meeting of the pilots to 
consider the proposal. The decision ar- 
rived at by this conference will be com- 
municated to the Commission when its 
sittings are resumed at Montreal. 

The Commission sat on Friday. Feb. 
21, at Quebec. 

® 

Prince Edward Island. — The Govern- 
ment will call for tenders shortly for 
the construction of ferry slips for the 
new car ferry service from Prince Ed- 
ward Island to the mainland. The tem- 
inals will be at Cape Traverse and Cape 
Tormentine, and their estimated cost 
will be from $1,500,000 to $2,000,000. 



PACIFIC 



Coast 



WIRELESS ON THE PACIFIC. 
/"vNE after another, in rapid succession, 
there are being - added aids to navi- 
gation all along the coast of British 
Columbia, making it already the best 
lighted and protected shore of any coun- 
try. The present Minister of Marine 
is especially wide-awake to the needs of 
shipping, and is anxious that nothing 
should be left undone that may add to 
the safety of the large amount of ship- 
ping which uses the waters of the 
Province. 

The line of wireless stations which 
has been set along the Coast is not 
equalled in any part of the Dominion or 
on any other coast. There are, to-day, 
ten of these in active operation, the 
tenth, which will be known as the Alert 
Bay Station, having been put into opera- 
tion recently. 

' ' C-F-D ' ' will be the eall for the new 
station, and needless to say, it will prove 
to be a great convenience to all shipping 
using the inner passage to the North. 
The station is perched on top of an 
eminence 150 feet high, and from it 
there will be a full view of all vessels 
passing north to south. It is at the 
upper end of Johnstone Strait, and 
vessels will be able to report their 
movements after leaving Chatham point. 



TWO NEW SHIPS FOR THE C.P.R. 

A N important statement of the plans 
of the Canadian Pacific Eailway in 
reference to their coast service was made 
by Captain J. W. Troup, general man- 
ager of the Britisli Columbia Coast Ser- 
vice, in Montreal, after he had consulted 
with the officials of the company. Cap- 
tain Troup is at present in Great Britain, 
having gone there to look into the ship- 
building situation and the possibility of 
securing early construction of two new 
steamers. 

Before he left, he gave a statement of 
the company's plans to the press, the 
tenor of which follows : 

"Two new steamships are to be built 
as soon as possible for the Britisli Col- 
umbia Coast Steamship Service to re- 
place the Princess Charlotte and Prin- 
cess Victoria, which are themselves new 
boats, but in view of the rapidly ex- 
panding business of the company on the 



Pacific Coast and elsewhere are required 
for assignment to other routes.'' 

Captain Troup admits that in view of 
the fact that the British shipbuilding 
yards are all congested with business, 
owing to the present boom in shipping, 
his mission is not an easy one, but he 
hopes to lose no time in placing an order 
for two very fast turbine steamers for 
the triangular route between Victoria, 
Vancouver and Seattle. 

He said the new steamers were each 
to be of about 5,000 tons register, speci- 
ally designed and adapted for the Bri- 



financial report was an encouraging one 
and a dividend of 10 per cent, per an- 
num and a bonus of 5 per cent, was de- 
clared, the dividend being out of earn- 
ings and the bonus from funds received 
in settlement of claim against the Craig 
Steamship Co., of Cleveland. The net 
earnings of the company for the year 
were $82,598.95. The officers elected 
were: President, T. I. Thomson, Owen 
Sound; vice-president, E. R. Wayland, 
Fort William; secretary-treasurer and 
managing director, Geo. E. Fair, Colling- 
wood : directors, T. I. Thompson, Owen 




RUDDER AND ONE OF THE FOUR PROPELLERS OF THE NEW C.P.R. 
LINER. EMPRESS OF RUSSIA. 



tish Columbia Coast Service, and it was 
intended that they should be the very 
finest steamers of their class. There was 
no fault to be found with either of the 
boats they will replace. The Princess 
Charlotte and Princess Victoria had 
more than come up to expectations, but 
they were wanted for other routes, as 
the business of the C.P.R. was expand- 
ing in all directions, so that it Avas diffi- 
cult to keep pace with eacli new require- 
ment as it arose. 



FARRER TRANSPORTATION CO. 

HE annual meeting of the Farrer 
Transportation Co. was held in 
Collingwood on January 28th, to receive 
the report of the directors and for the 
transaction of general business. The 
29 



Sound; E. R. Wayland, Fort William; 
E. Stubbs, Sault Ste. Marie; D. D. 
Lewis, Lorain; W. E. Allan, Toronto; 
W. T. Toner, Collingwood; M. Snet- 
singer, Thornbury; G. P. Pearsall, Col- 
lingwood ; John Shultis, Port Colborne. 

The directors discussed the question 
of building a new steamer, and it was 
practically determined that one of 12,000 
tons capacity should be in operation by 
the spring of 1915. Good contracts have 
been made for both the company's 
steamers for the season of 1913. The 
"Collingwood" will carry ore from the 
head of the lakes, while the "Meaford" 
is chartered to carry pulpwood from the 
Island of Antieosti to Thorold, for the 
United States Pulpwood Co. The char- 
ters for ore already reach fifty million 
tons. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



ANOTHER TRIUMPH FOR THE IN- 
TERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. 

By H. A. Wilson. 

/ Tp HE places in which the internal 
combustion engine can be utilized 
seem to be unlimited. Every little 
while some new situation presents itself 
and the gasoline engine seems to be 
especially adapted for use under the 
peculiar conditions set forth herewith. 
The case of a ferry on the Bay of 
Quinte. Lake Ontario, is only one of a 
number of instances where history has 
repeated itself. However, the story is 
an interesting one. In this ferry boat, 
several drives were used, each an im- 
provement on the previous one, the last 
being an up-to-date gasoline equipment. 
For years this ferry has been operated 
between Glenora and the historic vil- 
lage of Adolphustown. The first type 
of boat was a horse ferry. Two horses 
through the medium of tread mills were 
the prime movers in this primitive ferry. 
The paddle wheel was situated at the 
stern. 

The trade increased, however, and de- 
manded a boat more conveniently oper- 
ated. A new ferry was built having two 
side paddle wheels which could be oper- 
ated in either direction. This ferry was 
also driven by tread mills. By means 
of gears the power was transmitted to 
the wheel shaft. The reverse motion was 
accomplished by introducing an idler 
gear in the gear train. This boat did 
not fill the demands of the increasing 
traffic and was replaced by a steam ferry 
of the catamaran type, that is, one con- 
sisting of two separate hulls placed par- 
allel to each other, a few feet apart, and 
decked over. The engine was mounted 
on one hull and the boiler amidships as 
shown in Fig. 1. The paddle wheel was 
between the two hulls, about amidships. 
The engine was of the stationary, hori- 
zontal, slide valve type, and steam was 
not used expansively. The engine had to 
run both ways, but its original design 
as a stationary unit admitted of opera- 
tion in only one direction. However, re- 
versal was accomplished without the use 
of an additional eccentric, as is seen in 
Figure 2. The link motion there shown 
could be utilized onlv because of the 



fact that the steam was used non-ex- 
pansively. 

This engine propelled the ferry for 
years and gave excellent satisfaction, 
but was eventually superannuated and a 
gasoline engine installed in its place. 
The latter is also of the stationary type, 
being of the ordinary single cylinder, 
horizontal design, having a fly wheel on 
either side of the main bearings. It is 
rated by the builders at 20 h.p. The 
bore is 10 inches, the stroke 17 inches 
and its speed 250 R.P.M. By means of 
a simple adjustment of the governor, it 
can be operated with excellent economy 
at speeds considerably less than this. 
The engine is connected up to the pad- 



This mechanism and transmission have 
been in operation for several months in 
which time they have been given a thor- 
ough test in all sorts of weather and 
have proved entirely satisfactory. In 
fact this drive has proved itself to be 
far ahead of any of its predecessors. The 
operating expense is just about half the 
cost of steam, for two reasons. Firstly, 
because of the extravagant and prodigal 
use of steam, and secondly, because of 
the peculiar operating conditions. The 
ferry makes no regular trips but re- 
mains on one shore until a vehicle ar- 
rives for passage across the Bay; or she 
is signalled that a vehicle awaits her ar- 
rival on the opposite shore. Thus she 



When eccentric rod 
acTuaTes ra/se by 
This, Top pm enoine 
runs orer 



Viilse sTen, 




When eccentric rod 
drives r-alfe is 
Shovtfn engine runs 
u n de r " 



FIG. 2. ANOTHER TRIUMPH FOR THE INTERNAL, COMBUSTION ENGINE. 



die wheel in rather a unique manner. It 
is placed where the old steam boiler 
originally stood, as shown in Figure 3. 
The crank shaft extends through the fly- 
wheel and has an extension of several 
feet coupled to it. Two friction clutch 
pulleys are mounted on this shaft and 
between them is a yoke to which a wood- 
en lever is attached. When this lever 
is vertical, both clutch pulleys are re- 
leased and the shaft runs idle. If push- 
ed to the right, the right pulley clutches 
the shaft and drives, and vice versa. 
These pulleys are both belted to a coun- 
ter-shaft, one by a straight belt, and the 
other by a twisted belt. On this coun- 
ter-shaft are placed two wooden pul- 
leys, and this shaft is connected to the 
paddle wheel shaft by means of two 
sprockets and a heavy chain. Control 
of the equipment is thus extremely sim- 
ple. 



may run constantly for two or three 
hours, or may remain idle for as long. 
At best the traffic is intermittent and not 
conducive to economical operation under 
steam. The actual distance between the 
two landings is about a mile. 



INTERFERING WITH NAVIGATION. 

TN the days when the Clyde was navi- 
gable to Glasgow for only very small 
vessels, a steamer stuck in the mud near 
Renfrew and the skipper was not spar- 
ing in strong language. While waiting 
for the rising tide he saw a little girl 
approaching the river witli a bucket to 
fetch some water. This was too much 
for the poor captain, and, leaning over 
the side, he thus addressed her: ''If you 
tak' ae drap o' water oot here till I get 
afloat, I'll warm ver ear for't." 





n £ R. a o r+~> 

I 3E^ 


3ocl1 




6 1 










Boa. 1 





T-,,i.red ball 




FIG. 1. ANOTIIKU TRIUMPH FOR THE INTERNAL 
COMBUSTION ENGINE. 



30 



FIG. 3. ANOTHER TRIUMPH FOR THE INTERNAL 
COMBUSTION ENGINE. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



THE NEW ALLAN LINER 
"ALSATIAN." 

'Tp HE new Allan liner Alsatian which 
with its sister ship the Calgarian 
will ply between Montreal and Liver- 
pool, will ))e launched on the Clyde on 
March 8, and will sail from Montreal 
for the first time on July 1. The Cal- 
garian will be launched on March 19, 
and will sail from Montreal sometime 
during August. Both vessels are of 18,- 
tons register, and will make from 18 to 
20 knots an hour. They will represent 
in comfort, convenience, and spacious- 
ness, the apex of the builder's art. 
These steamers will be the largest liners 
sailing between Liverpool and the Do- 
minion of Canada. They will be driven 
by the latest type of turbine engines, 
operating four screws. The distribu- 
tion of the power over four separate 
shafts reduces the vibration to such a 
degree as to make it almost impercept- 
ible. 

The passenger appointments of the 
steamers will embody every up-to-date 
device for the enjoyment of ocean travel, 
including a most perfect system of heat- 
ing and ventilation. The fittings of the 
general rooms, which will occupy the 
entire structure on A-deck, will harm- 
oniously blend luxury and comfort, the 
decorations being entrusted to firms 
whose names are world-famous. The 
public rooms will comprise the lounge, 
library and reading room, the card room 



j 



and the smoke room. On the upper 
promenade deck there will be a cafe, 
smoke room, and gymnasium. The 
promenade decks — which will constitute 
a special feature of the ships — are of 
great length and spaciousness, with ex- 
tensive closed-in promenade for recrea- 
tion in all kinds of weather. The 
steamers will carry 250 first-class, 500 
second class, and 1,000 third class pas- 
sengers. 

Externally the "Alsatian" and "Cal- 
garian" will maintain the "Allan"' 



reputation for beauty and grace of de- 
sign. They will be fitted with two pole 
masts and two funnels, and a striking 
feature in their appearance will be the 
"cruiser" stern, hitherto peculiar to 
warships. Safety is, of course, the par- 
amount consideration, and the applica- 
tion of the latest design in ship con- 
struction and the adoption of the most 
modern equipment will be utilized to 
ensure this, including wireless tele- 
graphy and the latest submarine signal- 
linn apparatus. 

Two models of Allan ships have been on 
exhibition for some time at the Wind- 
sor Hotel, Montreal, and the House of 
Commons, Ottawa. These are the "Al- 
satian" above described, and the Brig 
Jean on which Captain Allan sailed to 
Canada in 1819. The latter was 76 feet 
long, just four feet longer than the 
Alsatian is wide. The models will 
shortly lie on exhibition in the King Ed- 
ward Hotel, Toronto. Nothing conveys 
to the eye, more strikingly, the immense 
advance made in Canadian shipping dur- 
ing the past century, than an inspection 
of these two vessel models side by side. 

— @ 

S.S. MANITOU BADLY BURNED. 

CONSIDERABLE damage was caused 
by a fire that broke out on Feb. 2, 
on the Dominion Transportation Co. 's 
steamer Manitou. The vessel was 



wintering at Owen sound, Ont.. Despite 
all that could be done, the vessel sank 
at her moorings. 

The loss cannot be ascertained de- 
finitely until the spring, when the ice 
goes out of the harbor, and the damaged 
boat can be raised. The Manitou was 
a wooden passenger and freight steamer, 
and plied between Owen Sound and the 
Manitoulin and north shore ports. She 
was built at Goderich in 1903, and since 
then has been on the Georgian Bay run. 
She was commanded successively 'by' 
31 



Captains Baxter, Wilson, Batten and 
McCoy. She was last season in com- 
mand of Captain Norman McCoy, of 
Owen Sound. Her tonnage was about 
three hundred. 

The origin of the fire is a mystery. 
A short while before it was noticed, 
Captain Batten, in whose charge the 
Dominion Transportation steamers) 
winter, was on board the Manitou, 
and at that time there was no indica- 
tion of fire. 

© 

R. & O. NAVIGATION ANNUAL. 
/ "pHE annual report of the Richelieu 
& Ontario Navigation Co. for 1912, 
to be mailed to the shareholders, shows 
net profits of $976,512. On the paid-up 
capital stock at the close of this year, 
this would represent a little less than 10 
per cent. On the average paid-up capi- 
tal stock of the year, however — the stock 
on which the company was paying divi- 
dends from quarter to quarter — the net 
profits were equivalent to 13.13 per 
cent., a much more favorable showing 
than was anticipated. 

After meeting dividend requirements, 
adding $36,000 to insurance fuDd and 
writing-off steamers, $75,817, the com- 
pany carried forward out of the year's 
profits $269,531 to surplus, bringing the 
total surplus up to $708,780. The gross 
receipts of the company were $4,495,157, 
operating expenses, $3,345,053, and fixed 
charges $172,091. 

The President's report refers to the 
ordering of a new boat from the West- 
ern Dry Dock Co, of Port Arthur, Ont., 
for the Canadian North-West traffic, 
which boat will be considerably larger 
than the Hamonic. 

. @ 

U. S. NAVY ON THE GREAT LAKES. 

TXT" ITH a view to strengthening the 
naval militia organizations of the 
Great Lakes, the United States navy de- 
partment has recommended more train- 
ing vessels of modern construction for 
the sailors of the inland seas, and a plan 
is being worked out for the establish- 
ment of a school of instruction for mili- 
tia officers. The construction of eight 
militia ships is asked for by the depart- 
ment officials. These would be small 
tug-boats to be used by the States for 
practice purposes, and would be mobil- 
ized with the regular fleet of the navy 
in time of war. 

© 

OLYMPIC READY FOR SEA AGAIN. 

*"p HE alteration and partial recon- 
struction of the steamship Olympic, 
of the White Star Line, is practically 
completed. The vessel was towed out of 
Belfast drydock to deep water on Feb- 
ruary 19. The alterations have cost 
$1,250,000. 




ALLAN LINE NEW STEAMSHIP "ALSATIAN." 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



The MacLean Pub. Co., Ltd. 

(ESTABLISHED 1888.) 
JOHN BAYNE MACLEAN ... President 
H. T. HUNTER - General Manager 

PUBLISHERS 

MapjneEngineering 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and develop- 
ment of Merchant and Naval Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, 
the building of Harbors and Docks, and containing a record of 
the latest and best practice throughout the Sea-going World. 



H. V. TYRRELL, Toronto 
PETER BAIN, M.E., Toronto 



Business Manager 
Editor 



OFFICES: 



CANADA 

Montreal— Rooms 701-702 
Eastern Townships Bank 
Bldg. 

Toronto— 143-149 University 
Ave. Phone Main 7324 

Winnipeg — 34 Royal Bank 
Bldg. Phone Garry 2313 



GREAT BRITAIN 

London— 88 Fleet St., E.C. 
Phone Central 12960 
E. J. Dodd 

UNITED STATES 

New York— R. B. Huestis 
115 Broadway 
Phone 2209 Rector 
Chicago — A. H. Byrne, 
Room 607, Marquette Bldg. 
140 S. Dearborn St. 



Cable Address: 
Macpubco, Toronto. Atabek, London, Eng. 

SUBSCRIPTION RATE. 

Canada, $1.00: United States, $1.50; Great Britain, Australia and 
other colonies, 4s 6d., per year; other countries, $1.50. Advertis- 
ing rates on request. 

Subscribers, who are not receiving their paper regularly, will 
confer a favor by telling us. We should be notified at once of 
any change in address, giving both old ind new. 



Vol. Ill 



FEBRUARY, 1913 



No. 2 



SHIPBUILDING A STAPLE INDUSTRY FOR 
CANADA. 

FEW days ago, representatives from the leading 
shipbuilding concerns established in various parts of 
Canada waited on the Federal Premier, Mr. R. L. Borden, 
and laid before him their ideas on the subject of the nec- 
essity of Government assistance in propagation of their 
enterprises. It was pointed out that a restricted sphere 
of operation was only, meantime, possible on account of 
the free import of Canadian registered, British built ships. 
In a word, protection of some effective kind was sought 
to offset the preponderance of production cost in favor 
of Great Britain. 

The extension of the scope of the shipbuilding and 
marine engineering industry in Canada is generally ac- 
cepted as but the natural outcome of the progress and 
development made during recent years, and the expressed 
desire on the part of her citizens to emulate the achieve- 
ments of the Motherland, with respect to her own require- 
ments as well as the winning of international maritime re- 
nown. As a "Nation within an Empire,'' no difference of 
opinion, amounting to anything material, exists relative to 
duty to ourselves and to the Emipre whose nurture and 
protection has contributed so largely to our present status. 
Our industrial record continues to expand in well estab- 
lished engineering and manufacturing pursuits concur- 
rently with agricultural and mineral wealth development, 
and in addition to the features of die protection of our 
shores, our transportation needs fall to be accounted. 

The proposal to aid the Imperial Navy will meet with 
its strongest support by propagating already established 



shipbuilding and marine engineering industries, and by 
furthering an increase in their numbers and scope. Read- 
ers of and advertisers in Marine Engineering of Canada 
have a large interest in this question, for in no one other 
individual completed product of man's inventive and con- 
structive genius do so many accessory industries live, 
move and have their being. Shipbuilding and marine en- 
gineering embraces within its scope our iron and steel 
plants, our foundries and our machine shops, and, need- 
less to say, in numerous cases, equipment for these com- 
pares on equal footing with the requirements of other 
sections of the engineering field. 

The reported establishment by the United States Steel 
Corporation of an extensive plant on Canadian territory 
indicates the drift and trend of iron and steel trade affairs, 
and although much of the detail already arranged in this 
and other directions has been accomplished under cover 
of the increasing of our great railroads, the fact remains 
that the broader field, consequent on what might almost 
be called the inception of a new industry, that of ship- 
building and marine engineering, is the goal furnished 
by the provision being made to meet an early future de- 
mand. Again, the extensions to and modernizing of old 
established steel and iron foundries, machine shops, etc., 
in all of the leading industrial centres of the Dominion, 
have for their objective a coming boom time in Canada's 
trade and commerce, and anticipate, in no uncertain man- 
ner, the institution, on a much larger scale than hitherto, 
of the shipbuilding and marine engineering industry. 

® 

THE PILOTAGE COMMISSION INVESTIGATION. 

HATEVER may be the outcome of the investiga- 
tion by the Pilotage Commission now sitting, it is 
generally agreed by those who have followed events on 
the St. Lawrence River below Montreal during recent 
years, that much room for improvement exists in the 
pilot system, and that the sooner confidence is restored in 
the men who are given control of the navigation of big 
liners in the conrined waters of our great national high- 
way, the more rapid will be the development and progress 
of this Dominion of Canada. 

The pilots have a tour de role or waiting list, from 
which vessels entering the river are supposed to have a 
choice of the first three names. So afraid are the big 
shipping companies to trust to this tour de role, that 
one at least has threatened to keep its vessels away 
from Montreal rather than trust thein to pilots indis- 
criminately. 

Much has been said at the various hearings concerning 
the difficulties which beset the path of the St. Lawrence 
apprentice pilot, making it difficult to keep the organiza- 
tion up to a high state of efficiency, and this, coupled with 
other deficiencies all contribute to the stigma attaching 
to the St. Lawrence Route, and to the high insurance 
rates there prevailing. 

We trust that the three men who have been appointed 
to conduct this investigation will leave no stone unturn- 
ed until the pilot system on the St. Lawrence is placed 
on a pedestal of the highest efficiency. 
32 




MabineNews 



Ottawa, Ont. — Letters patent have 
been isstfed incorporating Ocean 
Freight Line, Limited," of Toronto, with 
$100,000 capital. The company is auth- 
orized to build or buy and operate ships. 

Fort William, Ont. — There are locked 
up in this harbor, awaiting the opening 
of navigation, 24 vessels containing T2y 2 
million bushels of grain. In the eleva- 
tors there are lQVz million bushels, 
making a total of 32 million bushels, 
which is a new record. 

Vancouver, B.C. — A company of Van- 
couverites, headed by Mr. E. H. Heaps, 
is planning a new steamship service from 
Montreal to Vancouver, by way of Pan- 
ama. 

Kingston, Ont. — For the first time this 
winter, on Feb. 7, ice made between here 
and Wolfei Island. This is the latest 
closing of navigation here in many 
years. 

Ship's Surgeon. — All doubt as to the 
eligibility of women for the position of 
ship's surgeon, has been set at rest by a 
Scottish steamship company, who recent- 
ly engaged a woman to fill that post on a 
liner bound for Australia. 

The Malay States Dreadnought for the 

British navy will be christened "The 
Malaya." She will have a displacement 
of about 29,000 tons, will carry eight 15- 
inch guns and several smaller weapons. 

The "Imperator". — The TIambourg 
American liner Imperator, biggest steam- 
ship afloat, will make her first trip from 
Hamburg on May 28 instead of May 7, 
as originally scheduled. The change in 
the plan of the line has been made to 
give ample time for an extended trial 
trip. Under the new schedule the Im- 
perator should arrive in New York on 
June 4. 

St. Lawrence Pilot. — The first edition 
of the St. Lawrence River Pilot (Below 
Quebec), comprising sailing directions 
from Portneuf (north shore) and Father 
Point (south shore) to Quebec, has just 
been published by the Hydrographic 
Survey, Department of the Naval Ser- 
vice of Canada. Copies will be sup- 
plied to mariners free of charge on 
application to the Hydrographic Survey 
Office, Department of the Naval Service, 
Ottawa. 




E/lW Source 



ZZ222Z2222Z2222: 




Halifax, N.S.— Furness, Withy & Co- 
owners of the steamship Rappahannock, 
have libelled the steamship Uranium for 
$50,000 services in hauling the steamer 
off the rocks at Chebucto Head. George 
Brister, owner of the steamship Bridge- 
water, which had previously been en- 
gaged in similar work to the Uranium, 
has also libelled her for $30,000. The 
case will come up in the Admiralty 
Court. 

Fort William, Ont. — Three thousand, 
eight hundred and twenty-four (3,824) 
vessels registered at the port of Fort 
William during 1912 as compared with 
3,028 duiing 1911. The total tonnage of 
vessels during 1912 was 6,733,386 tons, 
and for 1911 was 5,514,810 tons, an in- 
crease of 1,218,576 tons. 

Vancouver, B.C. — Owing to the rapid 
growth of business in this port, the 
Canadian Pacific Railroad Co. find it 
necessary to build another new pier 
from the foot of Granville Street, about 
500 feet Ions', the contract for which 
has been let. 

Vancouver. — The work of converting 
the "Princess Sophia," the newest of 
the C.P.R. steamers on the Pacific Coast 
service, from coal burning to that of 
oil, has been completed, and the vessel 
made her first trip recently. The. Prin- 
cess Sophia will later on go into the 
Alaskan trade. 

Sault Ste. Marie. — A deputation repre- 
senting the municipalities of Southamp- 
ton, Port Elgin and Kincardine, headed 
by Col. Clark, M.P., and John Tolmie. 
ex-M.P., waited on the Government on 
Thursday, Feb. 12, to ask for a subsidy 
for a regular steamship service between 
Southampton and Sault Ste. Marie, and 
also for an appropriation for a break- 
water and dredging at Southampton. 
Sympathetic consideration was promised. 

Quebec, Que. — The discomfort and in- 
convenience to passengers arriving on 
the Intercolonial after midnight in not 
being able to cross to Quebec still exists. 
The Board of Trade has decided to bring 
the subject again before the Minister of 
Railways, and point out to him the fact 
that the government is bound to furnish 
service to passengers arriving at Levis 
33 



after midnight, and who have purchased 
tickets to Quebec. 

Fort William.— The Algoma S. S. Co. 
has purchased two freighters from the 
Gilchrist Co. They are the Saturn and 
Uranus. Both are steel boats and will 
be used carrying rails from the Soo to 
Fort William. They are 340 ft. long, 
48 ft. beam and 28 ft. deep and were 
built in 1901. 

Toronto, Ont. — The Department of 
Public Works at Ottawa has awarded 
the Poison Iron Works a contract for 
machinery for a dipper dredge. The 
amount is $38,000. 

Vancouver, B.C. — A well-known officer 
of the Chinese customs, who was known 
to the mariners who sail between this 
port and the Orient, died recently in 
Shanghai in the person of Capt. Charles 
N. Palmer. 

Collingwood, Ont. — The Collingwood 
Shipbuilding Co. have closed a contract 
with the Pelee & Lake Erie Navigation 
Co. for a steel combined passenger and 
freight steamer for the route between 
Pelee Island and Rondeau Harbor. The 
steamer will be 145 feet long, 24 feet 
wide and 18 feet 3 inches deep, and will 
be driven by triple expansion engines, 
with cylinders 12y 2 in., 21 in. and 34 in. 
in diameter, and a stroke of 21 inches. 
Steam will be supplied by one Scotch 
boiler 12 % feet in diameter, and 10% 
feet long. The specifications call for a 
speed of thirteen miles an hour, and for 
delivery early in July. 

St. John's, Nfld. — The annual meeting 
of the Phoenix Whaling Co. was held re- 
cently at Job's Office. The directors 
were all re-elected for the current year. 

St. John's, Nfld.— The Reid Co.'s. 
dock hands are busy repairing the com- 
pany's fleet of steamers this winter. 
When those in port are done, the Glen- 
coe, Invermore, and Bruce will come here 
for their annual overhauling. 

Montreal. Que. — The Lake Champlain 
and Lake Erie, which are to be used in 
the C.P.R. Austro-Canadian service have 
been renamed. The Lake Champlain be- 
comes the Ruthenia and the Lake Erie 
the Tvrolia. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Collingwood, Ont. — The St. Lawrence 
and Chicago Steam Navigation Co. 's. 
steamship, which is under construction 
at Collingwood, will, it is claimed, be 
the largest carving boat on the Canadian 
lakes. Her dimensions are as follows: 
Length over all, 550 ft. ; length between 
the perpendiculars, 529 ft.; beam, 58 ft.; 
depth, moulded, 31 ft. ; estimated carry- 
ing capacity, 10,000 tons. She will be 
equipped with triple expansion engines, 
with cylinders 24, 40 and 66 ins. diar., 
by 42 ins. stroke, supplied with steam 
by three Scotch boilers 13 ft. diar., by 
11 ft. long, at 185 lbs. pressure. The 
furnaces, which will be equipped with 
forced draught, will have a grate area 
of 45 ft. to each boiler. She is being- 
built with side tanks, six compartments, 
and there will be 31 hatches, spaced 12 
ft. centres. She will not be launched 
until nearly completed. 

Vancouver, B.C. — A new combination 
marine slip and elevator is being in- 
stalled for the C.P.R. at the wharf where 
the Seattle and Victoria boats leave. 

St. John, N.B.— With part of the 
bridge broken and one of her propellers 
missing, the C.P.R. liner Montfort, Cap- 
tain Davidson, steamed into this port on 
the morning of Feb. 18, disabled, and 
crawled up to her berth at Sandpoint. 
The steamer left Antwerp on January 
28, taking twenty days to make the trip 
which ordinarily would have been made 
in two weeks at the outside. Rough 
weather was encountered soon after the 
Montfort put to sea, and the big ship 
was buffeted about like a toy. On Feb. 
5, while steaming along at a fairly good 
rate, one of the propellers broke off. 
Head winds and gales were encountered 
daily and considerable damage was 
done. The Captain reported having 
passed a derelict when off Cape Sable. 
There was practically no trace of any- 
thing to show what it was, with the ex- 
ception of a mast sticking above water. 
Captain Davidson said that he had seen 
practically no ice on the trip. 

Toronto.— The St. Lawrence and 
Chicago Navigation Company held their 
annual meeting last month end, in 
Board of Trade Building. The direc- 
tors were again re-elected as follows: 
President, W. D. Mathews; vice-presi- 
dent, J. H. G. Hagarty; managing direc- 
tor, A. A. Wright; board of directors, 
E. B. Osier, C. S. Gzowski, J. R. Crow, 
James Oarruthers and R. Crangle. 

St. John's. — At the annual meeting 
of (lie tidewaiters, lockers and bontsmen, 
of H. M. Customs, W. Kelly was elected 
president ; S. Garland, treasurer and J. 
White, secretary. 

Montreal, Que.— The Montreal Har- 
bor commission lias awarded a contract 
for a 1.500,000 bushel addition to its 



elevator No. 1, to John S. Metcalf Co., 
Montreal. This will make the total 
capacity of this elevator 2,500,000 
bushels; while elevator No. 2, recently 
completed by the same firm, has capac- 
ity for 2.600.000 bushels. The addition 
will be of reinforced concrete and steel, 
and will cost aproximately $700,000. 

Welland, Ont. — Two wharves have 
been built on the canal at Welland, and 
arrangements are now being made to 
erect a large warehouse for in and 
out freight. 

St. John, N.B. — Fire did several 
thousand dollars' damage on the dredge 
Beaver, employed by the Federal Gov- 
ernment in St. John Harbor, on Feb., 
12. 

Port Colborne, Ont.— The Government 
elevator here, has had a wonderfully suc- 
cessful year. With a capacity of 750.- 
000 bushels, it handled last year 12,- 
100.000 bushels, which is the largest 
quantity handled by any elevator on the 
lakes, except the Grand Trunk elevator 
at • Tiffin, which handled 13,680,000 
bushels, but its capacity is two million 
bushels. 

C. G. S. Estevan.— The Estevan is 
making splendid progress on its long 
trip around to Victoria, B.C. The Col- 
lingwood Shipbuilding Co. received a 
cable from Coronel. Chili, stating that 
the steamer had arrived at that port on 
Saturday. January 25th, and that all 
were well. 

Parry Sound. — Appointments to the 
fleet of the Pittsburg S. S. Co. have been 
made for the ensuing season. Those 
which interest mariners in this section 
include Capt. J. F. Parke to the steam- 
er House, Capt. C. J. Grant to the 
Lynch. Capt. Neil Campbell to the Mor- 
gan Jr.. Capt. J. Narstadt to the Gary, 
Capt. J. Gemmell to the Houghton. 
Capt. A. P. Chambers to the Palmer, 
and Capt. Allan Collins to the Reid. 

Vancouver, B.C. — An application on 
behalf of creditiors to wind up the Im- 
perial Car & Drydock Co., and the ap- 
pointment of a liquidator was recently 
made by Mr. E. J. Grant in Supreme 
Court chambers and assented to by Mr. 
Justice Clement. No opposition from 
the company was offered, though Mr. J. 
E. Bird, solicitor for Messrs. Barrett & 
Deane, asked for a stay until next week 
in order that he might see his clients. 
A liquidator was appointed . 

® 

SHIPBUILDING AT PORT ARTHUR. 

'TP 11 E plant of the West era Dry Dock is 
A working at high pressure 1" conclude 
all contracts now on hand. Besides the 
construction of two steamers, the plant 
34 



has the repairing of a number of vessels 
admitted to the docks at the close of 
navigation. These include the Turret 
Crown, the Saskatoon and the Acadian 
of the Canadian Inter-Lake line. The 
Acadian is undergoing a general over- 
haul. A large number of worn-out plates 
have been removed from her bows, and 
new ones are being placed. Besides this 
work, the boilers and engines are being- 
gone over. 

The Saskatoon is undergoing similar 
repairs, but in addition to the placing 
of new steel plates in her hull, she will 
receive many interior improvements. 

The Turret Crown is drawn up at the 
side of the boiler works. For a repair 
job she represents more work than any 
of the other vessels. Her boilers have 
been removed, the engines are being re- 
paired, and new masts constructed. 
The Calgarian. 

The Calgarian. launched on the 28th 
of December, is rapidly nearing com- 
pletion. Her engines, and boilers will be 
installed during February. In the gen- 
eral interior layout, she will be practi- 
cally the same as the Hamiltonian. The 
company fully expect to have this boat 
ready for the opening of navigation. 

The new power house of the shipyard 
is completed, and in operation. 

© 

WHY THE MAYFLOWER SANK. 

'■p HE report of Mr. R. A. Pringle, K.C., 
who investigated the Mayflower 
wreck near Barry's Bay, in which nine 
lives were lost on November 12th, was 
presented to the Minister of Marine on 
February 6. 

The findings show gross negligence 
and infringement of the shipping act 
on the part of the vessel's owners, Hud- 
son Brothers of Combermore, one of 
whom went down with the vessel. The 
cause of the wreck was the parting of 
the hull seams, due to heavy strains 
from the machinery. Alterations on 
the vessel had weakened her. 

The Mayflower sailed for a whole sea- 
son without a certificate, despite re- 
peated warnings from R. Davis of 
Kingston, inspector of hulls, who had 
refused a certificate because there was 
no qualified captain. Commissioner 
Pringle finds that Davis should have 
seized the vessel, but Davis took the 
ground that this was the duty of the 
customs department. 

Hudson the owner is censured for 
sailing without a lifeboat, for with it all 
on board might have been saved. The 
lifeboat, however, got damaged the day 
previous to the foundering and had as 
a consequence been left behind. 

Commissioner Pringle recommends a 
special official to see that vessels not 
complying witli the Shipping Act be not 
allowed to ply in Canadian waters. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



MR. GEORGE HANNAH HONORED. 

'T^HE transportation men of Montreal, 
— both navigation and railway— paid 
tribute on Wednesday night, Jan. 29, to 
the sterling character and faithful ser- 
vices of Mr. Geo. Hannah who, after a 
career of forty-five years with the ship- 
ping companies of New York and Mont- 
real, retired from his position as pas- 
senger traffic manager of the Allan 
Steamship Company on the last day of 
the old year. A banquet was given 
him in the Canada Club by fifty of his 
confreres, who expressed their regret at 
his retirement in reminiscent speeches, 
and in the presentation of a handsome 
silver tea service, the tray of which was 
suitably engraved. The tray was handed 
to Mr. Hannah by Mr. R. F. McFarlane 
of the White Star line who has spent 
thirty-seven years with the steamship 
companies of this port, and who is now 
the oldest official, in years of service, in 
the transportation offices of the city. 

Reminiscences. 

The guest of the evening was in re- 
miniscent mood and spent most of the 
time occupied by his address in recalling 
shipping conditions of a generation ago 
and contrasting them with those of the 
present time. He had crossed the 
Atlantic Ocean, he said, one hundred 
times before he was twenty-one years of 
age as he had spent nearly six years at 
sea before he eatere 1 a shipping office. 
Those were the days when candles or 
flickering oil lamps were the only lights 
on board the best liners, while the 
vessels were either full-rigged or barque 
rigged, with a steam plant to aid them 
if necessary. Nine knots per hour was 
the rate of speed for the passage. 
He recalled the long list of captains with 
whom he had become acquainted during 
his years of service — most of whom had 
"crossed the bar" to see "their pilot 
face to face." 

When he came to Montreal twenty 
years ago, there were only five British 
lines running regularly to American 
ports, four of those being to New York 
and one to Montreal. Now there were 
six British lines in this port alone, and 
a corresponding increase in every other 
shipping line entering the port. 

Shipping Represented. 

The chair was occupied by Mr. W. G. 
Annable of the C.P.R. Atlantic Steam- 
ship Line, while around the tables were 
representative of every railway and 
shipping line that enters the city. 

Appreciation of the work and worth 
of Mr. Hannah was voiced by Messrs. 
C. T. Bell, of the Grand Trunk, W. A. 
Coates of the Robert Reford Company, 
H. F. Bradley, the newly appointed 
traffic manager of the Allan Line, Geo. 
H. Ham, C.P.R., Robt. Kerr, former pas- 



senger traffic manager of the C.P.R. 
steamships, who had travelled from 
Toronto to be present, F. J. McClure, 
Robert Reford Co., P. V. G. Mitchell, 
White Star line, C. J. Smith, Richelieu- 
Ontario Co., Guy Tombs, C.N.R., and 
W. A. 'Wain wright, Allan line. 

Mr. Hannah's Career. 

Mr. Hannah was born in Glasgow, in 
1846, and came to the United States to 
settle in New York in 1866, where he 
completed his education in the Brooklyn 
High School and Brooklyn Tabernacle 
College, graduating in 1868. In Feb- 
ruary, 1868, he began his long career in 
the steamship business as a junior clerk 
in the passenger department of the 
Inman Steamship Co., whose agent at 
New York was Mr. John G. Dale. Mr. 
Hannah filled various positions with the 
Inman Line, until it was sold to Messrs. 
Peter Wright and Sons, and became the 
Inman and International Steamship Co. 
ia 1887. 

His services, however, were too valu- 
able to be dispensed with, and he was 
re-engaged by the new firm and placed 
iu charge of their First Cabin Depart- 
ment. At the end of 1892, Mr. Hannah 
retired from his position after twenty- 
five years' consecutive service With the 
Inman and International Steamship 
Companies. Towards the end of 1892, 
he came to Montreal to manage the 
passenger department of the Allan 
Line. From this position he retired 
on December 31 last. 

© 

PORT NELSON OR FORT 
CHURCHILL? 

WORD has been received from H. T. 
Hazen, the Government's harbor 
engineer expert, who has been survey- 
ing the harbors of Fort Churchill and 
Port Nelson, that he will arrive in 
Ottawa towards the middle of February. 
Chief Engineer Armstrong, of the Hud- 
son Bay Railway, is already there. Im- 
mediately upon his arrival , Mr. Hazen 
will lay his report before the Minister 
and Chief Engineer, and upon his report 
will depend whether or not the Govern- 
ment finally selects Port Nelson as the 
terminus of the road. Uuless Mr. 
Hazen has found that there are insur- 
mountable obstacles, or that the cost of 
keeping the harbor in shape is too ex- 
pensive, Port Nelson will be the choice 
on account of being much nearer the 
wheat fields of the West, and better 
grades for the lines. 

As soon as Mr. Hazen's report is ap- 
proved, preparations will be made to 
send an expedition with dredging plant 
and all necessary equipment to the Bay, 
to start work first thing in the Spring 
on the harbor construction. 

: 35 



LINE WANTED TO WEST INDIES. 

'TlIE Hon. Geo. Foster made the an- 
nouneement in the House of Com- 
mons, recently, that he had for some- 
time been devoting personal attention to 
the prospective conclusion of an arrange- 
ment, under which a fast and modernly- 
equipped shipping service would be in- 
augurated between Canada and the West 
Indies. I am telling no secrets, said 
Mr. Foster, when I say that Canada 
must make up its mind to pay well for 
the service. We must secure a service 
which in speed and modern comforts 
and facilities is able properly to handle 
passenger and freight traffic. It has 
been found difficult to get strong reli- 
able firms to enter into a contract. 

Dr. Pugsley asked as to the truth of 
the report in the New York papers that 
a contract had been closed with the 
C.P.R. for the service with a subsidy of 
$400,000 per year, but Mr. Foster re- 
iterated that he had no information to 
communicate at the present time 

@ 

NEW SHIPYARD FOR CANADA. 

HpHE English shipbuilding firm of 
Swan, Hunter and Wigham Richard- 
son are now considering entering the 
Canadian shipbuilding trade, according 
to the statement of Clarence I. DeSola, 
Canadian director of the firm. For some 
time, said Mr. DeSola, this firm has been 
considering the matter, and it has now 
been definitely decided that if a Can- 
adian navy is to be constructed in 
Canada, the great Wallsend-on-Tyne 
firm will tender. Already, in fact, it 
is understood land has been purchased 
by the firm in Montreal, Quebec and 
Halifax with the object of providing for 
shipyards. All classes of skips would 
be built, including battleships and mer- 
cb antmen. 

@ 

FUEL BRIQUETTING. 

/ Tp HE subject of fuel briquetting is 
dealt with in a short pamphlet re- 
cently issued by the United States 
Geological Survey Department of the 
Interior. It contains an account of the 
progress made in the United States in 
the manufacture of fuel briquettes. In 
1911 there were twenty-one plants in 
the United States which manufactured 
compressed fuel, an increase of five over 
1909. Four of these plants were oper- 
ated only for experimental purposes. Of 
those which operated on a commercial 
basis, eight employed anthracite as the 
raw material, two used bituminous coal, 
two utilized semi-anthracite, one em- 
ployed refuse from oil-gas works, one 
utilized peat, and three used mixed ma- 
terials. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



IMPROVE HARBORS AND CANALS. 

STIMATES for the fiscal year end- 
ing March 31st, 1914, were tabled 
in the Dominion House on February by 
the Minister of Finance. These main 
estimates call for a total appropriation 
of $179,152,183, an increase of $9,925,815 
as compared with the estimates for the 
current fiscal year. The sum of $250,000 
is asked for a new ice-breaker steamer 
for the St. Lawrence, and $145,000 for a 
fisheries petrol steamer for Lake Winni- 
peg. Expenditures upon canals charge- 
able to capital include: $500,000 for- 
waterway improvements at French 
River, and $2,000,000 for the Welland 
Canal construction. 

General Harbor Improvements. 

Ontario River and harbor improve- 
ments are to be continued where now in 
progress. There is also a vote of $30,- 
000 to acquire land for harbor purposes 
at Port Credit; $50,000 for harbor im- 
provements at Oshawa; $15,500 for 
wharf extensions and repairs at Brigh- 
ton; $500,000 for harbor improvements at 
Toronto ; $50,000 for the construction of 
a shelter basin at Sarnia ; $75,000 for 
harbor improvements at Trenton. 

The ports of Quebec and St. John, 
N.B., are to be liberally improved. Two 
million dollars are appropriated for Que- 
bec harbor, including drydock, and St. 
John is granted $2,G00,000 for general 
harbor improvements. 

The votes for harbors and rivers in 
Ontario include the following: 

Beaverton harbor improvements, $44.- 
000; Belle Ewart ,wharf, $8,500; Belle- 
ville, harbor improvements, $50,000; 
Brockville, wharf improvements, $18,- 
000; Brighton, wharf extension and re- 
pairs, $15,500; Burlington, revetment 
wall, etc , $25,000 ; Callendar, wharf ex- 
tension, $7,000 ; Cobourg, reconstruction 
of centre pier, $20,000; Cobourg, to re- 
pair east pier and extend breakwater, 
$73,500; Collingwood, harbor improve- 
ments, $75,000 ; Goderich, harbor im- 
provements, $200,000; Haileybury, har- 
bor improvements, $9,500; Hamilton, 
harbor improvements, $225,000 ; Kem- 
penfeldt Bay, wharf, $10,500. 

Kingston, harbor improvements, $150,- 
000; Leamington, repairs to, wharf, 
$1,400 Madawaska River, deepening 
channel, $5,000; Montreal River, im- 
provements above Latchford, $50,000; 
New Liskeard, harbor improvements, 
$19,500; North Bay, breakwater and re- 
pairs to wharf, $10,000; Orillia, wharf, 
$9,400; Oshawa, harbor improvements, 
$50,000 ; Owen Sound, harbor improve- 
ments and repairs, $27,000. 

Parry Sound, Wharf, $72,000: Pelee 
Island, repairs to docks, $3,700; Picnic- 
Island, improvements of channel, $100,- 
000; Port Bruce, extension of west pier. 
$7,000; Port Burwell, harbor improve- 
ments, $99,000; Port Colborne, repairs 



t oeast breakwater, $20,000; Port Credit, 
purchase of property for harbor, $30,- 
000; Port Hope, wharf repairs, $4,000; 
Port Stanley, harbor improvements, 
$132,000; Providence Bay, Manitoulin 
Island, extension of wharf and con- 
struction of warehouse, $33,000. 

Rainy River, improvements, $50,000; 
River St. Lawrence improvement, of 
Canadian channel between Kingston and 
Brockville, $40,000; River Thamet. re- 
moval of obstructions, etc., $3,100; Ron- 
deau harbor, wharf extension, $1,500 ; 
Sand Point, wharf repairs and improve- 
ments, $1,900; Sarnia, shelter basin, 
*50,000. 

Sault Ste. Marie, wharf repairs, $26,- 
000; Sault Ste. Marie, harbor improve- 
ments, $150,000; Sea Gull, extension to 
wharf, etc., $13,500; Southampton, re- 
pairs to Chantry Island breakwater, 
$4,900; Stokes Bay, repairs to wharf, 
$1.500 ; South Lancaster, wharf repairs, 
$1,500 ; Telegraph and Nigger Islands, 
dredging, $30,000; Thornbury, harbor 
improvements. $75,000 ; Trenton, harbor 
improvements, $75,000; Whitby, harbor 
improvements, $22,000 • Windermere, 
wahrf, $2,000: Windsor, landing dock 
and improvements.- $77,000. 

® 

SHIPBUILDING AT LEVIS, P.Q. 

A contract was recently awarded to T. 

Davie & Sons, Levis, to build six 
steel scows for the Department of Public 
Works. A big screw-hopper dredge for 
the Marine and Fisheries Department, 
is also under construction, and is near- 
ir.2" completion. 

History of the Davie Co. 

The history of the Davie firm is closelv 
linked with the story of the shipbuild- 
ing industry in Canada. During the 
years of the French regime, and later, 
until iron vessels displaced wooden ones, 
the harbor of Quebec was a great ship- 
building centre, both on the Levis and 
Quebec side of the river. The ship- 
yards carried on a thriving business, 
which readied its zenith in 1864 during 
the American Civil War, when more than 
100 ships were built and over 5.000 
ship carpenters were employed. 

It was during this period of develop- 
ment that Mr. Geo. Taylor laid the 
foundation of what was later to become 
the shipbuilding business of Geo. T. 
Davie & Sons, at Orleans Island. In 
1827, Mr. Taylor received a silver cup 
from the Government on the completion 
of t he "Kinsfisher." In 1830 the busi- 
ness was transferred to Levis. Mr. Alli- 
son Davie taking charge. Eventually 
Mr. Geo. T. Davie, his son, succeeded him 
under whose able management it has 
expanded to its present proportions, 
Salving Appliances. 

At the present time their ship-yards at 
Levis are equipped with the most per- 
36 



feet known appliances for the salving- 
and repairing of damaged vessels, and 
the firm owns a number of wrecking 
steamers. This is additional to their 
shipbuilding plants, the upper yard of 
which has a patent slip 500 feet long- 
capable- of accommodating vessels up to 
5,000 tons. 

It is quite evident that the picturesque 
old square rigger and her trim sister 
crafts, which have played so important 
a part in the development of the Brtish 
Empire, are gradually disappearing, 
never to return. Fulton's clumsy and 
slow-going "Clermont," 100 feet over 
all, has grown in a single century to the 
palatial trans-oceanic liners of the 
present day. 

Future Shipbuilding Development. 

While no determined effort has been 
made in the direction of steel ship con- 
struction in Canada, this question is one 
of the active issues before Canadians 
at the present time. Canada 's progress 
will force developments along this line, 
and, already, plans for the establish- 
ment of such shipbuilding plants are 
under way. Montreal as the comn 
mereial capital of the Dominion, and 
with her great manufacturing establish- 
ments, will necessarly participate in the 
development of this industry to a con- 
siderable extent. 

Recently representatives of Swan it 
Hunter and Wigham, Richardson, Ltd.. 
of Newcastle, and Doxford & Son, of 
Sunderland, looked over the possible 
sites for yards in Montreal., These 
gentlemen are naturally reticent with 
regard to the nature of the report that 
(hey will submit to their firms on their 
return, but it is understood that they are 
impressed with the improvements at that 
port due to the presence of the floating- 
dock, and with the fact that the Can- 
adian Vickers, Limited, contemplate the 
erection of a ship-repairing plant in its 
vicinity. 

® 

NEW AIDS TO NAVIGATION. 

Ji/f R. A. Johnston, Deputy Minister of 
the Department of Marine and 
Fisheries of Canada, has notified Presi- 
dent Livingstone of the Lake Carriers' 
Association of several changes in aids 
to navigation which will become effective 
with the opening of the lake season this 
year. 

A steel cylindrical gas buoy will be 
placed to mark the north end of the 
shoal extending nortlnvard from Stag 
Island in the ^ St. Clair River. The 
buoy will be moored 1,200 feet from 
Stag Island upper light on the west side 
of the St. Clair River. It will be sur- 
mounted by a pyramidal steel frame 
supporting the lantern, which will show 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



an occulting white Light. The buoy will 
be red with black horizontal bands. 

A red gas and bell buoy showing an 
occulting white light will replace the 
gas buoy in prolongation of the north- 
eastern edge of the dredged channel of 
Thunder Bay, Port Arthur. The new 
buoy will be of steel, surmounted by a 
steel frame supporting a bell and 
lantern. 

A square, white pyramidal concrete 
beacon fifteen feet high will be placed 
on the rock awash between Mink Island 
and Sister Islands in Victoria Channel, 
Lake Superior. 

Attention is called to the fact that the 
mast and drum surmounting the beacon 
pier northeastward of Jackstraw Shoal, 
Thousand Islands, in the St. Lawrence 
River, is painted black, and not red as 
reported in Canadian lists of lights. 

® 

PLAN TO OBSTRUCT ICEBERGS. 

A RTIFICIAL obstruction of the Lab- 
rador Current, passing over the 
Grand Banks of Newfoundland, and a 
scheme to prevent the encroachment of 
icebergs and fogs in the North Atlantic, 
are the purposes of a bill introduced 
in the* U.S. Congress, on Jan. 18, by 
Representative Calder, of New York. 
The bill proposes the creation of a 
board to be known as the Labrador 
Current and Gulf Stream Commission, 
to be composed of a naval officer and 
two other competent persons appointed 
by the President. 

Commission Instructions. 

The commission is charged with the 
duty of investigating and reporting as 
to the feasibility and cost of causing an 
obstruction to the Labrador Currentj 
and to ascertain by practical experi- 
ments the best means that can be em- 
ployed to create a deposit upon the 
Grand Banks of the sand and other 
sediment carried by the Labrador Cur- 
rent. 

The commission is further instructed 
to report on the effects of such an ob- 
struction :- — 

First — In preventing the encroach- 
ment of icebergs and fogs in the course 
travelled by the trans-Atlantic steamers. 

Second — The effect upon the Gulf 
Si ream and other currents. 

Third — The effect upon the climate 
of countries in the northern hemisphere 
on both sides of the Atlantic. 

Fourth — The probable effect upon the 
fogs of the coast of the United States, 
Canada, the British Isles, and upon the 
waters thereabouts. 

Fifth — Any other effect of such ob- 
struction, not specifically mentioned, 
which may be discovered and deemed 
worthy of note for scientific or other 
purposes. 



The commission shall also make a 
thorough investigation of the current 
and sub-currents of the ocean which 
would be influenced by the proposed 
obstruct ion, and especially the probable 
effect upon the disintegration of the 
warm, north flowing Gulf Stream, which 
now occurs by its meeting the cold 
flowing Labrador Current. 

The sum of $100,000 is placed at the 
disposal \of the commission, which is 
directed to report within two years. 

® 

MARINE MEN'S ANNUAL DINNER. 

O EVERAL important announcements 
V - J of Ministerial policy were made 
to the members of the Dominion Marine 
Association at their annual dinner, held 
at the Royal Ottawa Golf Club. Mr. Jas. 
Playfair, of Midland, retiring president 
of the association, occupied the chair. 
The Hon. Frank Cochrane, Minister of 
Railways and Canals, intimated that the 
lock gates of the new Welland Canal 
would be 30 ft. in depth, in order to 
provide for the development of traffic 
on the great lakes. The depth of the 
canal for the present will be the same as 
the American locks at 'the Sault, 24% 
ft., but the new canal will be so con- 
structed that at any time when the locks 
on both sides of the St. Mary's River 
are deepened to 30 ft., the new Welland 
Canal can be dredged to the same depth. 

Steel Shipbuilding. 

The Hon. J. D. Hazen, Minister of 
Marine, in a most pointed manner, ex- 
pressed his warm sympathy with the 
movement to encourage steel shipbuild- 
ing in Canada. He also stated that Can- 
ada would co-operate with all organiza- 
tions on the great lakes in resisting the 
efforts of the Chicago drainage authori- 
ties to reduce the level of the great 
lakes or the St. Lawrence. 

Officers Elected. 

The association elected the following 
officers: President, L. Henderson, Mont- 
real; First Vice-President, A. E. Mat- 
thews, Toronto; Second Vice-President, 
H. W. Richardson, Kingston. Executive, 
E. E. Horsey, Kingston; S. V. McLeod, 
Sault Ste. Marie; J. W. Norcross, Tor- 
onto; Frank Plummer, Toronto; H. H. 
Gildersleeve, Sarnia; F. S. Wiley, Port 
Arthur, and A. A. Wright, Toronto. 

@ 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. — The promoters 
of a dry dock have succeeded in financ- 
ing the enterprise in England. Messrs. 
Pethwick Bros., Ltd., of Plymouth and 
London, have undertaken the work at a 
cost of $1,000,000. Construction will 
commence April 30, 1913, and the dry 
dock must be completed by October 1, 
1914. 

37 



A NEW BOILER SCALE REMOVER. 

A N interesting method of removing 
scale from boilers has just been 
introduced to the Canadian market by 
the Dominion Specialties, Ltd., 44 Adel- 
aide Street West, Toronto. The me- 
thod consists in introducing into the 
boiler a heavy viscous fluid called Pero- 
lin. This preparation is of German 
origin and has long been favorably 
known all over Europe, where factories 
for its manufacture exist in nearly 
every country. Three years ago its 
manufacture was also commenced in the 
United States, where Perolin is said to 
have been wonderfully successful and 
widely adopted. 

Strictly speaking, Perolin is not a 
boiler compound, since its action is en- 
tirely different to that of the usual 
chemical compounds. Its peculiar pro- 
perties are that it does not dissolve the 
scale or scale-forming sediment, but, 
having a strong affinity for the heated 
metal of the boiler, separates the scale 
from the metal, mechanically leaving a 
preservative film on the water covered 
surface. The scale adhering to the 
metal is a non-conductor of heat, and 
being of a stony formation and non- 
elastic, will neither expand nor con- 
tract, and, therefore, when the metal 
expands, this coat of scale becomes 
filled with cracks extending through to 
the metal. 

When an amount of Perolin propor- 
tionate to the heating area is injected 
into the boiler water, its affinity for the 
heated metal causes it to be drawn 
through the cracks in the scale into con- 
tact with the metal, where it works its 
way along the steel, breaking the bond 
of adhesion between the scale and the 
metal, so that the scale falls off and 
can be easily washed out. The pre- 
servative film thus left on the metal 
prevents the precipitated scale-forming 
sediments of the water from adhering 
thereto, keeping them in suspension 
until removed through the blow-off pipe 
when blowing off the boiler. On ac- 
count of the compound having a higher 
conductivity of heat than water, this 
surface does not in any way hinder the 
transmission of heat. 

® 

PILOTAGE COMMISSION NAMED. 

T N the Dominion House of Commons on 
January 29, in reply to a question by 
Mr. Sevigny, the Minister of Marine 
and Fisheries, said that it had been 
agreed that the personnel of the com- 
mission shall consist of Captain Lind- 
say, Wreck Commissioner of the Marine 
and Fisheries Department, Mr. Lachance, 
of Quebec, president of the Corporation 
of Pilots, and Mr. Thomas Robb, of 
Montreal, treasurer of the Shipping 
Federation of Canada. 



ASSOCIATION AND PERSONAL 

A Monthly Record of Current Association News and of Individuals 
who Have Been More or Less Prominent in the Marine Sphere 



F. A. McEride, of Canning-, has been 
appointed harbor master for that port. 

Mr. A P Dion has been appointed to 
the position of Traffic Agent of the Que- 
bce Harbor Commission. 

F. F. Pichard, of Victoria, B.C.,has 
been appointed an inspector of hulls and 
equipment of steamboats at Victoria, 
in place of John C. Kinghorn. 

Bert Mantrop, of Victoria, B.C., has 
been appointed an inspector of boilers 
and machinery of steamboats at Victoria 
in place of J. A. Thomson deceased. 

John A. McKee, president of the 
Western S.S. Co., who died in November 
last, left an estate of $532,958. He 
held 806 shares valued at $80,600 in the 
Transportation Company. 

John Inman Sealby, died recently, at 
Keswick, England, aged eighty-four. He 
was associated with his cousin, Thomas 
Henry Ismay in founding the White 
Star Line of steamships, and retired on 
the company's amalgamation with the 
American lines. 

Capt. John Balmer Fairgrieve, of 

Hamilton, died on Tuesday, Jan. 29, 
after a long illness. He was 79 years 
old on Christmas day, having been born 
in Flamboro' in 1833. He moved to 
Bundas, later coming to Hamilton when 
about eighteen years of age. He built 
the first steel boat used in Canada — the 
Arabian. The late Capt. Fairgrieve 
was a commander in the Royal Mail 
Line. 

R. 0. MacKay, of the Hamilton firm 
of R. O. & A. B. MacKay, died at his 
home, recently, in his sixtieth year. He 
was the eldest son of the late Aeneas 
D. MacKay, a native of Golspie, Suther- 
landshire, Scotland. The companies 
with which deceased was identified were 
the first to take advantage of the en- 
largement of the lower canals and of 
the trade on the Great Lakes. They 
brought out from the Old Country the 



LICENSED PILOTS. 

River St. Lawrence. — Captain Walter 
Collins, 43 Main Street, Kingston, Ont., 
Captain M . McDonald, River Hotel, 
Kingston, Ont. ; Captain Charles J. Mar- 
tin, 13 Balaclavia Street, Kingston, Ont. ; 
Captain T. J. Murphy, 111 William St., 
Kingston, Ont. 

River St. Lawrence, Bay of Quinte, 
Murray Canal. — Captain James Murray, 
106 Clergy St., Kingston, Ont.; Captain 
James H. Martin, 259 Johnston Street, 
Kingston, Ont.; John Corkery, 17 Rideau 
Street, Kingston, Ont. ; Captain Daniel 
H. Mills, 272 University Avenue, Kings- 
ton. Ont. 



ASSOCIATIONS 

DOMINION MARINE ASSOCIATION. 

President — James Playfalr, Midland; Coun- 
sel — P. King, Kingston, Ont. 

GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE 
RIVER RATE COMMITTEE. 
Chairman — W. F. Wasley, Gravenburst, Ont. 
Secretary — Jas. Morrison, Montreal. 



INTERNATIONAL WATER LINES 
PASSENGER ASSOCIATION. 
President — A. A. Heard, Albany, N.Y. 
Secretary — M. R. Nelson, New York. . . 



THE SHIPPING FEDERATION OF CANADA 
President — A. A. Allan, Montreal ; Manager 
and Secretary— T. Robb, 526 Board of Trade, 
Montreal. 



SHIP MASTERS* ASSOCIATION OF 
CANADA. 

Grand Master — Capt. J. H. McMaugh, Tor- 
onto, Ont.; Grand Secretary-Treasurer — Capt. 
H. O. Jackson, 376 Huron St., Toronto. 



GRAND COUNCIL, N.A.M.E. GRAND 
OFFICERS. 
James T. McKee, 268 Douglas Avenue, St. 
Jobn, N.B., Grand President. 

Thos. Theriault, Levis, P.Q., Grand Vice- 
President. 

Neil J. Morrison, P.O. Box 238, St. John, N.B., 
Grand Secretary-Treasurer. 

Jno. A. Murphy, Midland, Ont., Grand Con- 
ductor. 

George Bourret, Sorel, P. Q., Grand Door- 
keeper. 

Richard McLaren, Owen Sound, Ont. 
L. B. Cronk, Windsor, Ont. 

Grand Auditors. 



steel steamers Stratheona and Donna- 
cona, and were the first to place large 
vessels in the lakes to carry freight. 

The death of Captain Mclnnes, an old 

and esteemed resident of Orillia, Ont., 
occurred on Tuesday, Jan. 14, from 
Bright 's disease. He was 74 years of 
age. The late Captain Mclnnes was 
born in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1839. He 
came to Canada with his father, who 
was a shipbuilder at Greenock, Scotland, 
it 1854. In 1855, Mclnnes engaged as 
sailor on the schooner Queen, built by 
the late Mr. McPhee, of Mara. The 
next year he went to the upper lakes, 
where he made uncommon progress, and 
in a short time had his papers as mate 
and then captain. Twice during his 
service on lakes he was shipwrecked. 



TO SELL LAKE STEAMSHIPS. 

"D Y direction of the U.S. •District 
Court, the fleet of lake steamships 
owned by the Gilchrist Transportation 
Company will be advertised for sale on 
March 16 at Cleveland. Bids for the 
ships must be submitted either for the 
fleet into which the boats were divided 
by the appraisers, or for single boats. 
The vessels have been ordered sold to 
pay receivers' certificates and to pay 
overdue bonds and other claims. 



WILLING TO TRAIN CADETS. 
y "pHE Union Steamship Company of 
New Zealand are willing to accept 
cadets to train as officers. The train- 
ing will take place on the Aparima. 
which is a steamer affording ample op- 
portunities for the work. The sailing 
ship Dartford, formerly used for this 
purpose, is now converted into a hulk. 
The training of the cadets will include 
navigation, seamanship, splicing, sail- 
making, gear rigging, drill, swimming, 
etc. The offices of the company are in 
Vancouver, B.C. 









Directory of Subordinate 


Councils for 1913. 




Name. 


No. 


President. 


Address. 


Secretary. 


Address. 



Toronto, 


1 


A. J. Fisher, 


St. John, 
Colllngwood, 


2 


J. P. Matthews, 


3 


Andrew Kerr, 


Kingston, 


4 


A. E. Kennedy, 


Montreal, 


5 


A. P. Hamelin, 


Victoria, 


6 


Alex McNivern, 


Vancouver, 


7 


A. S. DeGruchy, 


Levis, 


8 


Helalre Mercier, 


Sorel, 


9 


Geo. Bourret, 


Owen Sound, 


10 


H. W. Fletcher. 


Windsor, 


11 


Alex. McDonald, 


Midland. 


12 


Jos. Sllverthorne, 


Haltfnx, 


13 


D. J. Murray, 


Sault S. Marie, 


14 


Thos. O'Reilly, 


Ohsrlnttetown, 


ir> 


J. K. Sutherland. 



4yo Concord Ave. 

50 Douglas Ave., 

Box 343, Collingwood, 

395 Johnston Street, 

3208 Le Tang Street, 

P. O. Box 234, 

Room 23, Williams Bldg., 

Bienville, Levis, 

Sorel, P.Q.. 

636 4th Ave. East, 

Windsor, Ont., 

Midland, 

Victoria Rd., Dartmouth, 
Sault Ste Marie. 

Chnrlottetown. P.E.T.. 



E. A. Prince, 
G. T. G. Blewett, 
Robert McQuade, 
James Gillie, 
O. L. Marchand, 
Peter Gordon, 
E. Read, 
Jules Lecours, 
Al. Charbonneau, 
E. J. Riley, 
Nell Maitland, 
Jno. A. Murphy, 
Chas. E. Pearce, 
Geo. S. Biggar, 
Lem Winchester. 



ol Elm Grove, Toronto. 
65 Harrison St., St. John, N.B. 
P.O. Box 97, Collingwood, 
101 Clergy St., Kingston, Ont. 
St. Vincent de Paul, P.Q. 
808 Blanchard St.. Victoria, B.C. 
859 Thurlow St 
Bienville, Levis, P.Q. 
P.O. Box 132, Sorel, P.Q. 
1030 1st Ave., Owen Sound, Ont 
221 London St. W., Windsor, Ont. 
Midland, Ont. 

Portland Street, Dartmouth, N.S. 

Sault Ste Marie, Ont 

302 Fitzrov St.. Chnrlottet'n, P.E.I. 



38 



MARINE ENGINEER] N( 1 OF CANADA 



21 



Garlock 
Marine Packings 

For years have stood the severest tests 
under many and various conditions 




Garlock High Pressure Ring, 




Garlock High Pressure Diagonal 




Our handsome 1913 
catalog, fully illustrat- 
ed — over 100 pages, 
showing Packings for 
every purpose, will 
soon be completed. 

11 

Let us enter your 
name for an early 
copy. 



The 
Garlock 
Packing 

Co. 

Hamilton 

■H 



BRANCHES 



Garlock Square Flax 



Montreal Toronto 
Winnipeg 
Vancouver 




Garlock High Pressure Spiral 




Garlock Low Pressure Diagonal 




Garlock Gum Gore 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



DANGEROUS ICEBERGS. 

TV>r . C. JANET, a French scientist, 
who has for some time past closely 
studied the movements of and changes 
in icebergs, has written an interesting 
article on the subject in the Paris 
"Cosmos." He explains why it is that 
icebergs become more and more danger- 
ous as they flow southward and melt, 
up to such time as they become very 
small chunks of ice, when they natur- 
ally lose their dangerous qualities. The 
iceberg melts in such a manner that it 
leaves only slightly submerged great 
knife-like ridges of ice, which are quite 
a distance from the exposed portion of 
the berg, and which would easily rip 
the hull of a big vessel asunder should 
she plough across these submerged 
ridges at full speed. 

Berg Features. 

' ' The volume of the exposed part of 
some icebergs," writes Professor Janet, 
"is sometimes very considerable. As the 
total volume of an iceberg is at least 
nine times that of the part out of water, 
and as most icebergs have reached a 
more or less advanced state of fusion 
by the time that they are first observed, 
we may conclude that among the blocks 
given up to the sea by the fronts of 
certain glaciers, some must be of very 
great size. These blocks must have a 
nearly prismatic form included between 
two horizontal faces. In fact, the upper 
face is part of the free surface of the 
glacier, which, except for crevasses and 
irregularities, is sensibly plane. The 
lower face is also practically plane be- 
cause it has been sliding over the bed of 
the glacier. 

As for the side faces, they are the 
result of irregular cracks that are gen- 
erally perpendicular to the upper and 
lower faces of the block and are conse- 
quently vertical when the iceberg floats 
freely. The upper and lower faces are 
usually of an elongated form, greater in 
a direction parallel to the glacier-front. 

Among the extremely varied forms 
that such an iceberg, originally pris- 
matic and compact, may assume under 
the action of the destructive causes to 
which it is subjected, there is one that 
probably presents itself frequently and 
which deserves our attention. The upper 
face of the iceberg melts slowly and 
pretty uniformly under the action of 
the air. There forms on it small ridges 
and small channels through which the 
water runs off. The exposed vertical 
walls also melt under the action of the 
air. The re-entrant parts of these walls 
are often less attacked than the salient 
parts, because they give passage to the 
air chilled by the melting of the upper 
surface. The salient parts thus tend to 
be smoother, and there results a certain 
regularity of the lateral contour. 

When the water surrounding it is at 



a sufficiently high temperature, the ice- 
berg melts over its whole submerged sur- 
face. The result of the melting of the 
ice is to dilute the surrounding sea water 
and to chill it. The dilution produces 
a diminution, while the chilling causes 
an increase in the density of the water. 
While there is never compensation be- 
tween these two contrary actions, the 
result of the fusion of the iceberg pro- 
duces only a slight variation of the den- 
sity of the sea water. The result is that 
the whole submerged part of the iceberg 
remains constantly surounded with cold 
water, and thus melts uniformly and 
slowly. 

This, however, is the case only with 
the lower surface and the parts of the 
side walls that are quite deeply sunk. 
The parts just below the surface undergo 
usually a more intense fusion than the 
rest. This results from a more rapid 
renewal of the chilled water, produced 
by the agitation due to waves and to 
surface currents. In this case a sort of 
circular gorge is melted out around the 
berg, immediately below the surface of 
the sea, and the residt is an excess of 
weight in the parts subjected only to 
aerial meltings. These, being ill-sup- 
ported, shortly sink lower. At this 
stage, the berg seems to reach out under 
the sea and rip open the hull of a ship 
as with a rapier. Simple friction against 
the submerged part of such an iceberg 
may, almost without shock, produce long 
tears in the relatively thin hulls of large 
vessels. ' ' 

@— 

SHIPBUILDERS WANT SUBSIDY. 

TD EPRESENTATIVES of all the 
leading shipbuilding companies 
throughout the Dominion, waited upon 
the Right HDn. R. L. Borden recently, 
and described the keen competition 
which they had to meet. It was de- 
clared that unless assistance from the 
Federal Government was received they 
would be forced to abandon the 
struggle. 

One of the spokesmen suggested the 
imposition of a duty on British ships, 
another thought such a plan would not 
prevent British ships from engaging in 
the coastwise trade, and proposed the 
payment of a bonus per net ton on ships 
built in Canada, and a subsidy on the 
cost of construction to the extent of 
about 20 per cent. 

Premier's Promise. 

The Premier promised due considera- 
tion when provided with a detailed 
statement by the shipbuilders. He was 
anxious to know for what period it 
would be necessary to aid the industry 
in order to ensure its continuance, add- 
ing that he had been told by a Bri- 
tish builder that wages in Britain and 
in Canada tended to approximate in 10 
or 15 years. The construction in Can- 
40 



ada of vessels required by the Gov- 
ernment might assist the companies of 
the Dominion. 

Major Currie, M.P., introduced the 
deputation, which included Captain 
MeDougall and Sandford Lindsay, pre- 
sident and secretary, respectively, of 
the Collingwood Shipbuilding Co.; 
John B. Miller, president of the Pol- 
son Ironworks, Toronto; Messrs. Black 
and Conn, ^representing the Pickford 
and Black Co., of Halifax; H. Bullen, 
president of the Esquimalt and Van- 
couver Marine and Dry Dock Co.; Geo. 
D. Davie, of Levis; S. Dyment and W. 
J. Fair, of the Kingston Dry Dock and 
Shipbuilding Co. 

Torontonian's Testimony. 

Mr. Miller, of the Poison Ironworks, 
said that at present the Canadian com- 
panies on the lakes had to confine them- 
selves to ships which could not be built 
in Britain and sent through the St. 
Lawrence canals. On a vessel costing 
$120,000, the Canadian companies were 
taxed about $12,000 in duties on fit- 
tings and other "raw materials." 



OIL ENGINE PROPELLED FISHING 
SCHOONER. 

TXT" ITH a full load of provisions, ice, 
and a crew of seventeen men, the 
Gertrude De Costa, the new 114-ton 
modified knockabout type of schooner, 
owned by L. J. & M. Costa, Boston, left 
T Wharf on December 23rd for the fish- 
ing grounds off the Nova Scotia coast. 
The sailing is of significance in that the 




LAUNCH OF OIL ENGINED FISHING 
SCHOONER. 

boat is equipped with a 3-cylinder 70 
h.-p Blanchard oil engine, operating on 
fuel oil, which cost 5%c a gallon. The 
Gertrude De Costa is a new boat, and 
M as built at the yards of Tarr & James 
Essex, in accordance with the design 
of Thomas F. McManus, who has de- 
signed over 300 fishing schooners. Lying 
alongside T Wharf, it made a striking 
contrast to the other nearby fishing ves- 
sels, being the only one without a bow- 
sprit. 

The vessel has deep and sharp hull 
lines and a short sail base, making it 
safe and easy to handle in rough water. 
It has plain pole masts, without top- 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



23 



masts, and the sail area is less than one- 
half that with which boats of this size 
are normally equipped. Eight hundred 
gallons of fuel oil were taken on this 
trip, and the same was purchased at 
5%c a gallon, while gasoline in 500- 
gallon lots could not be purchased for 
less -than 19c per gallon. Captain John 
Shea, of the Gertrude De Costa, is keep- 
ing an accurate record of the amount of 
oil used, and this, together with other 
data on the engine during the trip, will 
be awaited with much interest. 



CAR FERRY CONTRACT. 

A CCORDING to an answer given in 
the House of Commons at Ottawa, 
recently, the contract fpr the new car 



ferry steamer between Prince Edward 
Island and the mainland has been award- 
ed to Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth 
& Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne, for £138,000. 
The car-ferry service will begin some 
time during next year. There were four 
tenders received for the construction of 
the steamer. Canadian Vickers, Limited, 
of London, Eng., submitted two lenders, 
one for £110,000, and one for £112,480, 
but though much the lowest, they were 
not accepted. 



C.P.R. AND THE MEDITERRANEAN. 

TN view of the great amount of inter- 
est caused in shipping circles by the 
announcement that the Canadian Pacific 
Railway Co. are about to institute a line 



of steamers from Canada to the Medi- 
terranean, it is of value to see the recep- 
tion given to such a proposal by the 
people in the Mediterranean ports. Deal- 
ing with this subject the Antwerp paper 
"La Metropole" draws attention to the 
words of Dr. rtiedl, Under Secretary to 
the Austrian Minister of Commerce. 
Speaking in the Social Political Com- 
mittee of the Lower Chamber of the 
Reichsrat, the doctor said that the port 
of Trieste would do nothing but profit 
by the C.P.R. 's overture to open a line 
between Trieste and Canada. The inter- 
ests of their society were just the same 
as those of the State — above everything 
else to counteract the formation of an 
Atlantic shipping pool. 



Ideas at 2 Cents Each 



H An idea that is worth any- 
thing at all to a Marine man 
is worth more than two cents, 
f It might be worth hundreds 
of dollars. 

U Every issue of "MARINE 
ENGINEERING OF CAN- 
ADA" is full of practical, 
helpful ideas. You ought to 
be able to sift out four each 
month that would prove of 
some use to you. Put a value 



of two cents on each and your 
subscription has been paid. 
H you cannot afford to miss 
even one issue — you might 
miss the idea that would be 
worth hundreds of dollars. 
1i The date on the label of 
your "MARINE ENGINEER- 
ING OF CANADA" wrapper 
shows when your subscription 
expires. One dollar will re- 
new it for a year. 



Don't put off Renewing — Do it to-day 



Reed's 

Engineers 9 Hand Book 

to the Board of Tia.de Examinations for Certificates of 
Competency as First and Second Class Engineers. 

Illustrated by 413 Diagrams and 40 large Plates 

This Book is not only a complete and up-to-date Hand 
Book to the B.O.T. Examination, but is also a valuable 
Cyclopedia of information on Marine Steam Machinery. 

Nineteenth Edition 14s. net. 

Off all Engineering Booksellers. By post, 15s. 6d. 

Complete Catalogue free on Application 

THOMAS REED & CO., Ltd. 
184 High Street West, - Sunderland, England 



MARINE ENGINEERING 

OF CANADA 

is edited and published with a view to providing for all sections of marine 
men, an attractive and newsy record of Shipbuilding, Engineering, Harbour, 
Port and Dock Progress and Development throughout the Dominion of 
Canada and over the World. 

One Dollar per year is our regular subscription rate 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 

143 UNIVERSITY AVE., TORONTO 

Date 1913 

Gentlemen, — 

Please find enclosed herewith $1.00, being subscription to Marine Engineering of Canada. 

NAME 

RANK OR POSITION 

ADDRESS IN FULL 



24 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



ROBERT CURR 

Naval Architect and Marine Surveyor 

Plans and specifications furnished for all types 
of vessels. Careful attention to superintending 
of construction and repairs. 

Observatory Mariaggi Hotel. Port Arthur. Ont. 
Phone 1553 



ONE INCH SPACE 
$15 A YEAR 



THE DIXON MFG. CO. 

Mfrs. of 

High-t'lass Marine Gasoline Engines and 
Marine Motors, Experimental Machinery, 
Gray Iron, Brass and Bronze Castings. 
Repair work a specialty. 
Address: COLLING WOOD, ONT. 
Tel. No. 164. 



BREWER & McBRYDE 

NAVAL ARCHITECTS - MARINE BROKERS 

142 Hastings St., Vancouver, B.C. 

/ 5 years ' practical experience designing all 
types of vessels. 



THOS. G. BISHOP 

ENGINEER AND MACHINIST 

Marine and General Repairs, Gas and 
Gasoline Engine Repairs a Specialty 
PHONE 38 

FOOT OF PRINCESS ST., KINGSTON. ONT. 



DAVIS DRY DOCK COMPANY 

Builders of Wood and Steel Passenger 
Steamers, Tug, Steam and Gasolene 
Engines of all Descriptions. New 
catalogues February 1st. 

KINGSTON, ONTARIO 



Office 'phone 528. Private 'phones 437 and 49 

Donnelly Salvage and 
Wrecking Co., Ltd. 

Kingston, Ont. 

Tugs, Lighters, Divers, Steam Pumps, 
etc., supplied on shortest notice. 

700 Ton Lighter with McMyler clam 
shell Derrick. 

Tug "Saginaw" has two 100-ton Pull- 
ing Machines with 4,000 feet of l£ inch 
Steel Cable, and two 3-ton anchors, 
always ready for work. 

JOHN DONNELLY. Pres. and Gen. Mgr. 



J. J. TURNER & SONS 

Peterborough, Ont., and Regina, Sask. 



The largest manufacturers and dealers 
in Canada of 

Sails, Horse Blankets, 

Tents, Lap Rugs, 

Flags, Canoes and Row 

Life Belts, Boats. 

Life Buoys, Vessel, Yacht, Boat, 
Waterproof Cloth- and Canoe Sails 

ing. made by Expert 

Coal Bags. Sail Makers. 

Tents to Order and Camping Outfits to rent. 

Write for Catalogue. 




With Exceptional Facilities for 
Placing 

Fire and Marine Insurance 

In all Underwriting Markets 

Agencies : TORONTO, MONTREAL, 
WINNIPEG, VANCOUVER, 
PORT ARTHUR. 




MORRIS, 
BULKELEY 
& HALLIDAY 



MARINE ENGINEERS 
and NAVAL ARCHITECTS 

Specialists in 

Steel and Wood Vessels 

17 Promis Bldg. 514 Holden Bldg. 

VICTORIA, B.C. and VANCOUVER. B.C. 



GEORGIAN BAY SHIPBUILDING 
& WRECKING COMPANY 

MIDLAND, ONTARIO. 

Yachts, ,Tugs, Dump Scows 
and Repair Work a Specialty. 
All Kinds of Wrecking and 
Diving. 



BELL TELEPHONE : 
Office No. 163 Residence No. 149 

P. O. Box 83. 
D. G. DOBSON, - General Manage 



For $1 a Year 

Marine Engineering 

OF CANADA 

will keep you in touch with 
Canada's Maritime develop- 
ments — the only comprehen- 
sive Marine Paper in Canada. 

THE MACLEAN PUBLISHING COMPANY 

143-7 University Ave., Toronto 




59 ft. Canadian Tugs 

Hulls finished and marked for erection 
at shortest notice. 



Geo. Brown & Co. 

SHIPBUILDERS 

GREENOCK SCOTLAND 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 




The Union That Eliminates 
Trouble and Expense 




It Cannot Leak, Rust 
or Corrode 



The "Dart'' has a Bronze to Bronze Ball Shaped 

Joint. It connects pipes easily whether they are in 
o'r out of line. 

Not effected by vibration, expansion or contraction. 
If any ' ' Dart ' ' Union you buy has the slightest defect 
we will give you two new ones for it. 
Sold at every port. 



Dart Union Co., Limited 



TORONTO, CANADA 




Solid Drawn Copper 
and Brass Tubes 

all classes of Seamless Brass and Copper Tubes for 
Locomotive, Marine and General Engineering Purposes 

Made to 

Builders' own specifications to "British Standard" 
or to British Admiralty Tests and Requirements. 

Now largely used in Canada by the 
Principal Locomotive Works. Car Builders, 
Railway and Shipbuilding Companies. 



MANUFACTURED BY 

The Yorkshire Copper Works, 



Leeds, Eng. 



SOLE AGENTS IN CANADA 



MACHAN & HEBRON 



55 St. Francios Xavier St. 

Send for our prices. 



MONTREAL 



MANGANESE BRONZE 




PROP/mER 
WK^LS 




We guarantee 
a 

Tensile strength 
of 75,000 lbs. 

We are the only 
firm that manufac- 
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Bronze of this ten- 
sile strength. 



Write to-day for our descriptive booklet. 



Lumen Bearing Co. 

WESTON ROAD ard C.P.R., TORONTO, ONT. 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Collingwood Shipbuilding Co., Limited 

Collingwood, Ont. s Canada 




Canadian Government Steamer "ESTEVAN" — 2 1 2 V -20(T x 38 v x 17 -6. 
Built by Collingwood Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. 

Steel and Wooden Ships, Engines, Boilers- 

Castings and Forgings 

PLANT FITTED WITH MODERN APPLIANCES FOR QUICK WORK 

Dry Docks and Shops Equipped to Operate 
Day or Night on Repairs 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



OPENING OF NAVIGATION NEWS 

MarineEngineering 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and development of Merchant and Naval Marine Engineering, 
Shipbuilding, the building of Harbors and Docks, and containing a record of the latest and 
best practice throughout the Sea-going World. Published by 
The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 

MONTREAL, Eastern Townships Bank Bldg. TORONTO, .43149 University Ave. WINNIPEG, 34 Royal Bank Bldg. LONDON, ENG., 88 Fleet St. 

Vol. III. Publication Office, Toronto— March, 1913 No. 3 

POLSON IRON WORKS, LIMITED 

TORONTO - - CANADA 

Steel Shipbuilders 
Engineers and Boilermakers 




Manufacturers of 

Steel Vessels, Tugs, Barges, Dredges and Scows 
Marine Engines and Boilers all sizes and kinds 

Works and Office : Esplanade Street East. Piers Nos. 35, 36, 37 and 38 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



A FEW FACTS ABOUT 

" SPRINGBAK " 

WHAT WE CLAIM: 

If We claim ''SPRINGBAK" parking is the first and only common sense, practical and 
fool-proof packing ever invented. It is an ideal packing for almost every condition of 
service existing in the modern power plant. An emergency packing in most convenient 
form. 

U We claim "SPRINGBAK" Packing will last months where other packings last weeks. 

OUR GUARANTEE: 

H We guarantee that "SPRINGBAK" Packing will do all we claim for it. If it does not, 
we will pay for every pound you purchase. We also absolutely guarantee it to be 
superior to any other packing. By far the most economical and constructed from better 
quality materials than ever have been used heretofore by any manufacturer of packing. 

% We guarantee it to give triple service as compared to any other make of rubber and 
duck packing. 

NOTE ITS CHARACTERISTICS: 

% It is pliable, tough, elastic and durable. 

H It responds quickly to conditions calling for compression or expansion. 
U It adapts itself to non-alignment. 

1[ The elastic core constitutes an air chamber or oil duct. 

I Any of its four sides is a wearing surface — immaterial how the packing is applied. 
H The rubber or elastic core is oil and ammonia proof. 

H When the pressure is lessened, the packing returns to its original form. 

1] A slight gland pressure will prevent leaking without excessive wear and the friction is 

reduced to a minimum. 
U Leakage cannot occur because of a decrease in temperature and contraction. 
If Each coil is moulded separately and does not follow at all the old line construction of 

ordinary spiral packings, and is much lighter in weight. 

CAUTION: 

U Do not use "SPRINGBAK" Packing alone against a steam pressure that exceeds 125 
lbs. or on a high speed engine. We guarantee equal results, however, when same is used 
in combination w ith our Ankorite High Pressure Packing. Apply each style alternately. 

NOTE THIS: 

II For STEAM HAMMERS — for OUTSIDE PACKED PLUNGERS— for ELEVATOR 
PLUNGERS— for AMMONIA— for HOT OR COLD WATER— "SPRINGBAK" Packing 

is unexcelled. 

STYLE NUMBERS: 

Xo. 123 Ring Form — No. 223 Spiral Form — No. 323 Coil Form. 
In all sizes, % i n - ar, d larger. 



THE ANCHOR PACKING CO. 

of Canada, Limited 

WALKERVILLE MONTREAL TORONTO WINNIPEG 

404 St. James St. 205 Yonge St. 63 Scott BIk. 

ALSO SOLD BY: 

WESTERN SUPPLY & EQUIPMENT COMPANY, Ltd. 

EDMONTON CALGARY LETHBRIDGE 

Direct Importers of Genuine "TAURIL" Sheet Packing. 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OE CANADA 



1 



fF 3 



SHIP CHANDLERY 



5SSS 




OLD COUNTRY FIRMS 



FOR WHOM WE ARE 



SOLE CANADIAN AGENTS 



CLARKE, CHAPMAN & CO., LIMITED. 

Windlasses, Winches, Hoisting Gears, 
Electric Lighting, Steam Pumps, Marine 
Boilers. 

MURRAY, McVINNIE & CO., LTD. 

Cooking Ranges, Kitchen Utensils, Ship 
Chandlery, Second-hand Shipyard Ma- 
chinery of all descriptions. 

JOHN HASTIE & CO., LTD. 

Steam, Hand, Electric Steering Gears. 

ANSELL, JONES & CO. 

Reid-MeFarland's Patent Steel Self- 
Lubricating Blocks. 

DARLINGTON FORGE CO. 

Steel Castings and Forgings. 

WOODITE COMPANY. 

Woodite Gauge Glass Washers. 



HOME RUBBER CO. (New Jersey, U.S.A.) 

N.B.O. Sheet Packing, Mechanical Rub- 
ber Goods. 

SHANKS & CO., LIMITED. 

Sanitary Appliances, Folding Lavatories, 
Plumbers' Fittings, Baths, W.C.'s, Etc. 

GIBSON & JONES. 

Patent Gem Flue Cleaners. 

DOBBIE-McINNES, LIMITED. 

Nautical-Navigation Instruments. 

R. B. Lindsay & CO. 

Lindsay Glasgow Patent High Pressure 
Piston Packing. 

HOSKIN & SON, LTD. 

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MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



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MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



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MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



ACETYLENE ACETYLENE 

The Light that will not fail 

ECONOMICAL .... BRILLIANT .... RELIABLE 



DUNDEE HARBOUR TRUST, DUNDEE. 

27th December, 1912. 

Dear Sir, 

I have much pleasure in giving you the follow- 
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which you supplied to my Trustees for service in 
the Estuary of the River Tay in September, 1911. 

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(Signed) J. HANNAY THOMPSON, 

General Manager and Engineer. 

A. P. Collier, Esq., 
Manager, 

International Marine Signal Co., London. 



POOLE HARBOUR BOARD, POOLE. 

September 13th, 1912. 

Dear Sir, 

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(Signed) H. W. CHISLETT. 

A. P. Collier, Esq., 
London, S.W. 




BUOY ON SHORE FOR CLEANING AND PAINTING 

THE photograph shown above is that of one of our Automatic Acetylene Gas 
Buoys sujoplied to the Poole Harbour Board. The Light burned continuously 
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exhausted. 

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International Marine Signal Co., Ltd. 

OTTAWA, CANADA 
and WHITEHALL HOUSE, 29, CHARING CROSS, LONDON, S.W. 



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MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



7 



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im. 



The Achievement of the "Allans" in the Domain of Shipping 



By Linton Eccles 

In this Article, the story of the Master Navigators of the River St. Lawrence is told, giving, 
in More or Less Detail, Particulars of the Coming of the "Allans" to ('mini In and of the Large 
Success Attending Their Efforts in Building up a World-Known Steamship Business. 



ORGET the traditional closeness of 
^ the Scot — which is well within the 
range of controversial topics — and try 
1o associate with him as a race, a more 
abiding, a more distinctive quality. 
Wouldn't you say, after a brief mo- 
ment's consideration, that it is his ten- 
acity of purpose? Well, Canada, not to 
say the world, ought to know something 
about that. 

Somebody — it doesn't matter much 
who — once illustrated the national trait 
by a little story. 

"And is that your grandfather, San- 
dy?'' asked the inquisitive visitor. He 
had picked out an old photograph — you 
know those quaint relics of early de- 
veloping days printed on sensitized glass. 

"Aye," said Sandy, "it is." 

"What was your grandfather, San- 
dy?" 

"A stonemason." 

"And this" — coming to another pho- 
tograph, not on glass this one — "this is 
your father, eh? What was he?" 

"He was a stonemason," said Sandy's 
father's son. 

"And what are you, Sandy?" 

"I'm a stonemason, too," was the 
answer. 

Sandy's eldest was busy in a corner 
of the room over his home lessons, and 



"Jamie!" said Jamie's father. "Oh, 
1 think we'll mak' a stonemason o' him 
as weel." 

Put the family name down as Allan, 
and change the business from one of 




SIR H. MONTAGUE ALLAN. 

the visitor noted him with quiet ap- 
proval. 

"And what's Jamie going to be, San- 
dy V he asked. 




SIR HUGH ALLAN. 

handling stones to one of handling ships, 
and you have the history in little of the 
Allans. 

Hugh Allan. 

Sir Hugh Allan, the father of the 
Canadian branch of the family, was still 
new to his knighthood, bestowed on him 
by Queen Victoria, when he had passed 
his three score of years and could well 
leave much of the handling of his ships 
to the next generation of Allans, and al- 
most to a boy, they were started in their 
apprenticeship whilst they were young 
enough to begin at the bottom. That 
is one practical side to the Scot's ten- 
acity that most of us well might copy. 

I should have enjoyed sharpening my 
cub-reportorial wits in what I am sure 
would have been a one-sided contest in 
netting old Sir Hugh to talk, as we call 
it in newspaper offices. Imagine pump- 
ing him for his opinion upon the Mont- 
real harbor of to-day, or just yesterday, 
with his mind's eye on the Montreal har- 
bor that wasn't when he landed at the 
national port on that spring Sunday 
morning in 1826! I had to get my pen- 
picture of Sir Hugh at second hand. 

"He was just a typical dour, practi- 
cal Scot, with a single eye io business 
41 



and getting it by direct, matter-of-fact 
methods," so declared the old Montreal 
journalist whom I button-holed on the 
subject. His summing-up was not very 
promising, but, grubbing after the facts 
in one hiding-place and another, 1 began 
to get a glimpse and then a clearer vision 
of a more romantic figure than that. A 
man who had been sent out into the 
world at the age of fifteen by his hard- 
headed father - , and sent to the Canada 
of eighty-six years ago, to become the 
founder of the real navigation of the St. 
Lawrence — such a man must have been 
a personality indeed. 

When you go into his career, you will 
find the right stuff of which romance is 
made. Adventures? Well, listen to this 
outline of his settling in Canada. 

Settlement in Canada. 

Captain Alexander Allan, who piloted 
playthings of ships across the Atlantic a 
century or so ago, knew what he was do- 
ing when he turned young Hugh adrift 
on April 12, 1826. On that day the boy 
sailed from Greenock to make his for- 
tune. The ship, the brig Favorite, was 
in command of his father, and his eldest 
brother was second officer. She reached 
Quebec on May 15, and was towed up 




ANDREW ALLAN. 



the river by the steamboat Hercules — 
these shipbuilders always have had a 
fancy for pretentious names — then the 
only towboat on the St. Lawrence. They 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



reached the foot of St. Mary's current, 
but against the stream and the strong 
breeze the little steamer could do no 
more. 

There was nothing new in that to the 
captain of those days, for it" was as much 
as a steam-propelled boat could do to 
puff itself along an inland waterway. A 
hawser was passed ashore from the brig, 
and the rest of the towing of the Favor- 
ite was done by a team of twelve pairs 
of oxen. By this means Hugh was able 
to land at Montreal early on Sunday, 
May 21, 1826. At that time the port of 
Montreal was something of a joke — it 
must have been even to the stal- 
warts of those early days. There 
was no such thing as a wharf, and 
ships making Montreal had to edge 
in as near to the beach as they could 
get. Then the seamen waited for a 
favorable moment, rigged a long plank 
on spars, and, if they were lucky, the 
pasengers and crew got ashore dry. 

Here, in the Montreal of that time, 
Hugh Allan was left by his father and 
brother to find the road to fortune. His 
first job was that of junior clerk in the 
dry goods house of William Kerr & Co., 
St. Paul Street, and he stuck at it for 
three years. At that period there was 
not much doing or done in the city dur- 
ing the winter months. Hugh, helped by 
his pocket money and the friendship of 
his father's acquaintances, spent them 
generally at Ste. «Rose and Ste. Therese. 
and if he did nothing else useful lie 
learned to speak French well enough to 
make capital of it afterwards. 

Hugh Visits New York. 

At the age of nineteen, Ave read of 
him starting - out to learn a little more 



face towards New York — before, mind 
you, there was such a thing as a railway. 
He spent some time in the Mecca Amer- 
icana, and then boarded a boat for Al- 








w 



1 



J 1 1 < J II A. ALLAN. 



of the North American continent than 
he could pick up in and around Mont- 
real. In August of 1830 lie turned his 



BRYCE J. ALLAN. 

bany. From Albany he went by boat 
again up the Erie Canal as far as Ro- 
chester, where lie commenced a series of 
coach stages, to Buffalo, Niagara Fall?. 
Hamilton (then a sleepy village with a 
mere handful of homes), and to Toronto 
(a little bigger and rather less sleepy 
village), and so to Kingston. At King- 
ston he boarded another boat to Pres- 
cott, where as there was no running the 
rapids in those days he landed and fin- 
ished his way to Montreal by stage coach 
again. The trip to New York and back 
filled a little more than two months. 

Home Again to Scotland. 

After this strenuous enough jaunt you 
would have thought that young Hugh 
was ready for a rest; but in less than a 
week he was off to Quebec to join his 
father's ship. As it happened, the Fa- 
vorite, along with a number of other 
vessels, was delayed for a month by con- 
trary weather, and it was not until Nov- 
ember 21 that the fleet could sail. The 
Favorite was deeply laden with wheat — 
a pioneer ship down to her cargo, you 
see — from, the farms of Ontario and 
Quebec, and the boisterous trip to Green- 
ock occupied five weeks, the four Allans 
on board, Captain Alexander and three 
oJ his sons, arriving home appropriately 
in time for New Year's Eve. 

Visit to London. 

Hugh Allan stayed at home for three 
months, and then was off sight-seeinu 
again, his objective this time being Liv- 
erpool and London. It is interesting to 
recall that -lie travelled from t lie Mersey 
42 



port to Cottonpolis over one of the earl- 
iest railway lines, the Manchester and 
Liverpool, then recently opened. Hugh, 
anyway, by that time was used to taking 
his life in his hands, so that one addi- 
tional risk, and this on land, would hard- 
ly cause him much anxiety. From Man- 
chester to London was a lengthy stage 
coach journey. Young Allan doubtless 
saw as much of the capital as lie could 
in a short time, and was ready on April 
1, 1831, to leave again for Canada. 

Sails Again for Canada. 

He sailed in the ship Canada, which 
was making her maiden trip. He land- 
ed in Montreal, and this time he had 
come prepared to settle down to the ser- 
ious business of life. He entered the 
shipping house of James Millar & Co., 
aud at the end of 1835 he was taken into 
partnership with Mr. Millar and Mr. 
I'klnionstone, the members of the firm. 
Mr. Millar died three years later, and 
the two junior partners carried on the 
business. Hugh, just before this, had 
managed to cram in a few more adven- 
tures off the humdrum line of business, 
serving as volunteer in the two rebel- 
lions of 1837 and 1838, in the latter of 
which he was given the rank of captain. 
In 1839 he was joined in Montreal by 
his brother Andrew, twelve years young- 
er than Hugh and then in his seven- 
teenth year. 

Another Atlantic Voyage. 

That same year Hugh Allan had the 
most adventurous of his frequent voy- 
ages across the Atlantic. In company 
with the Hon. Joseph Masson. Mr. G. B. 




ANDREW A. ALLAN. 



Symes, of Quebec, and other Canadians, 
he embarked at New York on Dec. 14 
m the steamship Liverpool. This was in 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



t lie early days of transatlantic steam 
navigation, and before the foundation of 
the Cunard line. The Liverpool ran in- 
to heavy gales, and on the 28th of the 
month, when little more than halfway 
across, the chief engineer reported that 
they had not sufficient coal to carry 
them to Liverpool, and the steward add- 
ed the information that, anyway, the 
provisions would not last out. It was 
determined, therefore, to run to the 
Azores, and on the last few shovelsful of 
coal they reached the island of Fayal on 
New Year's Eve. 

The Liverpool was the first steamship 
the people of the islands had seen, and 
the sensation can be imagined. The 
fourteen passengers were landed, and the 
Portuguese governor, with the American 
and British consuls, got up a ball for 
the occasion. During their stay of four 
days at the islands, Hugh Allan and Mr. 
Symes took a day off to climb the highest 
mountain, Caldera. an extinct volcano 
-even, thousand feet above sea level, in 



the Azores. Thirty days after leaving 
New York, Allan turned up at Liverpool 
to explain to his friends that he had not 
been drowned. 

Return to Montreal. 

The following spring he was again in 
Montreal with plans for the extension of 
the firm's business. The then Govern- 
or-General, Lord Sydenham, ordered 
from them a steam frigate, which was 
called after him. Edmonstone and Al- 
lan also built for the government the 
small steamer Union. Following this 
they launched the Alliance, which re- 
mained for years one of the most power- 
ful tugs on the St. Lawrence. 

With the era of the screw steamer 
about 1851, Hugh Allan, his partner, and 
his associates, who were prominent busi- 
ness men of Montreal, Quebec and King- 
ston, besides Scottish members of the 
Allan family, opened negotiations with 
the government for establishing a regu- 
lar steamship service between Britain 
and the St. Lawrence. The government 
preferred, however, to give the contract 
to a firm in Britain. The handicaps 
against keeping the service going on a 



paying basis undoubtedly were great, 
and after a year and a half the British 
firm gave up the job in despair. Hugh 
and Andrew Allan, however, were still 
convinced of its practicability, and, 
through the influence of the Hon. John 
Ross, Hon. George Etienne Cartier, Hon. 
L. T. Drummond, and others, they were 
told to go ahead and see what they could 
make of it. 

The Montreal Ocean Steamship Co. 

Andrew Allan, by this time, was an 
active member of the firm, which then 
was known as the Montreal Ocean 
Steamship Company. Already they had 
got built the steamers Canadian'and In- 
dian. 

These vessels, built by William 
Denny, of Dumbarton, were not quite 
as big as the Cunarders of that day, 
but they were a little faster, the Allan 
boats steaming eleven knots against the 
Cunarders ten and a half. They were 
built of iron, and had screw propellers. 



They were not entirely dependent upon 
steam, however, being rigged to sail 
under canvas as capably as any regular 
wind-jammer. The service by the Can- 
adian and Indian was interrupted at the 
outbreak of the Crimean War, when 
they were chartered by the British Gov- 
ernment to convey troops to the Black 
Sea. 

As soon as the matter of the Can- 
adian Government contract was settled, 
Hugh Allan crossed to England and 
made arrangements for the building of 
two more steamers, the North American 
and the Anglo-Saxon, and in the spring 
of 1856 was commenced a regular fort- 
nightly service to and from the St. Law- 
rence during open navigation, and 
monthly to and from Portland during 
the winter months. The Grand Trunk 
Railway about that time had extended 
its line to the Maine port. In 1857 the 
Allans agreed with the Canadian Gov- 
ernment to maintain a weekly service 
the whole year through, the subsidy be- 
ing increased accordingly. This in- 
volved the building of four more and 
43 



larger steamers, which were put in cuni- 
mission in May, 1859. 

The First Allan Ship. 

Samuel Cunard, founder of the 
Cunard Line, and sharer with Hugh 
and Andrew Allan of the distinction 
of being pioneer steam navigators of 
the St. Lawrence, was, by the way, a 
Canadian by birth. The Cunard con- 
cern was a few years ahead of the Al- 
lans with its steamers, but the Allan 
connection with Montreal shipping goes 
back farther by reason of their earlier 
activities with sailing vessels. 

There is in the possession of the Mr. 
Andrew Allan of this generation, I be- 
lieve, or at any rate in the possession of 
the Allan family, an original painting 
of the brig Jean, the first Allan ship to 
cross the Atlantic. A model of the 
Jean is also to be seen in the Windsor 
Hotel, Montreal. She was a vessel of 
179 tons register, and made her maiden 
trip from Glasgow in May, 1819. She 
was commanded and owned by Captain 
Alexander Allan, and his sons, Bryce 
and James, were respectively first and 
second mate of her. The family be- 
longed to Ardrossan, a seaport on the 
Clyde about forty miles from Glasgow. 
Within eight years after the starting of 
the Jean on the St. Lawrence route, the 
Allans had four clipper packets run- 
ning to Canada — a fine instance of that 
tenacity of purpose of* which mention 
was made at the beginning of this ar- 
ticle. The old captain stuck to his 
bridge until 1831, when he gave up ac- 
tive command to look after the growing 
business of the shipping office in Glas- 
gow. 

Captain Bryce Allan. 

In September, 1839, twenty years after 
the coming of the old Jean, appeared 
an advertisement in a Montreal news- 
paper which informed the public of the 
sailing "For Greenock, Scotland, of the 
well-known coppered ship Canada, 329 
tons register, commanded by Captain 
Bryce Allan; for passage, apply to 
Capt. Allan on board." Capt. Bryce 
Allan kept up the tradition established 
by his father of commanding his own 
deck, and it was not until twenty years 
after, when he became managing owner 
of the line at Liverpool, that he gave up 
this practical side of ownership. He 
died in 1883, and was succeeded in 
charge at Liverpool by his two nephews, 
Robert and James. When Captain 
Alexander Allan left the bridge in 1831 
the Allan fleet consisted of the Canada, 
Favorite, Brilliant, Blonde, Pericles, 
Gipsy, and one or two smaller sailing 
ships. At the time that his son Bryce 
retired from active command, about 
1850, the fleet not only consisted of 
inucb larger ships, but the era of steam 
had come. 




MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



The Era of Steam. 

As Captain Alexander Allan and his 
eldest son Bryee will be always asso- 
ciated with the establishment and per- 
fecting of the sailing packet service be- 
tween Britain and the St. Lawrence, so 
the second and fourth sons, Hugh and 
Andrew, of tbe old seadog, will be 
famed among Canadian pioneers because 
of what they did in developing steam 
navigation. With Bryce in Liverpool, 
and their two younger brothers, James 
and Alexander, in Glasgow, Hugh and 
Andrew built up the shipping business 
of the firm and kept it apace with the 
times. It was the same tenacity of the 
old man, you see, coming out in his five 
boys. And the quality lasted with the 
five for forty years, when death began 
to make breaks in their ranks. Andrew, 
the last of the five, died within the past 
twelve years at Montreal. On the 
death of Sir Hugh, in 1882. Andrew 
Allan had become president of the 
Allan Line as well as of the Merchants' 
Bank of Canada, the Montreal Tele- 
graph Company, and other concerns. 
For some years also he had been chair- 
man of the Board of Harbor Commis- 
sioners. 

Andrew Allan. 

The tenacity of the Allans still last- 
ed. The sons of those sons had been 
brought up to the shipping trade, and 
they continued* the business at the old 
stand, or stands, for there were by this 
time numerous ends to the Allan in- 
terests. So far as Canada was con- 
cerned, the Allan Line consisted of 
Hugh and Andrew, sons of Andrew, 
and Hugh Montagu and Bryce J., sons 
of Sir Hugh. Mr. Andrew Allan is now 
the manager of the line at Montreal, 
and there is also a great-grandson of 
Captain Alexander Allan in the offices 
there. Mr. Hugh Allan is manager of 
the line in London, and Mr. Bryce J. 
Allan for some years has acted for the 
firm at Boston. 

Sir Hugh Montagu Allan. 

Sir Hugh Montagu Allan, as news- 
paper readers recently leamt, has re- 
tired from the shipping concern to look 
after the interests of the Merchants' 
Bank — which his father, Sir Hugh, and 
his uncle Andrew founded — along with 
his numerous other financial undertak- 
ings. 

It has been stated, with some show 
of authority, that the retirement of Sir 
Montagu Allan from the firm of H. and 
A. Allan synchronized with its practi- 
cal absorption by that amazing, tent- 
acle-extending corporation, the Can- 
adian Pacific Railway. Whether that 
has been compassed, is outside the scope 
of this article to discuss; but whilst un- 
doubtedly the Allan Line is not to-day 
— perhaps hardly could have remained — 



the family affair it was twenty, even 
ten years ago, for the present at least 
the old name remains to remind us of 
the ground broken and the rough seas 
ploughed by the hardy introducer of 
the Allan name to Canada. Captain 
Alexander Allan's work of nearly a 
century ago, continued so well by the 
sons he brought up to his trade, will 
live as a Canadian monument to the 
national tenacity of the Scot. 

$ 

TO DISSOLVE BIG TOWING CO. 

'TpHE announcement was made on 
Februaiw 11 that a decree had been 
handed down by the United States Cir- 
cuit Court at Cincinnati, ordering the 
dissolution of the Great Lakes Towing 
Co., which has had a monopoly of the 
towing business of fourteen principal 
ports of the great lakes for thirteen 
years. The decree denounces the meth- 
ods of the company, deciding that in 
driving out of business the numerous in- 
dependent tug companies which wen' 
in active competition prior to 1899, 
when the company was formed, indirect- 
ly violated the Sherman anti-trust law. 

@ 

G.T.R. ATLANTIC COASTERS. 

A DESPATCH from Providence, R.I.. 
states that the launching has taken 
place of the Narragansett, the first of the 
Grand Trunk boats for Atlantic coast- 
wise trade, from the shops of Harlan & 
Hollingsworth, Wilmington, Del. The 
Manhattan, a sister ship, will be launched 
later. Both have been designed by Mr. 
Kirby, of New York and Detroit, a well- 
known marine architect, who has design- 
ed some of the largest steamers on the 
Great Lakes. These vessels have been 
1 uilt for the Central Vermont Transpor- 
tation Co., and were financed a year ago 
by the sale of $1,500,000 bonds. 

The Narragansett is a steel twin screw 
vessel, 336 feet long and 63 ft beam at 
the guards. She has six decks, three 
above and two below the main deck. 
There is accommodation for 700 first- 
class passengers and 500 tons of express 
freight. Her gross tonnage is 5,000 
and her speed 20 knots. 

The first-class dining room, 72 by 42 
feet, is on the main deck aft, with two 
private dining rooms opening off it. 
There is also a music room and grill room 
on the gallery deck. Five gangways 
on each side of the main deck separate 
the different classes of passengers and 
freight. Spacious quarters for the 
junior officers and crew are on the lower 
decks. The Narragansett and Manhat- 
tan will ply between Providence and New 
York. 

44 



OUTLOOK FOR 1913 SHIPPING. 

a GENTS of the different ocean lines 
^ operating out of Canadian and Am- 
erican ports predict that this year's 
t ravel will be the largest in the history 
of all the lines. The number of book- 
ings and reservations made by tourists 
is more than double that for the same 
period last year. This condition of 
affairs also applies to travel from the 
other side of the Atlantic. 

It is stated that the booking for 
second and third-class travel from dif- 
ferent European points promises to ex- 
ceed that of any former year. Ac- 
commodation is fully booked for sail- 
ings extending almost into the fall, 
something quite unusual at this season 
of the year. So great has been the 
demand for reservations, several of the 
lines are endeavoring to charter extra 
steamers to meet the requirements. 

© 

ANALYSIS OF SYDNEY SHIPPING. 

■p\ CK1NG the year 1912, some 125 or 
150 different steamers entered the 
port of Sydney N.S., either with pas- 
sengers and freight, or to load or take 
bunker. It is safe to say that at least 
half of these made on an average of 
from 10 to 15 trips here during the 
season, thus adding greatly to the total 
shipping tonnage of the port. Of these 
boats over thirty comprise the coal com- 
pany's fleet, while the steel company 
have also a number on charter. Among 
the other lines which are represented 
among the 150 steamers spoken of above 
are the Elder-Dempster Line, the Head 
Line. Black Diamond Line, Reid Nfld. 
Co., Furness Withy Co., Mile Trans- 
portation Co., etc., etc. 

The tonnage of these steamers reaches 
from 100 ton (the trawlers) to close 
upon 4,000 tons. The greater number 
of the steamers calling at this port dur- 
ing 1912, were British owned. Cana- 
dian boats calling at Sydney during 
1912, were second, and Norwegian third. 
Their classification is roughly as fol- 



lows : — 

British 62 

Canadian 24 

Norwegian 15 

Danish 8 

Newfoundland . 7 

Dutch 6 

French 2 

German 1 

Swedish 1 

Austrian - 



yf\ 

Sarnia, Out. — The Reid Wrecking Co. 
has not been purchased by the Great 
Lakes Towing Co., as reported. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



The St. Lawrence River Pilotage Investigation 

The commission appointed by the Dominion Government to in- 
vestigate pilotage conditions as they presently exist on the St. 
Lawrence, has concluded its sittings, and the accompanying data 
contain a condensed account of the proceedings al Quebec. 



'Tp HE commission inquiring into the 
pilotage system on the St. Law- 
rence River between Father Point and 
Montreal resumed their investigation at 
Quebec Court House, February 21. 

The first witness called was Mr. P. 
H. Lamontagne, secretary of the Que- 
bec Corporation of Pilots. He said that 
lie had held his present position since 
April last, but had been assistant secre- 
tary since 1896. He promised that he 
would bring all the documents and 
statutes before the commission as soon 
as possible. 

Had Been a Pilot. 

Joseph Gravel, aged 87, who is a retired 
pilot, was next called, and stated that 
he had been a pilot for 49 years, and 
had retired when he was seventy-eight 
years old. He had served nine years of 
apprenticeship. Before the pilots were 
incorporated, their occupation was real 
slavery, and they were very badly 
treated. 

Commissioner Lachance — ' ' Although 
you are eighty-seven years old, your 
nerves are still strong " 

Witness — "I am not nervous." 

Commissioner — "Do you think that 
French-Canadians are nervous?" 

Witness — "French-Canadians are not 
more nervous than any others." 

It was shortly after this that the 
aged witness digressed to inform the 
commission that some people thought 
that French-Canadian pilots were no 
good, but he knew they were just as good 
as English pilots. 

Mr Hodden thought that the old gen- 
tleman's remarks should not be entered 
as he considered that he was defending 
himself against imaginary attacks which 
had not been made or thought of by 
anybody present. 

J. B. Briener, vice-president of the 
Quebec Corporation, said that he had 
been a pilot for thirty-one years. He 
considered that the system of transfer- 
ring pilots at Father Point was very 
satisfactory. The station was better 
there than at Bic. He thought that 
the transferring of pilots by the steamer 
Eureka was an improvement on the 
small boats. 

Pilot Boat Crews. 

Capt. J. B. Belanger, of the steamer 
Eureka, was next called and said that 
he sometime, had trouble going along- 
side vessels in heavy gales, but he had 
never missed. He considered that the 
Eureka was a suitable boat for the ser- 



vice in fine weather, but lie would pre- 
fer a good strong steam launch. 

He said that there were lifeboats on 
the Eureka, but the crew could not man 
them for they were only farm hands 
engaged from the surrounding parishes. 
They were not competent men, but came 
to him saying that they had been sent 
by their parliamentery representative. 
Those men only remained for about a 
month and then skipped out. He was 
powerless to prevent them, for they 
jumped up on the wharf and ran away. 
Good able seamen were badly required 
for the work. 

Influence of Politics. 

Alfred Laroehelle, pilot, aged 64 years 
said he was appointed superintendent in 
1907, and never had any trouble while 
in office. He did not resign, politics had 
put him out ; he had to go. 
lather Point was the proper place for 
the station, being superior to Bic, which 
was dangerous during fog. He was 
glad he was soon going to retire on 
account of the way they were being 
treated, but he would not say by whom. 
They had been promised there were to be 
no more suspensions, but when pilots 
committed an offence they would find 
such promise was not kept. 

To deprive a man of his means of 
living in middle life was a most severe 
punishment. Navigating steamers in 
thicker weather than this an another oc- 
casion. See, it is clearing up now," 
"Keep on, I can see such a light, or 
hear such a fog alarm. You ran in 
thicker weather than this on other oc- 
casions. See, it is clearing up now," 
If an accident occurred in the mean- 
time, they would say: "I told you to 
stop,' ' and make a report to that effect, 
being supported by the officer on the 
watch, against the pilot. 

Mr. Allan Testifies. 

Mr. Andrew Allan, President of the 
Shipping Federation gave evidence on 
Feb. 24. He said he considered the 
pilotage system of the St Lawrence was 
defective and, until it was put on a bet- 
ter basis, the insurance rates, an im- 
portant matter in the interests of com- 
merce, would not be reduced. He would 
have open competition for pilotage, and 
require pilots to speak English only, al- 
though knowing other languages would 
be no drawback. 

Apprentice pilots should have five 
years' service at sea to learn discipline, 
a very useful accomplishment on board 
ship, and which all Canadians needed. 
45 



If a man under present conditions from 
Nova Scotia or Ontario wished to become 
a pilot he was unable to do so on ac- 
count of his lack of knowledge of French. 
He thought that between Quebec and 
Father Point, pilots ought to have mas- 
ters' or mates' certificates, and that the 
pooling of pilots' earnings should he 
abolished, and each man paid what he 
earned. He thought the Government 
could protect the pilot and see that he 
received all that he earned. There was 
no reason why a pilot should not be 
paid for his work immediately it was 
finished. 

Mr. Rivard, K.C., appearing for Pilots 
Corporation — "Did you ever know of a 
pilot being refused on account of his 
nationality?" 

Mr. Allan — "What do you mean by 
nationality?" 

Mr. Rivard — "French, English, Ger- 
man, etc." 

Mr. Allan — "I know of no French or 
English pilots." 

He stated afterwards that he never 
knew of any pilots having been refused 
because he spoke one language or an- 
other. 

Mr. Allan said that lie considered 
the most essential knowledge which a 
pilot required was a knowledge of local 
conditions such as tides, currents, tem- 
perature, etc. He would place the 
age limit at 65 years, with a yearly ex- 
amination as to physical fitness, eye- 
sight and the like. 

Age Limit and Language. 

At the afternoon sitting, Mr. Raymond 
Bequest, sixty-eight years of age, pilot 
for forty-four years, and president of 
the Quebec Corporation of Pilots, was 
heard. Asked as to the age of retire- 
ment, Mr. Bequet said that he thought 
that seventy was right. As far as he 
was personally concerned he thought 
that it should be 75. Mr. Bequet com- 
plained of schooners which were contin- 
ually in the ships' channel, and without 
lights. The lightship at La Traverse, he 
thought, should be changed for a larger 
ship, as it went adrift several times last 
season. As far as pilots knowing both 
languages was concerned, he thought 
that since they had to learn English, it 
was not too hard on Englishmen t<> ask 
them to learn French to become pilots. 

Examined Documents. 

On February 25, the Pilotage Com- 
mission visited the office of Mr. Joseph 
Talbot, Government Superintendent of 
tiie Quebec Corporation of Pilots, to ex- 
amine the files and documents there. 

The first witness on this day, was 
Captain Belanger, of the steamer Eure- 
ka, who was recalled. He testified as 
to the difficulty which he had with thp 
-farm hands whom he was obliged to em- 
ploy as seamen. One man only remain- 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



ed one day, and another never went 
on board the steamer, but remain- 
ed on the wharf. He had received his 
orders re the hiring of men from the lo- 
cal Marine Department. 

A number of apprentice pilots were 
examined. Besides giving details of the 
work they were called on to perform, 
they made a number of suggestions with 
regard to what would assist them in their 
work, such as a steamer to carry them 
up and down the river to learn the cur- 
rents, etc. One suggested that a small 
sailing vessel be used to visit Riviere-du- 
Loup. Murray Bay, Riviere Ouelle, Sag- 
uenay, etc., to enable them to learn 
about these places, which they now have 
a rare chance of doing. 

Got $1,680, Earned More. 

G. A. St. Laurent, pilot of the White 
Star Dominion Line, said he received 
$1,680 for his service last season, but he 
earned more. He was satisfied with 
what he received, and was willing to 
share his earnings with his ^'leagues. 
He was paid by his company $500 each 
season for expenses, which is in addition 
to what he gets from the Corporation. 
He gets only the regular dividend from 
the Corporation. If the Corporation 
were dissolved', he was afraid he might 
not make as much as now. He might lose 
his position in the steamship company. 
Doing Away "With Pooling. 

At the sitting of the Commission on 
February 27, Mr. J. R. Mclsaac, of the 
Dominion Coal Company, expressed the 
opinion that it would be better for the • 
pilots to be controlled by the Govern- 
ment, and also that each pilot should be 
entitled to his own earnings instead of 
having them pooled, and only receiving 
1 1 is portion. 

Explaining his reason for wanting the 
pooling done away with, Mr. Mclsaac 
said that it accounted for pilots stop- 
ping work after they had made a regular 
number of trips, and the result of this 
was that a company having the same 
pilot for the season had to take an infer- 
ior man or else pay the regular man a 
bonus to continue until the close of 
navigation. 

The next witness was Captain Holmes, 
of the steamer Wabana, who said that 
he often had to stop his ship due to tows 
of barges which blocked the channel. 
He thought that the length of such tows 
should be limited to 350 feet. He offer- 
en! various suggestions as to lights, 
among others, the strengthening of the 
St. Laurent and the Traverse lights. 

.Mr. Raillargeon, pilot for the White 
Star Dominion Line, testified that his 
dividend from the Corporation was 
$1,680, Besides this he had received 
$12 a trip and had made 41 trips. He 
was satisfied as lie received his share of 
what came into the pilots' office. The 
first years he worked as a pilot he re- 



ceived less than $500 as his dividend. He 
did not know that the corporation had 
received $3,577.60 for his services last 
year, and while he had received less 
than $1,700 he was satisfied, as he had 
benefited by the system thirty years 
ago, and would be glad to benefit by it 
again next summer if he is to return to 
the "tour de role." 

On March 1, the Commission examin- 
ed Dr. Page, who testified that he was 
appointed examiner of the eyesight of 
pilots by the Deputy Minister of Marine 
in February, 1906. He thought the ex- 
amination to which pilots were subjected 
here was good, but that the eye test for 



out what his duties were further than 
wait for instructions. He said that he 
had never received any printed instruc- 
tions as to what his duties were, but he 
thought that he would be able to per- 
form his duties as soon as navigation 
opened. 

"When do you expect navigation will 
open this year?'' asked Mr. Holden. 

"Well, sometimes it opens early, and 
sometimes it opens late. I suppose it 
will open this year whenever He will,'' 
the witness replied. 

"Whenever who will?" asked Mr. 
Holden. 

Answer— "The First Master. God." 



8a dT Deck 



C Peek, 



D OK* 



_Low£5_Dfrx_ 



ousXe 



Oooslc Bottom 



5 S-'pLYMPIC* 

Scale t - »m ft)". 



SECTION SHOWING THE ALTERATIONS TO THE "OLYMPIC'S" HULL WHICH ARE 
BEING CARRIED OUT BY MESSRS. HARLAND & WOLFF, LIMITED. 



the apprentices might be more severe. 
Dr. Page said that a man's eyesight 
might be affected temporarily and get 
perfectly well within a few days. 

A Fanner a Chief Pilot. 

Mr. Thibaudeau, who had been Gov- 
ernment Superintendent of the Montreal 
Pilots at Quebec up to December last, 
and his successor, Joseph Frenette, were 
examined. Mr. Frenette testified that 
lie was 66 years of age. He had never 
been to sea in his life, but was a farmer, 
and a captain in the militia. He had al- 
so kept a boarding house. 

"Was it a temperance hotel?" asked 
Commissioner Robb. 

"Yes, sir! Yes, sir!" responded the 
witness. 

The witness admitted that he had been 
appointed to the position since Decem- 
ber last, but had taken no steps to find 
46 



Pilots Make Suggestion. 

It was decided by the Corporation of 
Quebec Pilots that they would relinquish 
the position of superintendent of pilots 
which has been held by pilot Talbot, and 
that they would leave the Shipping Fed- 
eration the right of suggesting a candi- 
date to be appointed superintendent by 
the Government. 

A letter to that effect was read before 
the Commission after Mr. Talbot, the 
present Superintendent of Pilots, had 
said that he would resign next April. 

Mr. Holden, K.C., appearing for the 
Shipping Federation, congratulated the 
pilots on the concession and asked them 
to endeavor to devise some means of im- 
proving the position of apprentice pilots. 

On March 3. the entire morning ses- 
sion of the Pilotage Commission, which 
resumed its investigation in (lie Board 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



of Trade Council Chamber, Montreal, 
was taken up by a presentation of On- 
tario's grievances against the present 
pilotage regulations, followed by a dis- 
cussion between the representative 
lawyers of the Shipping Federation of 
Canada, with headquarters at Montreal, 
and the Dominion Marine Association, 
with headquarters at Toronto. 

Complained of Discrimination. 

Mr. Francis King, of Kingston coun- 
sel for the Dominion Marine Associa- 
tion, urged the claims of Ontario. He 
drew attention to the apparently un- 
warranted discrimination against the 
Province of Ontario, whereby all ves- 
sels trading between the ports of Que- 
bec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, 
Prince Edward Island, and even New- 
foundland, and the Atlantic Coast as 
far as New York, are declared exempt 
from the compulsory payment of pilot- 
age dues, while vessels trading- from 
Ontario ports to those other provinces 
are required to pay these dues. 

"This discrimination," he said, "was 
made more marked by an amendment 
depriving the Province of Ontario of 
even the limited measure of exemption 
which its vessels previously enjoyed 
when drawing less than 16 feet of water, 
thus rendering all Ontario vessels which 
have passed through the St. Lawrence 
14 ft. canals liable to dues in Montreal 
Harbor, including pilotage dues every 
time the vessels move in the harbor." 
The latter proved to be a particularly ob- 
noxious regulation to Ontario ships. 
Moving from one dock to another costs 
Ontario vessels on an average of $25, 
$30 or more each trip. 

Mr. King claimed that the services of 
a pilot were unnecessary. "And what 
does rhe pilot do anyway?" he said, 
when Mr. Gauthier, president of the 
Montreal Pilots' Association, took ex- 
ception to this remark. "When he 
gets aboard he picks out the best chair 
obtainable, smokes a cigar or two, and 
then takes his departure after the ves- 
sel has been docked." In conclusion. 
Mr. King asked that Ontario be placed 
on an equal footing with Quebec, that 
master and mates be permitted to ob- 
tain licenses, that tow barks might 
be exempted from pilotage service, and 
that moving charges in Montreal har- 
bor be eliminated. 

Evidence on Eye Tests. 

That the present standard of eye test-v 
for the St. Lawrence River pilots is not 
good was the statement made before 
the Pilotage Commission by Dr. P. 
Coote, aculist. Dr. Coote was of the 
opinion that the standard appi*qved by 
the Marine Francaise for eye tests 
would, if applied, lead to a great im- 
provement in the pilots, and would au- 
tomatically make the service good with- 



in a short time. He said that the stan- 
dard applied did not eliminate the de- 
fects in color vision, while the test of 
the Marine Francaise did. The stan- 
dard of the Marine Francaise, he said, 
was full normal vision. 

Di\ Coote gave some illustrations of 
the inefficiency of the present vision 
examination passed by members of the 
Pilot Corporation before they assume 
their duties In the year 1900, said Dr. 
Coote, a pilot named Jacques Arcand 
passed the examination with success, 
and was granted the right to pilot ships 
between Quebec and Montreal for the 
ensuing year. Arcand was not satisfied 
with that diploma, and went to a -spe- 
cialist to have his sight examined again. 
The doctor told him that his eyes were 
not fit for his work, and advised him to 
ask to be put on the pension list. Ar- 
cand made his application, but the Cor- 
poration refused to grant it. A few 
clays later, said Dr. Coote, Arcand was 
responsible for the grounding of a 
steamer in the St. Lawrence. 

Mr. Wilbrod Gauthier, president of 
the Pilot Corporation of Montreal, 
asked to explain the case of Jacques 
Arcand, which was brought forward by 
Dr. Coote. At the time of the accident 
pilots who were under 65 years of age 
were not compelled to pass annual ex- 
aminations for their sight and general 
health. The trouble with Arcand was 
his lack of skill. It was in broad day- 
light that he grounded a steamship on 
the shore, which demonstrated that the 
fault was not all in the weakness of 
his eyes. 

Eye Test in London. 

Dr. Page, medical superintendent of 
t lie local immigration department, said 
that Dr. Coote was evidently not aware 
that since 1907 the eye test applied here 
for pilots was the same as that applied 
in London. He said that the Corpora- 
tion of Pilots had no influence whatever 
on the examination of the pilots' eyes, 
in his opinion the British and French 
tests for eyesight were about equal. 

Spoke Favorably of Pilots. 

The next witness was Mr. G. B. Ram- 
sey, of the White Star-Dominion Steam- 
ship Line. He said he found the pilots 
all right. He had selected pilots for 
many lines, and never had reason Lo 
complain of the service. With regard to 
apprentices, he would make rules for 
their admission more stringent with re- 
gard to their health, etc. They should 
have a special vessel, sailing preferred, 
supplied by the Government, to go up 
and down the river, to take soundings, 
learn the currents, etc. He had not a 
great deal to do with the Montreal 
nilots, although they employed six. They 
did business with the Montreal office. 

To Mr. Lachance witness said his 



office had in 25 years covered some 
2,000 pilotages. In 10 years there were 
accidents. Nine of these occurred in 
cases where the vessels were in charge 
of Quebec pilots, 16 while in charge of 
captains, 6 in charge of Montreal pilots, 
and the balance due to machinery. 

Inspection at Father Point. 

Mr. Ramsey thought that steamers 
should be inspected at Father Point to 
save delay and prevent accidents. The 
present system of holding investigations 
into accidents was not satisfactory. The 
court should be composed of a judge, 
with two nautical assessors who have no 
connection with the Government, which 
is as much on trial as the pilots and 
office. He could give no reason why a 
steamer should go ashore twice near the 
same place. He thought there would be 
more of an incentive to young men to 
become pilots if they got all they 
earned. He would say again that the 
list of accidents he furnished was not 
a record of wrecks. If passenger steam- 
ers were inspected at Father Point, and 
they received a clean bill of health, they 
could then come to port without stop- 
ping at Grosse Isle, where one of their 
vessels went ashore while waiting. 

End of the Inquiry. 

The pilotage inquiry came to a close 
on March 11, when Mr. Holden, on be- 
half of the Shipping Federation, and 
Messrs. A. Rivard and E. Belleau, for 
the pilots, summed up their respective 
sides of the inquiry. When the sitting 
was resumed in the afternoon, Mr. 
Lamontagne, secretary-treasurer of the 
Corporation of Pilots, produced a num- 
ber of papers which the commission had 
called for. In reply to Mr. Holden. 
witness stated that a candidate for an 
apprentice pilot must be recommended 
by a member of the Corporation. Vice- 
President Bernier, of the Corporation, 
was also recalled, and asked the same 
question, replying that he knew nothing 
about it. 

Mr. Holden then commenced summing 
up, traversing the testimony adduced at 
the inquiry at length. He congratulated 
the commission and the Corporation of 
Pilots on the way they had acted dur- 
ing the investigation. He said he felt 
that a dangerous state of affairs had 
existed here for the past fifty years. He 
said that there were serious disasters 
here last season to vessels while in 
charge of pilots. These accidents de- 
manded very serious investigation and 
correction. He did not hold the pilots 
entirely to blame for the existence of 
the present state of affairs, but those 
who did not attempt to improve it. He 
quoted the Shipping Act and the 
Statutes of Canada to show who had 
authority over the port of Quebec, and 
the extent of the Minister of Marine's 



47 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



authority. He considered that this con- 
flict of authority was wrong. He was 
not opposed to pilots uniting', but it 
should be an association, as elsewhere. 
He objected to a board of directors of 
six to control the body. It should be 
controlled by a salaried officer of the 
department. 

Eye Test Should be Severe. 

Referring to the office of superin- 
tendent, Mr. Holden stated that it was 
not promising for the future. He ar- 
gued that if the Corporation controlled 
the pilots it should be responsible for 
their acts. Mr. Holden maintained that 
the evidence made it appear that it was 
impossible for an apprentice to enter 
the service unless he was a protege of a 
member of the Corporation. He also 
dealt with the dual language qualifica- 
tion and the eye test. In regard to the 
latter he thought the tests should be 
more severe and that an apprentice 
should be examined first by an expert 
oculist and then by a Government offi- 
cial. After alluding to other facts 
brought out in the inquiry, Mr. Holden 
declared that there was need of a radi- 
cal change in the pilotage system, and 
that the system should be open to all 
and unburdened by any unessential re- 
strictions. 

Mr. Rivard's Summing Up. 

Mr. Rivard followed on behalf of the 
pilots. The Shipping Federation, he 
stated, was asking the corporation to 



make improvements, which it was not 
within the province of the corporation 
t r > carry out. There was nothing to 
prove, he contended, that the pilotage 
system was not open to all. He next 
dealt with the age limit. He did not 
believe in the theory that it would be 
a, good thing to limit the age to sixty- 
live years. Such a step might be the 
means of keeping the best pilot in the 
corporation from the St. Lawrence ser- 
vice. As to the alleged dual control, 
Mr. Rivard considered that article 433 
of the Shipping Act made it plain that 
the control of the system lay with the 
Minister of Marine and Fisheries. 

Mr. Rivard then elaborated the ar- 
gument that it was in the public in- 
terest and in the interest of trade and 
navigation that the pilots should pool 
their earnings, and that to attempt to 
coerce them to do otherwise would be 
to interfere with their private rights. 
He thought that if they abolished the 
corporation and did not allow them to 
pool their earnings they would revert 
to the old, unnatural and unwholesome 
competition which their incorporation 
had been intended to remedy. Pilots 
might be held up by captains, masters, 
etc., who would threaten to take an- 
other pilot. Far from reducing the effi- 
ciency of the pilots, said Mr. Rivard, 
the present system ensured that there 
should be good pilots for all vessels 
whether big or small, a thing that would 
not be possible otherwise. Discussing 



the eyesight tests and the criticism that 
had been directed at Dr. Page in this 
connection, Mr. Rivard said that the 
doctor had received no instructions as 
to standard, and had, therefore, estab- 
lished one himself. 

The commissioners are now engaged 
in going over approximately 3,000 pages 
of evidence taken at Montreal and Que- 
bec. Nearly 300 witnesses were ex- 
examined altogether. After carefully 
weighing the evidence taken, a report 
will be prepared and submitted to the 
Government. 

@ 

VICTORIA— SYDNEY ROUTE. 

/ T S HE Niagara, the new steamship of 
the Union Steamship Co., of New 
Zealand 's big passenger fleet, is, accord- 
ing to the latest schedule of the Cana- 
dian Australian line, fixed to leave 
Sydney for Victoria. May 5, replacing 
the Huddart-Parker liner Zealandia on 
the route between Australia, New Zea- 
land and the Dominion. Captain John 
Gibb, formerly in command of the 
steamer Makura, is piloting the huge 
passenger steamship from the Clyde 
yards of Messrs. John Brown & Co. by 
the way of Suez Canal to Australia. 

Arriving at Sydney just in time to 
handle the brunt of the Summer tourist 
traffic, there is no doubt that the Nia- 
gara will carry her full capacity of 
passengers on her maiden voyage to 
Victoria. Leaving Sydney May 5. she 




MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



will call at Auckland four days later, 
calling at Suva May 13, Honolulu May 
20, and is due to reach Victoria May 
27. 

On her return voyage to Australia 
the Niagara will leave Victoria June 11 
and is due to again reach Sydney July 
5 This is the last word in modern 
shipbuilding and was constructed es- 
pecially for the Canadian-Australian 
trade. The Niagara is of 13,500 tons 
register and will be driven by combined 
reciprocating and turbine engines de- 
veloping 13,000 horsepower. The dimen- 
sions of the vessel are : Length 543 feet ; 
beam, 66 feet, and depth 37.6 feet. 

@ 

THE ESTEVAN AT VICTORIA, B.C. 

'"P HE Goverment Steamer Estevan, 
which was built by the Collingwood 
Shipbuilding Co., and left Collingwood 
on Nov. 4th, 1912, has reached Vic- 
toria, B.C. During the intervening 
four months the steamer has made the 
trip of about 17,000 miles. Through- 
out the long voyage, the little steamer 
only 185 feet in length, proved herself 
sea-worthy in every respect, and de- 
monstrated her capabilities for service 
as a tender for lighthouses on the Pacific 
coast, for which she was specially con- 
structed. Captain Lindgren, who has 
taken out a number of steamers, in- 
cluding the C.P.R. Princesses, was in 
charge of the Estevan from Collingwood 
to Victoria. 

@ 

G. T. P. STEAMER SERVICE. 

T is said that a proposed run direct 
from Vancouver to Skidegate, and 
thence to Masset, will be included in the 
spring schedule of the Grand Trunk 
Pacific Steamship Co., which will short- 
ly be issued. The freight business be- 
tween the south and the islands is 
growing rapidly, and the G. T. P. offi- 
cials figure on saving time and doing a 
good business in this way. According 
to the despatch, the service will prob- 
ably be inaugurated about the beginning 
of April. 

© 

PRAISE FOR VICTORIA B.C. 

"D ECENT Sydney (Australia) papers 
contain an interview with Captain 
Alexander Sangster, of the New South 
Wales Navigation Department, who re- 
cently returned from a visit to Canada. 

Captain Sangster. especially compli- 
ments Victoria, B.C., on the possession 
of such efficient marine railways and a 
dry dock. He goes into detail as to the 
facilities here for the rapid repair of 
vessels as compared with other places 
lie visited, and in regard to the subsidiz- 
ing of a salvage plant he mentioned that: 



the Australian Governments do not do 
■juch a sensible thing. Of the plain 
maintained by the B. ('. Salvage Co. he 
says: "It is a huge plant, up-to-date 
in every wav, and lots of good work has 
been done in the salving of vessels." 

The traveler from the Antipodes was 
enthusiastic in regard to the ferry ser- 
vice maintained between Victoria and 
Vancouver by the B. C. Coast Service 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The 
manner in which great numbers of pas- 
sengers are handled excited his admira- 
tion, and he hinted that something of 
the kind should be inaugurated in the 
Commonwealth. He said: 

"I saw the fast coasters of the C.P.R. 
which make a speed of from twenty to 
twenty-two knots an hour, and maintain 
the running between Victoria Vancouver 
and Seattle in such a way that you can 
set your watch by them. They are 
beautifully fitted and keep up their speed 
in all sorts of weather. When the 
steamers are ready, the passengers go 
aboard — all the farwells are said in the 
waiting room, there is no delay, no con- 
fusion, and no chance for pilferers to get 
aboard at the luggage. It is a great 
scheme and a successful one. Then 
when it comes to disembarking, it is the 
same. The steamer comes alongside a 
big double-decked wharf, the top deck 
being for passengers and the lower deck 
for freight. There is neither confusion 
nor delay. Customs officers are wait- 
ing to examine the luggage, when between 
foreign ports, and you pass along in a 
constant stream. 

The handling of lumber cargoes on the 
Erazer River he considered the last word 
in that phase of cargo-stowing. 

®— 

R. AND O.OFFICIALS. 

\JiT ITH the reorganization of the 
Richelieu and Ontario Naviga- 
tion Co., many changes have taken place 
among the officials, and recently the 
management issued a circular giving a 
list of their officers as follows: — 

James Playfair, managing director. 

J. I. Hobson, comptroller and trea- 
surer. 

F. Percy Smith, secretary. 

H. H. Gildersleeve, manager western 
lines, with headquarters at Toronto. 

Thos. Henry, manager eastern lines, 
with headquarters at Montreal. 

Gilbert Johnston, mechanical superin- 
tendent, with headquarters at Montreal. 

L. A. W. Doherty, freight traffic man- 
ager, with headquarters at Toronto. 

H. Foster Chaffee, passenger traffic 
manager, with headquarters at Mont- 
real. 

W. F. Cloney, district passenger 
agent, Buffalo — Rochester and west in 
New York State. Western Pennsyl- 
49 



vania, Central ami Southern United 
States. 

J. W. Caiviu, district passenger 
agent, Alexandria Bay — Montreal to 
Kingston in Canada, New York State, 
east of Rochester, Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania and the Atlantic seaboard. 

J. F. Dolan, district passenger agent, 
Boston, Mass. — Montreal and east in 
Canada and the New England States. 

John V. Foy, district passenger agent, 
Toronto — Kingston and west in Can- 
ada, Michigan, Illinois and the north- 
western States. 

S. J. Murphy, T.P.A., and excursion 
agent, Toronto — all excursion business 
for the Niagara Navigation Co. 

George Pujos, excursion agent, in 
charge ticket department, Montreal. 

John F. Pierce, assistant general pas- 
senger agent and general baggage agent, 
with office at Montreal. 

Hugh D. Paterson, general agent, pas- 
senger department, with office at 
Toronto. 

Jos. F. Dolan, district passenger 
agent, with office at Boston, Mass. 

© 

BRITISH ENGINEER'S VISIT. 

■fir ITH the arrival of Sir John Jack- 
■ son, president of the Sir John 
Jackson Construction and Engineering 
Co., of London and Canada, at Montreal 
last week, rumors were started as to the 
probable business which brought him to 
this country. He is one of the most 
noted of British engineers and contract- 
ors, some of the work which he has un- 
dertaken and carried out being world fa- 
mous. 

The Sir John Jackson Company have 
a contract of two million dollars for im- 
proved harbor facilities at Victoria. 
B.C., and they were the only firm to 
tender for the Dry Dock to be construct- 
ed at Levis, P.Q. Rumors in circulation 
are to the effect that he was in Mon- 
treal in connection with the new tunnel 
which it is proposed to build under the 
St. Lawrence to the South Shore, and 
credence was given this rumor by the 
fact that the Company's men were en- 
caged in making surveys of this work 
some months ago. 

@ 

ADDITIONS TO THE C. N. R. FLEET. 

WO new liners will be added to the 
■ C. N. R. Royal line by the spring 
of next year, according to report. It 
is stated that the additions will be ab- 
solutely necessary if the C. N. R. is to 
handle the increased traffic over its own 
rails, which extensions now being made 
will render possible by the spring of 
1914. 



Canadian Pacific Railway Co. Elevator, Port McNicholl, Ont. 

The idea of establishing the Port McNicholl terminal with elevator accommodation, in ad- 
dition to those existent at the head of Lake Superior, had, as its purpose, the storage and 
reloading of grain into railroad cars for transportation with greater efficiency, eastwards 
through Canadian territory. That the step taken was a wise one has been amply proven. 



p ORT McNicholl is situated at the 
extreme eastern end of the Geor- 
gian Bay, about 7 miles from Midland. 
Here an elevator of 2,000,000 bushels' 
capacity was completed early in 1911. 
After about a year's operation, it was 
clearlv demonstrated that in order to 



pleted in time to be filled with the 1911 
crop before the close of lake navigation. 
It is 179 feet wide and 226 feet long, 
making the total length of the elevator 
452 feet. There are altogether 64 
cylindrical bins, each 32 feet 11 inches 
in diameter, and 62 interspace bins. The 




C.P.R. GRAIN ELEVATOR AT POUT Mc-NICHOLL. ONT. 



take care of the vast volume of business 
offering an addition was at once abso- 
lutely necessary. Steps were, therefore, 
taken to provide this by building an- 
other storage unit of equal capacity to 
the original. 

The New Storage Unit. 
The new storage unit is an exact 
duplicate of the first, and was com- 



latter hold about one-fourth of the 
quantity that a cylindrical bin does. 
The walls of the bins are 80 feet high. 
The entire structure is of steel and con- 
crete. The two marine towers which 
traveled along the side of the original 
elevator fill also the new storage unit. 
Each marine tower is 150 feet in height, 
and consists of structural steel covered 



with corrugated iron, the whole being 
mounted upon 40 heavy car wheels. 
Steel stairs run all the way from the 
bottom to the top, and the roof and 
floors are of concrete. Each of the 
towers has a capacity of 20,000 bushels 
per hour, and each one is self-propelling, 
traveling independently of the other on 
a double track between the storage 
house and the slip. The marine legs 
are designed so that they can enter pas- 
senger boats as well as freight boats, 
and a complete set of air operated 
shovels and clean up shovels is pro- 
vided to bring the grain to the legs as 
rapidly as possible. 

Grain is delivered to 1,000 bushels 
scales, after which it is taken to the top 
of the towers and dropped into one of 
the bins of the storage house or work- 
ing house. The longitudinal conveyors 
which receive the grain from the marine 
towers run the entire length of the two 
units. Grain for shipment from the 
new portion is conveyed through the 
basement of the first storage to the car 
shipping house. In this car shipping 
house 200 cars can be loaded in 10 
hours. Cars can also be unloaded in 
the working house and boats loaded by 
means of a special loading spout on one 
of the towers. 

Power Equipment. 

All the machinery is electrically 
driven, power being generated in a 
steam plant separate from the main 
building, and shown at the extreme 




C.P.R. KLBVATOR AT PORT McNICHOLL, ONT., WITH NEW STORAGE ADDITION COMPLETED. 

50 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



right in Figs. 1 and 2. There are in- 
stalled two Westinghouse- Parsons 
steam turbines, direct connected to gen- 
erators; the plant having a capacity of 
1.500 horse-power steam at 160 lbs. 
pressure, is supplied by six Babcock & 
Wilcox water tube boilers of 250 h.p. 
each. The smoke stack, of reinforced 
concrete, is 160 feet in height. Besides 
supplying motive power, the plant takes 
care of an elaborate system of incan- 
descent and arc lamps, making night 
operation as easy as that of day time. 

There are about iy 2 miles of wharves 
altogether, and it is planned to add 
storage units whenever the volume of 
business renders these imperative, there 
being adequate room for future exten- 



Metcalf Co., engineers, of Montreal and 
( Ihicago, 



THE COLOSSUS OF THE SEAS. 

T HE Royal Mail Packet Co. ha vie 
purchased the Nelson Line of steam- 
ers at a total price of $5,434,545. The 
Nelson Line has a registered capital of 
£1,000,000 sterling, and has valuable, 
contracts with the Swifts and several 
Argentine meat companies for the trans- 
portation of frozen or chilled meats be- 
tween the River Plate and London. In 
addition it operates a passenger line 
with ten steamships. 

This new acquisition makes the Royal 
Mail Steam Packet Co. the largest 



effected. Tin; following figures are from 
a report made by one of the company's 
officials and show the comparative cost 
of the two kinds of fuel. 

Burning coal, the daily cos! I'm- the 
Princess Charlotte was 100 tons of coal 
at $4.50 per ton, or a total of $450 for 
this item alone. The wages of Li tire- 
men amounted every day to $2.'i.80, wages 
of 10 trimmers to $15, and food for the 
23 men cost $9.50, or a total cost per 
diem of $498.36. 

Burning oil, the Princess Charlotte 
consumes 344.17 barrels a day at a cost 
of 90 cents per barrel, a total for oil 
fuel of $314.25 a day. The wages of the 
six firemen employed amount to $11.10 
per diem, and their food to $2.52, or a 




C.P.R. ELEVATOR AT PORT McNICHOLL, ONT., WITH NEW STORAGE ADDITION UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 



sions up to 10,000,000 bushels capacity. 
The entire plant is fireproof, for, ex- 
cepting the transmission ropes, there is 
nothing combustible about it. All the 
windows have wired glass, and metal 
conduits have been provided for the 
electric wiring-. A fire pump supplies 
water to the various hydrants placed 
throughout the elevator. 

The plant has a flour shed, 700 feet 
long, and also a freight shed, of the 
same length. There is a carpenter shop, 
a coal platform, a pump house and a 
Customs house. In addition, a sleeping- 
house and an eating house have been 
provided for the freight porters. The 
construction work was carried out un- 
der the supervision of J. M. R. Fair- 
bairn, assistant chief engineer of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, and C. W. P. 
Ramsey, engineer of construction for 
the company ; while the structure was 
designed and erected by the John S. 



steamship company in the world, with a 
total tonnage of 1,514,854 as against 
1.240,000 tons owned by the Hamburg- 
American Line, and Sir Owen Phillips 
becomes in reality, as he has often been 
called, the "Colossus of the Seas." He 
is only 49 years of age, and since be- 
coming Chairman of the Company in 
1903, he has acquired the following lines 
The Elder-Dempster, Forward Line to 
Morocco, the Pacific Steam Navigation 
Co., the Shire Line, Lamport and Holt, 
the Union Castle, and now the Nelson 
Line. 



OIL FUEL SAVES EXPENSE. 

O INGE the C. P. R. Pacific Coast 
steamers, Princess Victoria and 
Princess Charlotte, have been changed 
from coal burners to oil burners for 
steam railway purposes, a considerable 
saving in operating expenses has been 
51 



total cost of $327.87 per day, which is 
a difference in favor of oil of $170.49 
a day. The difference in favor of oil 
per day on the Princess Victoria, a 
smaller vessel, is $159.69. 

® 

COUNCIL NO. 8, LEVIS, N.A.M.E. 

President — Hilaire Mercier. 

Vice-Presidents — Eugene Belanger, 
Joseph Boulanger. 

Secretary — S. G. Guenard. 

Secretary-Treasurer — Thos. Theriault. 

Assistant Secretary — Alcide Langlois. 

Conductor — Odilon Lambert. 

Doorkeeper — Jean Fiset. 

Auditors — Frank Labarre, Honorat 
Beaulieu. 

Members of Council — Joseph Guay, 
Emile Boldue, Hervey Fortin, Arthur 
Carbonneau, Bienville ; Alfred Dion, 
Bureau Guav. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



The MacLean Pub. Co., Ltd. 

(ESTABLISHED 1888.) 
JOHN BAYNE MACLEAN ... President 
H. T. HUNTER .... General Manager 
PUBLISHERS 

MarineEngineering 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and develop- 
ment of Merchant and Naval Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, 
the building of Harbors and Docks, and containing a record of 
the latest and best practice throughout the Sea-going World. 



H. V. TYRRELL, Toronto 
PETER BAIN, M.E., Toronto 



Business Manager 
Editor 



OFFICES: 



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Bldg. 

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London— 88 Fleet St., E.C. 
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115 Broadway 
Phone 2209 Rector 
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Room 607, Marquette Bldg. 
140 S. Dearborn St. 



Cable Address: 
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SUBSCRIPTION RATE. 
Canada, $1.00: United States, $1.50; Great Britain, Australia and 
other colonies, 4s 0d., per year; other countries, $1.50. Advertis- 
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Subscribers, who are not receiving their paper regularly, will 
confer a favor by telling us. We should be notified at once of 
any change In address, giving both old nnd new. 



Vol. Ill 



MARCH, 1913 



No, 3 



THE ST. LAWRENCE PILOTAGE INVESTIGATION. 

|N the present issue of our journal will be found the sec- 
ond and final portion of the evidence submitted to the 
commission appointed to inquire into pilotage conditions 
as presently existent on the St. Lawrence River below 
Montreal, and in the Gulf. The necessity for the appoint- 
ment of this Commission of Investigation arose through 
sheer force of circumstances, jeopardizing, as these were, 
the utility and effectiveness of the St. Lawrence as a com- 
mercial asset of our country. Marine men all over the Do- 
minion have an interest in this subject, and when it is 
taken into consideration that business men are equally 
involved and affected, it is safe to say that no stone should 
be left unturned to remove whatever reproach belongs to 
our main artery and highway of international trade and 
commerce. 

It cannot be said that the information brought out at 
the inquiry is at all conducive to a continuance of the 
present methods and arrangements whereby pilots live, 
move and have their being, in short, Ave are inclined to 
believe that what has been probed puts the pilotage ques- 
tion in an infinitely worse light than we had, perhaps, 
reason to expect. It will, we believe, be the general con- 
sensus of opinion among our readers that nothing short 
of a revolution of the whole system will bring about satis- 
factory results in the safe navigation of our great ocean 
higrhwa v. 



CANADA AND EMERGENCIES. 

TltfEIETHER we be Tories or Liberals, Imperialists or 
Nationalists, Canadian-born or otherwise, we are 
grieved to be iold by Mr. Winston Churchill, First Lord 
of the British Admiralty, that Canada is unable to build 
:ind man battleships in sufficient time to meet the emer- 
gency. After reading Mr. Churchill's letter to the Prem- 
ier, we are inclined to cry out, that 'nothing is impossible 



with Canadians, for did they not, thirty years ago, build 
the greatest railway in the world, and are they not to-day 
building equipment for this and two others?' We are 
compelled, however to admit the accuracy of Mr. Church- 
ill's statement. The emergency, which is said to exist, 
creates a situation requiring prompt action if Great Bri- 
tain is effectually to compete with Germany. 

Without this emergency, the assertion of the First 
Lord would be ridiculous, being analogous to a declaration 
that farmer Jones cannot supply eggs for the Sunday 
school picnic, because he has no hens. Cannot Jones buy 
some hens? Yes, but he cannot force them to lay, and the 
picnic is to-day. It occurs to one after a little thought, 
that Jones may, after all, buy the hens and supply the 
eggs for next year's picnic. 

So it is with Canada. Let her meet this emergency 
with what come readiest to hand, and then prepare to 
meet the next one herself. It is childish to suppose that 
no other call will be made on this country for battleship-. 
The next battleships should be built here, and prepar- 
ations made now. Preparations are. of course, beinu 
made. Shipbuilding plants are being projected on a \av2v 
scale both in the East and West, and every support should 
be given to them. 

We are told by Mr. Churchill that "for the manufac- 
ture of armor plates, large steel furnaces, heavy rolling 
mills, etc., capable of dealing with weights of 150 tons at 
a time, have to be provided, besides which the special 
treatment to obtain the correct quality of plates requires 
special experts who have been brought up to nothing else. 
Such men could not be obtained in Canada." 

Such men can be obtained in Canada, and Canada is 
not limited to her own population. If she can bring 
experts from Great Britain and the United States to plan 
her waterworks systems, she can also obtain shipbuilding 
experts from abroad. Mr. Churchill loses sight of the 
emergency in his calculations. In every one of his state- 
ments regarding Canada's inability, the words 'under the 
circumstances' should lie appended, or the statement 
sounds untrue and ridiculous. 

The First Lord of the Admiralty lays much stress on 
the fact that the cost of doing this work here will be 
about twice what it would be in Great Britain, and that 
the officers and crews of the Rainbow and the Xiobe re- 
ceive two-thirds more wages than those in the Imperial 
navy. Exactly. The men sweeping the streets of Tor- 
onto receive two-thirds more wages than the men sweep- 
ing the streets of London, England, yet nobody has ever 
considered it an outrage. If the United States had taken 
waues into consideration, she would not have had her 
shipyards and arsenals to-day, but would be ordering her 
battleships in Great Britain, where they are cheap. 

Canada is reminded of certain South American States 
who bought warships, and by non-attention, allowed them 
to scrap. These Southern States are not autonomous in 
the sense Canada is. Their warships were merely immense 
toys, for which they had no use, for once they put them to 
work, the Monroe Doctrine stepped in, and this made 
them useless. 

Canada must, first of all, put herself in the right frame 
of mind. Her initial attempt to equip a navy has been a 
joke, which nobody laughs at, because of its realized 
seriousness. The naval profession in this Dominion must 
he lifted to a standard equal to that of Great Britain. The 
highest positions must be available to the humblest, so 
that it will he as honorable and lucrative to be a captain 
in the Canadian navy as to be chief engineer of a railway 
division. When this consummation is attained, Canada 
w ill he more of a nation, and emergencies will not humili- 
ate her. 



52 



READERS' NOTES AND VIEWPOINT 

Devoted to Brief Article Contributions Covering Experiences, Correspond- 
ence and Comment on Matters Marine. We Pay for Suitable Material. 



PITCHING PROPELLERS. 

By J. Livingston Booth. 

f^v F all the problems confronting- the 
marine engineer, there is none that 
presents so many difficulties as that of 
propeller design. It is probably true that 
the, majority of successful propellers 
are those in which the design has been 
based upon data obtained from the care- 
ful observation of the performance of 
propellers operating' under as nearly as 
possible similar conditions. Therefore, 
whether we base our design on previous 
experience or decide to work on more 
scientific lines, it is necessary to have a 
means of knowing - exactly the various 
conditions that we have to deal with, 
and also of insuring that the design is 
adhered to in manufacture. 

A very useful piece of apparatus for 
measuring the pitch of propellers is 
shown in the accompanying sketch, and 



t lie parts (D) and (E), which are also 
of east iron, the lower can be fixed in 
any position on the spindle by means of 
the setscrew (F), while the upper half 
which is a running fit on spindle, has a 
lug cast on it to carry the steel arm 
(G). This arm is drilled at different 
distances from the centre of the spindle, 
usually increasing by 6 inches, to take 
the guide (H) and pointer (J), which 
has a movable collar and thumbscrew 
(K). The circumference of the part 
(D) is divided into 48 equal parts, while 
an arrow is stamped on the circumfer- 
ence of the upper part (E). 

To take the pitch, the propeller is 
centred true with the spindle by means 
of the taper blocks (B) and (C), and 
the arm and pointer slipped on spindle, 
the lower half being secured by the set- 
screw at a convenient height to suit the 
length of pointer. The arrow on (E) is 
then set on one of the divisions on (D) 




/~Oi//VOA TlON 



PITCHING PROPELLERS. 



will appeal to those engaged in this 
class of work ,not only by its simplicity 
and inexpensiveness, but also on ac- 
count of the rapidity and accuracy with 
which the pitch can be taken at dif- 
ferent points on the blades of a pro- 
peller. It can be used for any type of 
propeller, and is especially useful for 
small ones having movable blades, and 
large ones having adjustable blades se- 
cured to the boss by bolts; when setting 
the required pitch, at the time the cod 
pieces round the bolts, are being fitted. 

The apparatus consists of a spindle 
(A), bolted to a suitable foundation, 
which may be of a permanent charac- 
ter, or if the apparatus is not in use 
sufficiently often to justify this, a mark- 
ing out table can be used. The two cast 
iron blocks (B) (C) are a sliding fit on 
the spindle and are turned taper to take 
propeller bosses of different bores. Of 



and the propeller swung round until the 
lower edge of one of the blades just 
touches the pointer when near its lowest 
position. The collar (K) is then tight- 
ened up to hold the pointer in a position 
just touching the blade. The pointer is 
then raised and the arm moved round 
l-48th of a revolution. The pointer is 
then dropped until it just touches the 
blade, and the distance (X), read on a 
scale of i/4 inch to the foot, is the pitch 
of the propeller. If it is more con- 
convenient to take two of the spaces for 
a reading, that is, a movement of l-24th 
of a revolution, the distance (X) must 
be read on a scale of V2 i Qcn to the 
foot. In this manner several readings 
can be taken across each blade at dif- 
ferent radii from the centre. 

In connection with this it is interest- 
ing to note the degree of accuracy that 
the British Admiralty consider neces- 
53 



sary in the manufacture of propellers 
for torpedo boats and similar work. 
When the blades have been cleaned up 
and polished, the pitch is taken in the 
presence of an Admiralty inspector. A 
series of readings is taken close to the 
root of the blade, a second series near 
the tip, and either one or two series 
across the full part of the blade, depend- 
ing on the size of propeller. The aver- 
age of each of these series of readings 
at different radii is taken, and the aver- 
age of the results obtained is again 
taken to give the average for the blade. 
This is repeated for each blade, and the 
average of the number of blades is then 
taken, which is considered the true pitch 
of the propeller. If this differs by 
more than a small amount from the de- 
signed pitch the propeller is rejected. 

The writer has frequently used the 
apparatus here shown for Admiralty 
work of this description, and the large 
number of readings required can be 
taken in a very short time. There are 
many little improvements that will sug- 
gest themselves to the mind of the prac- 
tical man, such as the guiding of the 
pointer to prevent its revolving and the 
addition of an arrow reading on a per- 
manent scale attached to the guide. The 
apparatus can be modified to suit the 
conditions under which it is used. 



A LARGE DREDGER. 

A FOUR- YARD dipper dredger with a 
70 ft. steel boom and a 48 ft. dipper 
handle was at work during the past sum- 
mer and autumn on a section of the Erie 
Canal. Its size enables the full 75 ft. 
bottom width of the canal to be dredged 
in one cut, and the excavated material 
delivered over the embankment into spoil 
banks. The hull of the dredger is 106 ft. 
long, 38 ft. wide, and 8 ft. 6 in. deep 
forward and 7 ft. aft. It is built of 
Georgia pine and is stiffened by two 
steel trusses 13 ft. deep, spaced 24 ft. on 
centres. These trusses are connected to 
a steel cross truss forward, forming the 
casing for the 24 in. square steel spuds. 
The main engines are 12 in. by 16 in. 
compound, and the swinging and spud 
engines are 9 in. by 9 in. compound. The 
boiler, of the marine type, is 9 ft. 6 in. 
in diameter and 14 ft. long. The dredger 
was in continuous operation for four 
months, and during that time not more 
than 12 hours of working time were lost 
by reason of stoppage of machinery. 
The section dredged covered about six 
miles. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



THE HUDSON BAY PORT PROJECT. 

/ Tp HE Canadian Government intend 
early in the spring to take active 
steps to render the entrance to Hudson 
Bay easy of navigation by large steam- 
ers. Lighthouses are to be built, buoys 
laid down, and various important works 
will be undertaken at Port Nelson, Fort 
Churchill, and along the Hudson Strait. 
A careful survey of the whole district 
has been made, and recommendations 
will in due course be submitted to the 
Department of Marine. As most of our 
readers are doubtless aware, there is to 
be a railway from the wheat district of 
Saskatchewan to Fort Churchill, and 
the advocates of this route claim that it 
will provide a ready and cheap outlet 
for grain. 

Many people able to speak with au- 
thority maintain, however, that the Hud- 
son Bay route can never be made a suc- 
cessful proposition. The season of open 
navigation is, they declare, too short to 
enable any large proportion of the an- 
nual harvest to be shipped; elevator stor- 
age would be far more costly than, say, 
at Port Arthur or Fort William; and 



Liverpool to Montreal 2,990 

Montreal to Vancouver 2.906 

Liverpool to Vancouver 5,896 

As far back as 1886, the Dominion 
Government despatched an expedition to 
investigate the navigability of Hudson 
Strait for commercial purposes, and the 
verdict of the commander, Lieut. Gor- 
don, was scarcely encouraging. "Alto- 
gether," he wrote, after making some 
general observations on the navigation 
of Hudson Strait and Bay, "I consider 
the navigation of Hudson Strait as be- 
ing more than ordinarily difficult, with 
shores inhospitable and bleak, present- 
ing such a picture of loneliness and de- 
solation that it takes some time to get 
accustomed to it. The only safety in 
thick weather lies in the constant use of 
the lead and keeping a bright look-out, 
as the dead reckoning is frequently in 
error to a considerable extent." Later, 
he expresses the opinion that a ship- 
owner who permitted his vessel to enter 
the Bay before the middle of July 
would be subjected to such delays as 
would add very seriously to the cost of 



work by July. Owing to the mildness of 
the winter, good progress has been made 
at the site of the drydock and break- 
water. 

@ 

GRAIN AT HEAD OF LAKES 

a REPORT just compiled at Port 
*** Arthur. Ont. by a leading elevator 
firm shows that grain is piling up at 
the American head of the lakes at an 
alarming rate, the quantity in storage 
o: March 7, exceeding that of the same 
date last year by more Hian seven ( 
million bushels. Of wheat alone, there 
is now at Superior and Duluth 12,620.- 
484 bushels, as against 7,635,700 bushels 
in 1912, and of flax there is to-day 2.610,- 
704 bushels as against 585,5SS bushels 
one year ago. This does not include 
bonded flax, of which there is 900.000 
bushels on hand, more than 700.000 
bushels in excess of 1912. 

Four great elevator sj r stems at the 
head of the lakes are now practically 
filled, and the remaining two have room 
only for six or eight million bushels 
more. Receipts are running from two 




MOUTH OF THE NELSON KIVER NEAR 1'ORT NELSON. 



the interest on capital locked up in wheat 
at Hudson Bay from October in one year 
to August in the next would be another 
very serious consideration. Then, too, 
it is probable that the premiums on ves- 
sels using the Hudson Bay route would 
be on such a scale that would more 
than counterbalance any saving which 
might be effected in the cost of trans- 
portation. The new route would, of 
course, shorten the distance between 
Western Canada and the United King- 
dom; in fact, as the following table 
shows, the actual reduction on a jour- 
ney from Liverpool to Vancouver would 
be 1,328 miles:— 

Miles. 

Liverpool to Fort Churchill 2,926 

Fort Churchill to Calgary 1,000 

Calgary to Vancouver 642 

Liverpool to Vancouver 4,568 



the voyage; while any vessel leaving the 
Bay after the middle of October would 
be faced with grave risk of becoming 
ice-bound. 

The fact that the Hudson Bay route 
is to a large extent a pawn in Canadian 
party polities has tended to cloud the 
issue from a purely commercial stand- 
point, and, consequently, it is difficult to 
discover what are the real merits, if any. 
of the scheme. 

® 

ST. JOHN DRYDOCK. 

■pvR EDGING at Courtenay Bay, St. 
*^ John, will be resumed on April 1. 
The Norton Griffiths Co. started this 
work last fall and expected to be able to 
work all the winter, but found the un- 
dertow too strong for them. They will 
start with two dredges and expect to 
have another large suction dredge at 
54 



hundred and fifty to three hundred 
thousand per day. 

© 

R. & O. NAVIGATION CO. 

TVA R- James Carruthers, President, and 
•*• A Mr. J. R. Binning, Chairman, of 
the R. & O. Navigation Co., accompanied 
by Hon. J. P. B. Casgrain, paid an official 
visit of inspection to Sorel, P.Q.. on 
March 7. 

Official circulars have been issued con- 
firming the appointments which James 
Playfair announced on March 1, to- 
gether with the following additional 
appointments not included in that list: 
J. I. Hobson, Comptroller and Treasurer; 
F. Percy Smith, Secretary; H. H. Gilder- 
sieve, manager of western lines, with 
headquarters at Montreal, and Gilbert 
Johnson, Mechanical Superintendent, 
with headquarters at Montreal. 




Fort William, Ont. — The city may 
build an extra dock here, where boats 
may call and take on passengers. 

St. John, N.B.— The Dominion Govern- 
ment contemplate the purchase of a 75 
ton floating crane for St. John Harbor. 

Port Arthur, Ont. — The Dominion Iron 
and Steel Co. will establish a line of 
steamers between Sydney and Port 
Arthur. 

London, Ont.— The people will be ask- 
ed to vote on the expenditure of $75,000 
to erect a breakwater, to protect west 
London from floods. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The R. & 0. Navigation 
Co. are extending their freight dock at 
Port Edward, and erecting sheds. A 
laundry will also be built. 

New Liskeard, Ont. — Work has been 
commenced by J. P. Farrelly, the sub- 
contractor, on the new dock. About 300 
piles will be driven first. 

Owen Sound, Ont. — Local men will run 
a line of freight steamers to Fort Wil- 
liam. Two boats will be bought by J. S. 
Robertson, one of those interested. 

Ottawa, Ont.— The Pacific Dredging 
Company has been awarded the contract 
for dredging False Creek, Vancouver, 
B.C., at a price of approximately $693,- 
000. 

Fort William, Ont. — A new and power- 
ful ice-breaking tug is being built at the 
docks of the Western Drydock and Ship- 
building Co. for the Great Lakes Dredg- 
ing Company. 

Levis, Que. — T. Davie & Sons, are 
building six steel scows for the Dominion 
Public Works Department, and also a 
large hopper dredge for the Marine and 
Fisheries Department. 

Vancouver, B.C.— The C.P.R. have 
given a contract for 250,000 feet of cre- 
osoted piling to the Pacific Lumber Cre- 
osote Plant at Eagle Harbor, Wash., to 
be used for dock extensions. 

Port Huron, Mich— Capt. J. T. Reid, 
of the Reid Wrecking Company, denies 
the rumors that the Reid interests in this 
city and Sarnia had been purchased by 
The Great Lakes Towing Co. 



Toronto, Ont.— The Richelieu and On- 
tario Navigation Co. will build docks here 
costing a million dollars. A double dock 
will be of reinforced concrete and steel. 

Fort Erie, Ont.— The town has ar- 
ranged with Fix Bros. ,Buffalo, to run 
ferries after April 1. The charter of the 
Buffalo and Fort Erie Ferry Co. has been 
cancelled. 

North Vancouver, B.C. — Debentures 
for $155,000 will be issued for the con- 
struction of No. 4 ferry and terminals 
at the Vancouver side for the Vancouver 
Ferry Co. Mr. Kemp is secretary. 

Sarnia, Ont. — For the second time this 
winter the heavy ice flows in the St. 
( 'lair River disabled the car ferry Inter- 
national of the Pere Marquette Line, 
which plies between Port Huron and 
Sarnia. on March 8. 

St. John, N.B.— Because of St. John's 
growth, the port is to be raised to the 
classification of first-class, and will 
rank with Montreal. The Customs for 
the fiscal year, it is believed, will show 
an increase of $300,000. 

Toronto, Ont. — The city will build a 
light scow for diving operations, a scow 
for derrick work with hoisting engine, 
drum, pump, etc., and a pile driver. The 
work will be started at once in order to 
have these ready for the spring. 

St. John's, Nfld.— While leaving the 
harbor for the sealing grounds, the 
steamers Beothic and Belleventure col- 
lided on March 13. The latter boat was 
so badly damaged, she had to be taken to 
dry dock immediately for repairs. 

Montreal, Que.— The Canada Cement 
Company will build a 500 foot wharf at 
its plant at Pointe-Au-Trembles, for the 
purpose of facilitating the shipment of 
its product. The engineers employed 
by the Harbor Commission are now tak- 
ing soundings, and it is expected that 
work will be completed by the fall. 

Hamilton, Ont. — Judgment has been 
awarded E. Browne. & Son, wharfingers, 
Hamilton, against the Canadian Lake 
Transportation Co., of Toronto, on the 
former's counterclaim. The claim was 
for $3,326 for alleged breach of a five- 
55 



years' contract to bring 6,000 tons of 
freight yearly to the wharf to E. 
Browne & Son. A reference to the Mas- 
ter is directed to determine the amount. 

St. Catharines, Ont. — Chief Engineer 
Weller, of the Welland Ship Canal, 
states that he expects that actual work 
will be commenced on the big under- 
taking during the summer, but that the 
exact date depends upon the govern- 
ment. 

Vancouver, B.C. — The light being in- 
stalled "at Langara Island will be in 
operation by the beginning of June, ac- 
cording to Captain F. T. Saunders, head 
of the Digby Island marine depot. This 
beacon will be the most powerful light on 
the Pacific Coast. 

Ottawa, Ont. — The Government will 
call tenders for the construction of ferry 
slips for the new car ferry service from 
Prince Edward Island to the mainland. 
The terminals will be at Cape Traverse 
and Cape Tormentine, and cost in the 
neighborhood of $1,500,000 to $2,000,000. 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. — The sum of 

$400,000 will be spent on the water 
front at Sault Ste. Marie this season in 
docks and terminal facilities by the Al- 
goma Steamship Co. and the Algoma 
Central Railway, both subsidiary com- 
panies of the Lake Superior Corpora- 
tion. 

Quebec, Que. — The Quebec Harbor 
Commission have purchased Indian Cove, 
adjoining the site of the proposed grav- 
ing dock. Mr. William Price, the Chair- 
man of the Commission, states that the 
property will be utilized in connection 
with the future winter navigation of the 
St. Lawrence. 

Vancouver, B.C. — The West Vancou- 
ver Ferry Co., Ltd., recently invited ten- 
ders for the construction of one passen- 
ger vessel, 80 feet long by 15 feet 6 in- 
ches beam, and fitted with one 80 horse 
power Atlas Marine Engine. Messrs. 
Morris, Bulkeley & Halliday, Vancouver, 
are the naval architects. 

Brockville, Ont.— The Montreal Light, 
Heat & Power Co.'s three-year-old steel 
steamer Key Storm, which sank a short 
distance north-west of Chippewa Point 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



in October last, after striking a shoal 
during a thick fog, bids fair never to be 
brought to the surface. Divers are con- 
vinced it is impossible to raise her. 

New Westminster, B.C. — On the rec- 
ommendation of the harbor committee, 
the tender of Messrs. Stead, Parsons & 
Ross for the construction of three scows 
at $4,825 each, was accepted by the city 
council. Harbor Engineer Powell was 
authorized to spend $400 per scow to 
make additional improvements to them. 

Ottawa, Ont. — An order-in-council has 
been passed, giving harbormasters the 
right to decide where vessels carrying 
explosives or inflammable or dangerous 
goods shall moor, to load or un- 
load. A fine of $100 may be imposed for 
violation of the regulation, with $10 
more for each twelve hours of continued 
violation. 

Vancouver. — The C.P.R. has given a 
contract for 250,000 lineal feet of creo- 
soted piling to the Pacific Lumber 
Creosoted Plant at Eagle Harbor, Wash. 
These piles are to be used in the dock 
extension scheme and will be shipped 
here in consignments of 10,000 feet a 
week by the Washington Tug and 
Barge Co. 

Hamilton, Ont. — The Board of Con- 
trol have approved of rules drawn up by 
the Harbor Commission, and they will 
be submitted to the Government. They 
provide for a tariff of charges, and the 
regulation of speed. Rowboats and 
other small craft, it is provided, shall 
carry headlights and at least one life- 
buoy or belt. 

Vancouver, B.C. — The steamer Con- 
gress, building at Camden, N.J., for the 
Pacific Coast Steamship Co., is nearly 
ready for launching and is expected to 
reach San Francisco on July 1. She will 
immediately begin service between thai 
port and British Columbia. Her length 
is 440 feet, and she has accommodation 
for 400 first-class passengers. 

Detroit, Mich. — Lighthouse Inspector 
Woodruff has issued notices to mariners 
that the flashlights at the Ecorse and 
Grassy Island South Ranges will be op- 
erated as fixed lights this season. The 
lights in the Livingston Channel will 
show one second light and one second 
dark. Navigators have complained 
against both the range and channel 
lights. 

Navigation Opening. — Navigation will 
open at Fort William, Ont., on April 15 
at the earliest, according to W. W. Halls, 
manager here of the Merchants' Mutual 
Line. "There is practically no ice in 
the lakes, but the Soo River will hold 
up the boats," declared Mr. Hall. On 
March 15, 1911, the same conditions were 



in effect, but navigation did not open 
until April 15. 

Sydney, N.S. — The Dominion Steel 
Corporation intends to establish a line 
of steamers between Sydney and Port 
Arthur. Two 1500 ton freighters will be 
put on the service shortly after naviga- 
tion opens. The round trip takes about 
a month. Negotiations are now in pro- 
gress, it is understood, for the purchase 
by the company of two big boats for this 
particular service. 

Fredericton, N.B. — The Provincial 
Legislature has adopted the principle 
of financial aid to the Norton Griffiths 
Co. in establishing a shipbuilding plant 
at St, John. ^The Hon. W. C. H. 
Grimmer, Attorney-General, announces 
that the Canada Iron Corporation is 
seriously considering the removal of 
their foundries and blast furnaces from 
Londonderry, N.S., to St. John. 

Quebec, Que. — The foundation work 
of the new grain elevator to be built by 
the Harbor Commission at a cost of 
one million dollars was started on 
March 11 by the Canadian Stewart Co. 
Piles and engines necessary for the 
work arrived on March 8, and a few 
hundred men are now engaged. The 
Commissioners are having a three- 
storey office building erected under 
their own supervision. 

Detroit, Mich. — The new steel steam- 
ers which are building at Detroit for the 
George Hall Coal Co., of Ogdensburg. 
were launched recently. They are named 
A. D. MacTier and F. P. Jones. The 
new boats are duplicates of the Lucius 
W. Robinson, built for the Hall Com- 
pany last year, with the exception of 
some features of the equipment, which 
will be more up-to-date. They are to go 
into commission some time in May. 

Sarnia, Ont. — Navigation has opened 
on St. Clair River, although not offi- 
cially announced. At six o'clock on 
March 14 the big new car ferry and 
passenger steamer St. Marie steamed 
past Sarnia with all flags flying, on her 
way from Toledo, where she but re- 
cently left the shipyards, to the Straits 
of Mackinac, her station. The river is 
free of ice from Lake Huron to Lake 
St. Clair, and there is no impediment to 
navigation. 

Brockville, Ont. — The Island Belle, 
one of the best known craft ply- 
ing the St. Lawrence between Cape 
Vincent and Ogdensburg, sank at 
her dock, Alexandria Bay, March 
18. Planks crushed in by pressure of 
ice during the heavy storm of t he pre- 
vious Saturday are believed to have been 
I he cause. The boat is lying on a rock 
in 35 feet of water, but should the ropes 
56 



now holding her give way there is danger 
of her sliding into ninety feet. 

Ottawa, Ont. — A deputation, which 
waited on the Minister of Public Works 
on February 25, proposed that the Har- 
hor of Port Dover be taken over by the 
Government and extended and improved. 
The deputation represented Port Dover 
and Brantford. The result of their com- 
ing is that W. P. Kellett, engineer of the 
Lake Erie and Northern Railway, will 
confer with engineers of the Public 
Works Department, and a report be sub- 
mitted by them to the Government. 

Halifax, N.S. — The Canadian North- 
ern liner Royal Edward, Captain Wotten, 
from Bristol, which arrived in port late 
on the morning of March 12, reports 
having picked on the Monday previ- 
ous a wireless message emanating from 
Poldhu. telling of the explosion at Irv- 
ine, Scotland. When the message was 
lucked up, the Royal Edward was two 
thousand miles from the English coast. 
This constitutes a record for this ship, 
and possibly for transatlantic naviga- 
tion. 

Sarnia, Ont.— It took the Reid Wreck- 
ing Company, of Sarnia, less than a 
week to float the steamer Manitou, 
which, after she was burned, sank in the 
harbor of Owen Sound. The Manitou 
was down in twenty feet of water. Diver 
Myers battened every opening, sheeted 
her with oil canvas and put powerful 
pumps to work. The boat is now moored 
to the dock, and is on an even keel. Re- 
pair Avork will be pushed so as to have 
her reach 7 for the opening of navigation 
in the spring. 

S. S. Marie, Ont. — The warm sun of 
the past few days has played havoc with 
the ice in the St. Mary's River, and an 
early opening of navigation is antici- 
pated. There is the greatest activity 
at the locks, the work of generally over- 
hauling the equipment being in pro- 
gress. The dredging operations will be 
continued at the earliest possible date, 
and a sum of $400,000 will be spent on 
the waterfront on docks and terminal 
facilities by the Algoma Steamship Co. 
and the Algoma Central Railway. 

The Niagara Raised.- Working in one 
of the worst blizzards of the Winter, 
near Erie, Pa., a local contractor and 
his gang, on Mar. 6, raised the Niagara, 
Perry's flag-ship, in the Battle of Lake 
Erie, September .10, 1813. A crowd of 
half rozen curio seekers were held 
back with difficulty when the gun parts 
became visible. She will be floated 
to a local shipbuilding yard, where she 
will be overhauled preparatory to her 
last cruise along the Great Lake ports 
from Erie to Duluth during the Perry 
centennial celebration next summer. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



The Interstate Board of the Centennial 
Commission is in charge of the work. 

Montreal, Que. — The Lachine Canal 
was emptied of its water at noon on 
Saturday, March 22, as a preliminary 
tn the cleaning and repairing of the 
waterway before the opening of naviga- 
tion. The canal will be closed and dry 
until after the 22nd of April. 

Brockville, Ont. — After being out of 
commission for forty days, the steamer 
Bigelow resumed the ferry service be- 
tween here and Morristown, X.Y., on 
March 20, thus establishing a record for 
late and early navigation on this part 
of the St. Lawrence. The Bigelow did 
not tie up until February 8. 

Toronto, Ont.— The Toronto Ferry 
Co. had the Clark Bros. ferry 
in commission on March 10 for 
the first time this season. She 
crossed from the Bay Street dock to 
Hanlan's with little loss of time early 
in the forenoon, and repeated the trip 
several times later in the lay. 

Washington, D.C.— The United States 
Government will probably not patrol 
the North Atlantic steamship lane for 
icebergs in view of the action of the 
British Board of Tr#de and British 
steamship interests in sending the 
whaler Scotia for that purpose. 

Kingston, Ont. — The ice in the har- 
bor was rent asunder on March 21 by a 
terrific gale, and ferry steamers are now 
crossing between the islands and the 
city. Last year the harbor was not open 
until April 17. The present opening is 
the earliest for at least twenty years. 
Navigation closed here on the 4th of 
February. 

Allan Liner "Alsatian." — The new 
Allan Line steamship "Alsatian" was 
launched from the shipyard of William 
Beardmore & Co., Ltd., at Clydebank, 
Scotland, on Saturday, March 22. Re- 
ference was made to this vessel in a 
previous issue, and it will be remem- 
bered that she is intended for the com- 
pany's service between Liverpool and 
Montreal. 

Quebec, Que. — The St. Lawrence 
River below Three Rivers is free 
from ice with the exception of 
battures inshore. The Lady Grey 
has been eminently successful in 
beeping the narrow channel at Cap a la 
Roche open during the winter, and she 
will now devote attention, assisted by 
other ice breakers, to securing an en- 
tirely free and unimpeded passage be- 
low Three Rivers for the ice as soon as 
it commences to go out. 

Halifax, N.S. — Word was received in 
Halifax on the morning of March 15 
that the steam sealer Lloydsen, Captain 



Barber, while endeavoring to force its 
way through the ice at Port Au Bas- 
ques, struck a sunken rock, with the re- 
sult that the vessel was so seriously 
damaged as to make necessary the 
abandonment of the voyage. The SS. 
Labrador, Captain Daniel Martin, also 
of the Gulf fleet, sprang a leak while 
in the heavy ice, and had to be beached 
in St. Mary's Bay. This leaves but four 
steamers in the Gulf sealing fleet. The 
steamers Beothic and Bellaventure, 
while sailing from St. John's on Thurs- 
day, collided. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The respective ap- 
pointments for captain and chief engi- 
neer of the Northern Navigation fleet 
have been announced : — 

S.S. Hamonic — Captain, R. D. Foote; 
chief engineer, James Wilson. 

Huronic — A. L. Campbell, Frank T. 
Norris. 

Saronie— A. M. Wright, E. H. 
Spencer. 



been in the dredge contracting work for 
the past fifteen years, and have had the 
contracts for much of tiie river improve- 
ment work that has been done in this 
vicinity. 



CHANGES IN LIGHTING ON GREAT 
LAKES. 

jWT ANY improvements will be made 
in the lighting systems along the 
Great Lakes this year, and the work 
will be commenced as soon as the wea- 
ther and ice conditions permit. All the 
lights now at the West Neebish and 
Middle Neebish Channels and the Hay 
Lake Rangers at the Soo, are "attend- 
ed" lights, and will be changed to "un- 
attended" or automatic lights. The 
appropriation for the work was made 
some time ago, and the job will be com- 
menced on the opening of the season. 

Several alterations are to be made in 
the lights of the lower Detroit River 




A FROST EFFECT <>N THE "ROYAL EDWARD." 

The picture shows the bridge as it appeared when the sbip was passing Cape Race on 

■j .a st. 



Doric — Samuel Hill, James Cameron. 
Ionic — Robert Laing, James Adams. 
Germanic — F. G. Mole, S. Burgess. 
City of Midland— Charles Hill, J. Os- 
borne. 

Waubic — Captain, W. Kinnee. 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. — A deal lias 
been consumated whereby the Great 
Lakes Dredge & Dock Co. takes over the 
entire equipment of the Edward Bros. 
Dredge Co. The amount involved in 
this deal was in the neighborhood of 
$280,000. The equipment, which Edward 
Bros, sold, consists of the tugs James 
Edward and Hassayampa. the dredges 
Majestic, Nos. 1 and 2, drill boat No. 1, 
a quarter boat, eight dump scows and 
t hree flat scows. This, the Great Lakes 
Dredge & Dock Co. will add to their 
other equipment of this kind, which will 
make their outfit the most complete of 
any in this vicinity. Edward Bros, have 
57 



this year. The South Grassy Island 
and the Ecorse Range lights, which have 
heretofore been flashing, will be changed 
to fixed lights, and the Livingstone 
Channel buoys, which have been flash- 
ing every three-tenths of a second, will 
be changed to flashes of one second. 

For several years mariners have com- 
plained of the flashing lights at the 
lower river ranges, and masters who 
passed through the Livingstone Channel 
last season complained of the blinking 
buoys there. These changes in the lower 
river will be made before the opening 
of navigation. A new buoy will be 
placed to mark the head of Stag Island, 
below Sarnia. 



Everyone must see daily instances of 
people who complain from a mere habit 
of complaining. 



Men in Command and Their Vessels, Navigation Season, 1913 



With the near approach of the opening of navigation on our Canadian lakes and rivers, 
steamship companies are taking steps towards the fitting-out of their various craft, and 
placing on record the chief appointments to the bridge and engine room. There is ap- 
pended herewith the list available as we go to press. 



St Lawrence and Chicago Steam Navigation Co. 


Vessel. 


Master 


Engineer. 


James Carruthers 


W. H. Wright 


E. J. O'Dell 


E. B. Osier 


John Williams 


Charles Robertson 


W. D. Matthews 


Peter J. Shaw 


William Harwood 


G R. Crowe 


C. E. Robinson 


Wallace Robertson 


Iroquois 


H. Hudson 


William Redd 


Mathews' Steamship Co. 


Vessel. 


Master. 


Engineer. 


Edmonton 


Henry Maitland 


J. G. Fisher 


Haddington 


T. H. Johnson 


D. McKenzie 


Yorkton 


J. Cavanagh 


J. E. Readman 


Easton 


D. N. Laroche 


William Whipps 


Masaha 


J. A. Smith 




Merchants' Mutual 


Line 


Vessel. 


Master. 


Engineer. 


Canadian 


W. H. Anderson 


R. McLaren 


Acadian 


R. Mclntyre 


J. S. Duguid 


Hamiltonian 


A. B. Mclntyre 


A. E. Kennedy 


Fordonian 


H. W. Larush 


Wm. Gronning 


A. E. McKinstry 


A. E. Stinson 


A. C. Leitch 


I). A. Gordon 


R. F. Pyette 


Geo. D. Adams 


Renvoyle 


H. Redfern 


A. McLaren 


Calgarian 


Peter McKay 


Andrew L. Black 


Tagona 


J. S. Moore 


W. H. Taylor 


Regina 


E. H. McConkey 


C. J. McSorley 


Kenora 


Wm. Brian 


Wm. Byers 


Cadillac 


T. D. Sullivan 


W. Xorcross 


Pioneer 


W. H. Montgomery W. A. McLaren 


Chili 


Geo. H. Page 


D. W. Rice 


Mars 


J. F. Davis 


Jos. McLeod 


Saskatoon 


H. J. Aitken 


John G. MeHattie 


Beaverton 


J. E. Mann 


H. Myler 


Mapleton 


A. Patenaude 


F. A. McCaulay 


A. E. Ames 


D. Chambers 


L. McMillan 


H. M. Pellatt 


N. McKay 


William Harmon 


J. H. Plnmmer 


W. 0. Zealand 


R. Chambers 


Turret Court 


N. Barrett 


H. C. Harrison 


Turret Cape 


D. P. McCarthy 


A. E. House 


Turret Chief 


Thos. Padjington 


J. J. Dove 


Scottish Hero 


R. D. Simpson 


H. Macdonald 




Inland Lines, Limited 


Vessel. 


Master. 


Engineer. 


Emperor 


Geo. W. Pearson 


George Smith 


Midland Prince 


Jas. Tindall 


James Pickard 


Midland King 


Wm. Cunningham 


James McGregor 


Midland Queen 


Wm. Lavigne 


Frank Goodwin 


Stad'acona 


•Jas. Cannally 


Geo. Laird 


Empress of Midland. las. Wilson 


Jno. Dee 


Emp. of Ft. William Dave Burke 


Jno. Murphy 


Glenellah 


Geo. MacKay 


\V. McWilliams 


Dundee 


Jas. Woolner 


Ed. Shaw 


Dunburn 


C. R. Albinson 


Sylvester Murray 


Donnacona 


Robt. Alexander 


Fred Wilsor. 


Strathcona 


( '(Hi Dineen 


James Payr? 



Vessel. 


Master. 


Engineer. 


Winona 


Ben Garvie 


Chas. M. Arnot 


Rosedale 


W. Rewitt 


Hugh McWilliams 


Wahcondah 


W. Linton 


Joe. Kennedy 


Xeepawah 


W. W. Allen 


James Can- 


Dunelm 


Robt. Cooney 


George Wil-on 


Majestic 


Wm. Cox 


D. S. La Rue 


Niagara, St. 


Catharines and 


Toronto Line 


Vessel. 


Master 


Engineer 


Dalhousie Ctiy 


J. W. Maddick 


Jas. H. Brown 


Garden City 


George Blanchard 


Mr. Welch. 


C. 


P. R. Lake Vessels 


Vessel. 


Master. 


Engine er. 


Kee ay a tin 


M. McPhee 


Wm. Louis 


Assiniboia 


Louis Pyette 


Angus Cameron 


A fa n ltoba 


R. Mclntyre 


Wm. Aston 


Alberta 


Frank Davis 


Chas. Butterwort 


A t li fi ba KPfl 


James MeCannell 


Wm. Lockerbie 


Richelieu 


and Ontario Navigation Co. 


Vessel. 


Master. 


Engineer. 


Kingston 


E. A. Booth 


J. W. Hazlett 


Toronto 


C. E. Redfeam 


W. Chipman 


Rochester 


Jas. Owens 


J. M. Cummiugs 


Rapids King- 






Rapids Prince 


Geo. Batten 


D. J. Leslie 


Rapids Queen 


J. P. Stephenson 


A. Charbonneau 


Montreal 


F. X. Lafranee 


Geo. Gendron 


Quebec 


L. R. Demers 


A. Ouzilleau 


St. Irenee 


Jos. Dugal 


G. Gagnon 


Tadousac 


Jos. Simard 


M. Latulippe 


Murray Bay 


W. Gagne 


A. Gendron 


Saguenay 


Chas. Koenig 


N. Beaudoin 


Belleville 


Wm. Bloomfield 


J. Boisvert 


Berthier 


C. Laviolette 


T. Matte 


Three Rivers 


A. Mondor 


C. Gendron 


Beaupre 






Boucherville 


A. Laviolette 


C. Hamei 


Longueuil 


H. Mandeville 


H. Noel 


Pandora (tug) 






Cayuga 


C. J. Smith 


A. J. Woodward 


Chippewa 


W. Malcolm 


H. Parker 


Ongiara 






Chicora 


Thos. Allen 


X. Griffin 


Corona 


B. A. Bongard 


J. Findlay 


Modjeska 


P. Walsh 


A. Flumerfeldt 


Macassa 


J. Henderson 


A. E. Prince 


Turbinia 


B. W. Bongard 


W. Noonan 


America 






Xew Island Wanderer 




Rainona 


Appointments 


Newsboy 


Xot Yet 


Thousand Islander 




Made. 


Pierrepont 




St. Lawrence 






Jessie Bain 







MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



ICE OBSERVATION VESSEL FOR 
NORTH ATLANTIC. 

O OME further particulars have been 
supplied us from an official source, 
says "Syren and Shipping," respecting 
the vessel which the British Government 
and the principal Atlantic lines have 
arranged to provide between them to 
survey the ice regions of the North At- 
lantic and to furnish navigators with 
information concerning the movement 
of bergs. It appears that the vessel, of 
which we give a picture, has been char- 
tered by the Liverpool Steamship Own- 
ers' Association for the Board of Trade, 
and the former organization will pro- 
vide the crew, victuals and bunkers. The 
services of the Meteorological Depart- 
ment have been secured in connection 
with the scheme, and Commodore Hep- 
worth, the Marine Superintendent, has 
undertaken to circulate all the informa- 
tion received and likely to be of use to 
those in charge of steamers. 

Captain Robertson, the commander 
of the ice observation vessel, has, we 
are informed, been instructed to take 
his ship, the Scotia, up certain sections 
of the coast of Newfoundland and 
Labrador, where observations will be 
made as to the salinity and temperature 
of the water, the depth of the currents, 
their extent generally, and their direc- 
tion and rate of progress. The effects 
of this new departure will undoubtedly 



b< far-reaching, and we have authority 
I'm- saying that further important de- 
velopments of the work will ultimately 
take place. There is, for instance, a 
ureat deal yet to be learned with regard 
to the movement of ice; how it grows; 
where it breaks away from the glaciers ; 
and then, of course, its final movements 



X 




ICE OBSERVATION STEAMER "SCOTIA." 

rfhen it gets down into the Gulf Stream. 
The newly-acquired vessel, a Dundee 
whaler, after being dry-docked, opened 
out and surveyed by Board of Trade 
surveyors, is now on her station, 

% 

Capt. C. H. Nicholson, manager of 
the Grand Trunk Pacific Steamship Co., 



reports that the steamer Prince Albert 
has been withdrawn from the service 
tor the purpose of installing oil fuel 
apparatus similar to that already in- 
stalled in the Prince Rupert and Prince 
George, and will be out of commission 
until further notice. 

® 

Knots, Splices and Rope Work, by H. 

H. P. Verrill, editor of the Popular Sci- 
ence Paper, of the "American Boy Mag- 
azine," 150 illustrations; GO cents: The 
Norman W. Henley Publishing Co., X' w 
York. Doubtless the trailing vines and 
plants first suggested ropes to human be- 
ings, and it is quite probable that these 
same vines, in their various twistings 
and turnings, gave man his first idea of 
knots. Mr. Verrill tells of the utility of 
knots in this volume. A little knowledge 
of knots has saved many a life in storm 
and wreck, he says, and if every one 
knew how quickly and securely to tie a 
knot, there would be far fewer casual- 
ties. The information given should be of 
valine to engineer^. 



T. B. F. BENSON 

(Assoc Inst N. A.) 
NAVAL ARCHITECT. 

All types of vessels designed and construc- 
tion superintended. 

Estimates promptly furnished. 
205 Yonge Street, Toronto. 
Phone Main .j::7f». 



MARINE ENGINEERING 

OF CANADA 



is edited and published with a view to providing for all sections of marine 
men, an attractive and newsy record of Shipbuilding, Engineering, Harbour, 
Port and Dock Progress and Development throughout the Dominion of 
Canada and over the World. 

One Dollar per year is our regular subscription rate 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 

143 UNIVERSITY AVE., TORONTO 

Date 1913 

Gentlemen, — 

Please find enclosed herewith $1.00, being subscription to Marine Engineering of Canada. 

NAME 

RANK OR POSITION 

ADDRESS IN FULL 



50 



ASSOCIATION AND PERSONAL 

A Monthly Record of Current Association News and of Individuals 
who Have Been More or Less Prominent in the Marine Sphere 



William Lahey, for sixty years a pilot 
at St. John, N.B., died on March 13, 
aged ninety. 

Thos. Gilbert, one of the leading old- 
time shipowners of St. John, N.B., died 
March 11, aged 92. 

William Russel, of Seal Cove, Grand 
Manan, N.B., has been appointed 
harbor master for the Port of Seal 
Cove. 

Henry W. Smith, of Sambro, N.S., 
has been appointed harbor master of 
the Port of Sambro, in place of Simon 
L Gray. 

Captain James McAllister, of Fort 
William. Ont., has been appointed sub- 
agent of the Department of Marine and 
Fisheries at Fort William, Ont. 

Henry John Farmer- Atkinson, founder 
and first President of the Chamber of 
Shipping of the United Kingdom, died 
March 3, at the age of eighty-five. 

E. W. Holton, formerly eastern pas- 
senger agent Nor. Nav. Co., has been 
promoted to the position of general pas- 
senger agent ,with headquarters at 
Sarnia. 

Robert Reford, president of the 
Robert Reford Co., Ltd., died on Satur- 
day morning, March 15. He was 82 
years of age, and had been in delicate 
health for several months. 

Sir Archibald Lucius Douglas, K.C.B., 

died on Tuesday, March 11, at Newham, 
Hants, in his 71st year. He had served 
as Lord of the Admiralty, A.D.C. to 
Queen Victoria and was formerly • Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the North American 
and West Indian stations. He was 
born in Quebec in 1842, and served in 
Canada in 1866, and the Soudan in 1884. 
One of his important missions was as 
Chief of the Commission in 1873 to in- 
struct the Japanese Navy. 



LICENSED PILOTS. 

River St. Lawrence. — Captain Walter 
Collins, 43 Main Street, Kingston, Ont., 
Captain M . McDonald, River Hotel, 
Kingston, Ont. ; Captain Charles J. Mar- 
tin, 13 Balaclava Street, Kingston, Ont.; 
Captain T. J. Murphy, 111 William St., 
Kingston, Ont. 

River St. Lawrence, Bay of Quinte, 
Murray Canal. — Captain James Murray, 
106 Clergy St., Kingston, Ont.; Captain 
James H. Martin, 259 Johnston Street, 
Kingston, Ont.; John Corkery, 17 Rideau 
Street, Kingston, Ont. ; Captain Daniel 
H. Mills, 272 University Avenue, Kings- 
ton, Ont. 



ASSOCIATIONS 

DOMINION MARINE ASSOCIATION. 

President — James Playfair, Midland; Coun- 
sel — F. King, Kingston, Ont. 



GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE 
RIVER RATE COMMITTEE. 
Chairman — W. F. Wasley, Gravenhurst, Ont. 
Secretary — .Tas. Morrison, Montreal. 

INTERNATIONAL WATER LINES 
PASSENGER ASSOCIATION. 
President — A. A. Heard, Albany, N.Y. 
Secretary — M. R. Nelson, New York 



THE SHIPPING FEDERATION OP CANADA 
President — A. A. Allan, Montreal ; Manager 
and Secretary — T. Robb, 526 Board of Trade. 
Montreal. 

SHIP MASTERS' ASSOCIATION OF 
CANADA. 

Grand Master — Capt. J. H. McMaugh, Tor- 
onto, Out.: Grand Secretary-Treasurer — Capt. 
H. O. Jackson, 376 Huron St., Toronto. 



GRAND COUNCIL, N.A.M.E. GRAND 
OFFICER8. 
James T. McKee, 268 Douglas Avenue, St. 
John, N.B., Grand President. 

Thos. Theriault, Levis, P.Q., Grand Vice- 
President. 

Neil J. Morrison. P.O. Box 238, St. John, N.B., 
Grand Secretary-Treasurer. 

Jno. A. Murphy, Midland, Ont.. Grand Con- 
ductor. 

George Bourret, Sorel, P. Q., Grand Door- 
keeper. 

Richard McLaren, Owen Sound, Ont. 
L. B. Cronk, Windsor, Ont. 

Grand Auditors. 



R. V. Robinson has been appointed to 
the position of general freight agent, in 
charge of the claims and freight traffic 
of the Northern Navigation Co., with 
headquarters at Sarnia. Mr. Robinson 
was formerly eastern freight asent of 
the company. 

Frederick S. MacGreggor, traveling 
passenger agent of the Allan Steamship 
Line, with offices at 77 Yonge Street, 
was drowned while bathing on February 
25, at Nasseau, British West Indies, 
where he had gone a few days ago on 
a holiday trip. 

A. F . Dion, on the occasion of his 
departure from the C.N.R. freight de- 
partment, Montreal, to take the position 
of harbor traffic manager at Quebec, 
was presented with an illuminated ad- 
dress, a seal traveling bag. and a set of 
cut glass for Mrs. Dion. 

Patrick Shea, of Toronto, died on 
Monday, March 10. while eating his 
dinner. He was for several seasons in 
the wheelhouse of the old Southern Belle 
which used to run between Toronto, 
Niagara and Hamilton thirty years ago, 
as an excursion steamer. 

Captain John L. Baxter is to take 
command this year of the Government 
steamer La Canadienne. Capt. Alex. 
Brown of Owen Sound was in charge of 
the trim little vessel last year, while 
Capt. Baxter he was in charge of the 
Forest City at Fort William. 

W. E . Bishop, one of the best known 
steamboat men on the inland lakes, and 
superintendent of the Richelieu & On- 
tario Navigation C, at Hamilton, has 
forwarded his resignation to the head- 
quarters of the company at Montreal. 
Mr. Bishop is going into business at 
Hamilton. 

J. Ritchie, general freight agent of 
the R. and 0. lines for Western On- 



Directory of Subordinate Councils for 1913. 



Name. 



No. 



President. 



Address. 



Secretary. 



Address. 



Toronto, 

St. John, 

Collingwood, 

Kingston, 

Montreal, 

Victoria, 

Vancouver, 

Levis, 

Sorel, 

Owen Sound, 

Windsor, 

Midland. 

Halifax, 

Snnlr S. Marie. 

Charlottetown, 

Twin City. 



A. J. Fisher, 
J. F. Matthews, 
Andrew Kerr, 
A. E. Kennedy, 
A. F. Hamelln, 
Alex McNivern, ' 
A. S. DeGruchy, 
Helalre Mercier, 
Geo. Bourret. 
H. W. Fletcher. 
Alex. McDonald, 
Jos. Silverthorne, 
D. J. Murray, 
Thos. O'Reilly, 
J. K. Sutherland. 
Arllmi' Al.l.cy. 



490 Concord Ave. 

50 Douglas Ave., 

Box 343, Collingwood, 

395 Johnston Street, 

3208 Le Tang Street, 

P. O. Box 234, 

Room 23, Williams Bidg., 

Bienville, Levis, 

Sorel, P.Q.. 

G3C 4th Ave. East, 

Windsor, Ont, 

Midland, 

Victoria Rd., Dartmouth, 
Sault Ste Marie, 
Charlottetown, P.E.I., 
Fort William, Out. 



E. A. Prince, 
G. T. G. Blewett, 
Robert McQuade, 
James Gillie, 
O. L. Marchand, 
Peter Gordon, 
E. Read, 
S. G. Guenard. 
Al. Charbonneau. 
E. J. Riley, 
Neil Maitland, 
Jno. A. Murphy, 
Chas. E. Pearce, 
Geo. S. Biggar. 
Lem Winchester. 
John A. Smith. 



61 Elm Grove, Torouto. 

G5 Harrison St., St. John, N.B. 

P.O. Box 97. Collingwood. 

101 Clergy St., Kingston. Ont. 

St. Vincent de Paul. P.Q. 

808 Blanchard St.. Victoria. B.C. 

859 Thurlow St 

Bienville, Leyls, P.Q. 

P.O. Box 132, Sorel, P.Q. 

1030 1st Ave., Owen Sound, Ont. 

221 London St. W., Windsor, Ont. 

Midland. Ont. 

Portland Street, Dartmouth, N.S. 

Sault Ste Marie, Ont 

302 Fitzroy St., Charlottefn, P.E.I. 

Fort William. Out. 



60 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 

Garlock 



29 



Marine Packings 

For years have stood the severest tests 
under many and various conditions 




Garlock High Pressure Ring! 




Garlock High Pressure Diagonal 




i 



Our handsome 1913 
catalog, fully illustrat- 
ed — over 100 pages, 
showing Packings for 
every purpose, will 
soon be completed. 

11 

Let us enter your 
name for an early 
copy. 



Garlock Square Flax 



The* 
Garlock; 
Packing 

Co. 

Hamilton 

-it 

BRANCHES : 

Montreal Toronto 
Winnipeg 
Vancouver 




Garlock High Pressure Spiral 




Garlock Low Pressure Diagonal 




Garlock Gum Gore 



The advertiser would like to know where you taw hit advertisement — tell him. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



tario, has tendered his resignation, to 
take effect on April 1. Mr. Ritchie is 
returning to Boston, to enter the ser- 
vice of the Canada-Atlantic Railway, 
with which he was connected before 
coming to Toronto. 

Captain Chas. T. Deakin died at Red- 
nersville, Ont., from heart failure, on 
Sunday, March 9, He was a native of 
Digby, N.S., and had followed the sea 
for many years. He was appointed 
captain of the Government steamer Lan- 
sciowne and sailed in charge of her for 
some years out of St. John,N.B. 

William B. Hines, formerly western 
baggage agent of the Richelieu and On- 
tario lines, has been appointed superin- 
tendent of the docks of the company in 
Toronto. Mr. Hines was with the Nia- 
gara Navigation Co. for several years, 
and during the winter months acted as 
a baggage agent for railway in Florida. 

Alex Lewis, secretary of the Toronto 
Harbor Commission, has left for a six 
week's trip to the ocean and inland 
ports of the United States, with the 
object of studying how these are gov- 
erned by the Harbor Commissions of the 
Republic. Upon his return it is under- 
stood he will draft regulations by which 
traffic in and out of the port of Toronto 
will be directed. 

Captain J. D. Weir has been appointed 
superintendent of construction and of 
lights under the Montreal agency of the 
Marine and Fisheries Department. The 
appointment which was made by an 
Order-in-Council, is a popular one with 
the local departmental officials, owing to 
Captain Weir's long experience in the 
work which is now being entrusted to 
his charge. He joined the service in 
the year 1906, and from 1909 till 1911 
was acting assistant to the superinten- 
dent in charge of the lights being con- 
firmed as such in 1912, and remaining as 
assistant-superintendent until now, when 
he will take over the full responsi- 
bilities. 

» 

THE MONTREAL DRY DOCKS AND 
SHIP REPAIRING CO. 

Op HIS corporation, of which Mr. J. T. 

Walsh is President and Mr. Thomas 
Hall, managing director, was organized 
in 1912 and is now operating a com- 
modious dry dock situated at the foot 
of Mill Street, Montreal, at the entrance 
to the Lachine Canal. 

The dock is 400 ft. long and 47 ft. 
wide, with a depth of water over the 
sills of 10 ft. 6 in., enabling a boat of 
full Welland Canal size to be readily 
accommodated. In fact it is possible to 
take in two such boats simultaneously, 
since there is a large rectangular basin 
at the upper end of the dock. 



Since May, 1912, the dock has been 
piped for compressed air, there being a 
full equipment of modern pneumatic 
tools. An up-to-date boiler shop has also 
been erected on the site, fitted out with, 
all modern tools, including air com- 
pressor, punches, shears, rolls, etc., all 
of which are motor-driven. 

About 100 men are employed and the 
company have a large amount of work 
on hand at the present time, their con- 
tracts running into many thousands 
of dollars. 

@ 

CAR FERRY FOR THE ST. 
LAWRENCE. 

/ "P HE National Transcontinental Rail- 
way officials have just placed an or- 
der with Cammel, Laird & Co., Birken- 
head, England, for a combined steam car 
ferry and ice breaker. This will be used 
for transporting the Grand Trunk Paci- 
fic trains across the St. Lawrence pend- 
ing the completion of the new Quebec 
bridge. 

@ 

SPIDERS CONTRIBUTE TO PANAMA 
CANAL CONSTRUCTION. 

A NUMBER of spiders at the Gorgona 
shops are contributing their lit- 
tle share to the construction of the Pan- 
ama Canal. They are carefully protect- 
ed in the instrument room, because, from 
their cocoons, the instrument makers 
procure filaments for use in the transits 
of the surveyors. In the microscopes of 
the transits are very fine threads by 
means of which the surveyor determines 
when his instrument is centred upon an 
object. This thread is of platinum when 
the instruments are new, but when it has 
worn out and must be replaced, the in- 
strument repair men at Gorgona have 
been using the thread taken from the 
cocoon of a certain variety of spider 
which has been encouraged to multiply 
in the instrument shop for the past sev- 
en years. This use of the filament from 
the cocoon is of course not original on 
the Isthmus. 

It has been found that when the in- 
struments so repaired are used early in 
the morning or during a rain, the thread 
does not remain taut, because the instru- 
ment itself contracts. As soon as the in- 
strument warms up, however, the spider 
web answers it purpose very well. In 
order that there may be no time of the 
day in which the transits may not be 
used, an order has been placed for plati- 
num thread. When this arrives on the 
Tsthmus, the use of the spider web will 
be discontinued, and the Canal force will 
be reduced by at least half a dozen more 
workers, for there are at least that many 
spiders spinning fiber at the Gorgona 
Shops. 

62 



S. S. MANITOU IS FLOATED. 

T T took the Reid Wrecking Co.. of Sar- 
nia, less than a week to float the 
steamer Manitou, which, after she was 
burned, sank in the harbor of Owen 
Sound. The Manitou was down in 
twenty feet of water. The modus oper- 
andi of her salvage was very simple. 
Diver Myers battened every opening, 
and sheeted her with oil canvas, after 
which powerful pumps were put to work. 
She is now moored at the dock, and is 
on even keel. When the insurance valu- 
ators have made an estimate of the loss, 
the work of repair will be pushed so as 
to have her ready for the opening of 
navigation in the spring. 

— m — 

GILCHRIST FLEET AUCTIONED. 

HE 48 vessels comprising fleet s 
of the Gilchrist Transportation 
Co., operating on the Great Lakes, were 
sold at auction by Receiver S. P. Shane 
in federal court, Cleveland, Ohio, on 
March 6. The sale netted $3,500,000. 
Stockholders will realize nothing, as 
claims against the company exceed the 
proceeds of the auction. Bankers hold- 
ing mortgages bid-in most of the vessels 
at two-third valuation. 

— m — 

GRAIN SHIPMENTS AHEAD OF 
LAST YEAR. 

/ T* HE Canadian Pacific Railway has 
given out official returns of 
wheat marketed over their lines from 
September 30, 1912, to January 25, 1913. 
An increase of over 30 per cent, over 
last year in the gross amount of wheat 
marketed is shown, and an increase of 
nearly one hundred per cent, in other 
grains. This season, 81,747,000 bushels 
of wheat and 28,126,000 bushels of 
other grains were marketed, as com- 
pared with 61,740,000, and 14,388.000, 
respectively, last year This season's 
shipments consisted of 41,877 cars of 
wheat and 14,105 cars of other grains 
to the elevators and 11,147 cars of 
wheat and 3,948 of other grains shipped 
direct. The totals show 71,077 cars of 
grain this year and 48,379 last. 

© 

Sir William H. White, formerly chief 
constructor of British Navy, died on 
February 27, at London, as the result 
of a stroke of apoplexy. Sir William 
was a frequent visitor to this continent. 
He was a self-made man in every sense 
o 1 "' the word, starting his career in the 
naval dockyard at Davenport as a ship- 
wright apprentice, and rising rapidly 
until he became practically sole designer 
of the warships of the British Govern- 
ment. He was responsible for the de- 
signs of all the war vessels launched 
in Great Britain between 1885 and 1900. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



31 



DAVIS DRY DOCK COMPANY 



Builders of Wood and Steel Passenger 
Steamers, Tug, Steam a n d Gasoline 
Engines of all Descriptions. 

Send for new catalog. Ready March 1st. 



KINGSTON 



ONTARIO 




Jerry McCarthy & Son 

SHIP CHANDLERS 



Submarine Diving New Rope a Specialty 
Full Assortment of Paints, Oils, Etc. 
Also Rubber Goods, Hose, Etc. 
And Engineers' Supplies. 

157 Ohio Street, BUFFALO, N.Y. 

Near Michigan 

Special attention given to the removal of 
sunken wrecks, blasting rock and obstructions 
impeding navigation. 
All orders will receive prompt attention. 



MANGANESE BRONZE 




PROP^ILER 
WHEELS 



Tensile 
Strength 
75,000 lbs. 




Write to-day for our descriptive booklet. 

Lumen Bearing Company 



Brass Founders, 



TORONTO 




This is one of our Compound Jet Condensing 
Engines with Pumps and Thrust attached. 



The Doty Marine Engine & Boiler Co., 



LIMITED 



Builders of 



High Grade Marine Engines & Boilers 



Compound. Jet Condensing Engines 

Compound Surface Condensing Engines 
Triple Expansion Engines 

Non-Condensing Stern Wheel Engines 

Tandem Compound Stern Wheel Engines 



.Marine Boilers of various types including Scotch, Locomotive, 
Fitzgibbon, Fire-box Return Tubular and Safety Water Tube. 



Estimates furnished for complete Marine outfits. 

The Doty Marine Engine & Boiler Co., 

LIMITED 

GODERICH, CANADA 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



32 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



THOS. G. BISHOP 

ENGINEER AND MACHINIST 

Marine and General Repairs, Gas and 
Gasoline Engine Repairs a Specialty 
PHONE 38 

FOOT OF PRINCESS ST.. KINGSTON, ONT. 



Cablegram: Curr, Port Arthur. 

Telephone 1553 North. 

ROBERT CURR 

Surveyer to Lloyd's Register of Shipping. 
Plans and specifications furnished for all 
types of vessels. Careful attention given 
to superintending construction and repairs. 
Instructions on theoretical and practical 
shipbuilding by correspondence. 
The Observatory, 28 South Water St., 
Port Arthur. Ont. 



Thomas B. Angrove 



Brass and Iron Castings of 
Every Description 

Steamboat repairs a specialty. 

We manufacture the best cable com- 
pressor made for the use of vessels 
canaling. 



WRITE TO-DAY. 



KINGSTON 



ONTARIO 




MORRIu, 
BULKELEY 
& HALLIDAY 



MARINE ENGINEERS 
and NAVAL ARCHITECTS 

Specialists in 

Steel and Wood Vessels 

17 Promis Bldg. 514 Holden Bldg. 

VICTORIA. B.C. and VANCOUVER. B.C 



THE DIXON MFG. CO. 

Mfrs. of 

High-Class Marine Gasoline Engines and 
Marine Motors, Experimental Machinery, 
Gray Iron, Brass and Bronze Castings. 
Repair work a specialty. 
Address: COLLING WOOD, ONT. 
Tel. No. 164. 



BREWER & McBRYDE 

NAVAL ARCHITECTS - MARINE BROKERS 

142 Hastings St., Vancouver, B.C. 

15 years' practical experience designing all 
types of vessels. 



J. J. TURNER & SONS 

Peterborough, Ont., and Regina, Sask, 



The largest manufacturers and dealers 
in Canada of 

Sails, Horse Blankets, 

Tents. Lap Rugs, 

Flags, Canoes and Row 

Life Belts, Boats, 

Life Buoys, Vessel, Yacht, Boat, 
Waterproof Cloth- and Canoe Sails 

ing, made by Expert 

Coal Bags. Sail Makers. 

Tents to Order and Camping Outfits to rent. 

Write for Catalogue. 




With Exceptional Facilities for 
Placing 

Fire and Marine Insurance 

In all Underwriting Markets 



Agencies : TORONTO, MONTREAL, 
WINNIPEG, VANCOUVER, 
PORT ARTHUR. 



Office 'phooc 528. Private 'phones 437 and 49 

Donnelly Salvage and 
Wrecking Co., Ltd. 

Kingston, Ont. 

Tugs, Lighters, Divers, Steam Pumps, 
etc., supplied on shortest notice. 

700 Ton Lighter with McMyler clam 
shell Derrick. 

Tug "Saginaw" has two 100-ton Pull- 
ing Machines with 4,000 feet of l£ inch 
Steel Cable, and two 3-ton anchors, 
always ready for work. 

JOHN DONNELLY, Pres. and Gen. Mgr. 



GEORGIAN BAY SHIPBUILDING 
& WRECKING COMPANY 

MIDLAND, ONTARIO. 

Yachts, Tugs, Dump Scows 
and Repair Work a Specialty. 
Ail Kinds of Wrecking and 

Diving. 



BELL TELEPHONE : 
Office No. 163 Residence No. 149 

P. O. Box 83. 
D. G. DOBSON, - General Manager 



For $1 a Year 

Marine Engineering 

OF CANADA 

will keep you in touch with 
Canada's Maritime develop- 
ments — the only comprehen- 
sive Marine Paper in Canada. 

THE MACLEAN PUBLISHING COMPANY 

143-7 University Ave., Toronto 



Steamboat Boilers Repaired 



Night, Day or Sunday at the Michigan Salt Works, Marine City, Michigan. 
Plenty of water at dock for any boat. 

Work that would take weeks to do by hand, done in a few hours. Satisfac- 
tion guaranteed. 

MICHIGAN SALT WORKS, MARINE CITY, MICHIGAN 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement- —tell him. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



SHIP 
CHANDLERY 

In all its branches. We have a com- 
plete stock, consisting of Marine 
Hardware, Lamps, Anchors, Com- 
passes, Logs, Nautical Instru- 
ments, Wire and Manilla Rope, 
Capstans, Chain, Waste, Marine 
Plumbing Outfits, Oakum, Caulk- 
ing Cotton, Oiled Clothing, Life 
Jackets, Sails, Flags, Canvas work. 



John Leckie Limited 



77 Wellington St. W. 



TORONTO 




THE 



D A K E 



Steam Steerers 
and Steamers, 
double wheel. 



for Tugs 
Single or 



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Write for 
Complete 
Catalog and 
prices. 

Dake 
Engine 
Co. 

Grand 
Haven 
Mich. 



Centrifugal Pumps direct 
connected to DAKE engines, 
all on one base. 




■THE SOLUTION- 



of the Corrosion Problem 



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WM. BRIGGS & SONS, LTD. 

DUNDEE & LONDON 

Agents for Canada : MACDONALD & SONS, 

176 King St. East, TORONTO. 




Ship and Yacht 



Fittings of Every 
Description 

Pumps, Portlights, 
Sanitary Appliances, 
Folding Lavatories, 
Baths, Ventilators, 
Bells, Hinges, etc., 
Send for Catalogue. 



AGENTS WANTED IN CANADA 





J. D0WNT0N & CO. 

69-71 West India Dock Road 
LONDON, ENG. 

Cables : "John Downton, Phone London." 



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MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Colliipood Shipbuilding Co., Limited 

Coiling wood, Ont. 3 Canada 




Canadian Government Steamer "ESTEVAN"— 212 -20(T x 38 v x 17 -6. 
Built by Collingwood Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. 



Steel and Wooden Ships, Engines, Boilers, 

Castings and Forgings 

PLANT FITTED WITH MODERN APPLIANCES FOR QUICK WORK 

Dry Docks and Shops Equipped to Operate 
Day or Night on Repairs 



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CIRCULATES IN EVERY PROVINCE OF CANADA AND ABROAD 

Marine Engineering 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and development of Merchant and Naval Marine Engineering, 
Shipbuilding, the building of Harbors and Docks, and containing a record of the latest and 
best practice throughout the Sea-going World. Published by 
The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 

MONTREAL, Eastern Townships Bank Bldg. TORONTO, 143-149 University Ave. WINNIPEG, 34 Royal Bank Bldg. LONDON, ENG., 88 Fleet St. 

Vol. III. Publication Office, Toronto— Apri l, 1913 No. 4 

POLSON IRON WORKS, LIMITED 

TORONTO - - CANADA 

Steel Shipbuilders 
Engineers and Boilermakers 




Manufacturers o£ 

Steel Vessels, Tugs, Barges, Dredges and Scows 
Marine Engines and Boilers all sizes and kinds 

Works and Office : Esplanade Street East. Piers Nos. 35, 36, 37 and 38 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



THE TWO SISTER SHIPS 



Of the 



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S.S. " IMPERATOR " 



50,000 Tons. 




THE TWO LARGEST LINERS IN THE WORLD 

Are Being Coated EXCLUSIVELY 

with BRICjGS' Bituminous 

ENAMELS AND SOLUTIONS 

WM. BRIGGS & SONS, Ltd., Dundee & London. 

Agents for Canada : 
MACDONALD & SONS, 176 King St. East, TORONTO. 



Dipper Dredges 

Clam Dredges 

Steel Scows 

Drill Boats 




Equipment of this nature together with Hoisting 
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Let us figure on your requirements. 

We have the experience necessary to build any- 
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prices right. 

Send for descriptive matter now. 

M. BEATTY & SONS, Limited 
WELLAND ONTARIO 




This is one of our Compound Jet Condensing 
Engines with Pumps anJ Thrust attached. 



The Doty Marine Engine & Boiler Co., 



LIMITED 
Builders of 



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Non-Condensing Stern Wheel Engines 

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Marine Boilers of various types including Scotch, Locomotive, 
Fitzgibbon, Fire-box Return Tubular and Safety Water Tube. 



Estimates furnished for complete Marine outfits. 

The Doty Marine Engine & Boiler Co., 

LIMITED 

GODERICH, CANADA 



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MA RI NK ENGINEERING OP CANADA 



1 



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OLD COUNTRY FIRMS 



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SOLE CANADIAN AGENTS 



CLARKE, CHAPMAN & CO., LIMITED. 

Windlasses, Winches, Hoisting Gears, 
Electric Lighting, Steam Pumps, Marine 
Boilers. 

MURRAY, McVINNIE & CO., LTD. 

Cooking Ranges, Kitchen Utensils, Ship 
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JOHN HASTIE & CO., LTD. 

Steam, Hand, Electric Steering Gears. 

ANSELL, JONES & CO. 

Reid-McFarland 's Patent Steel Self- 
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DARLINGTON FORGE CO. 

Steel Castings and Forgings. 

WOODITE COMPANY. 

Woodite Gauge Glass Washers. 



HOME RUBBER CO. (New Jersey, U.S.A.) 

N.B.O. Sheet Packing, Mechanical Rub- 
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SHANKS & CO., LIMITED. 

Sanitary Appliances, Folding Lavatories, 
Plumbers' Fittings, Baths, W.C.'s, Etc. 

GIBSON & JONES. 

Patent Gem Flue Cleaners. 

DOBBIE-McINNES, LIMITED. 

Nautical-Navigation Instruments. 

R. B. Lindsay & CO. 

Lindsay Glasgow Patent High Pressure 
Piston Packing. 

HOSKIN & SON, LTD. 

Metallic Ships' Berths. 



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WM. McGEOCH & CO., LTD., Ships' Hardware, Electric Fixtures, Lamps. 

J. & A. STEWART & CO., Lignum Vitae, Teakwood, Mahogany, 
Hardwoods, Etc. 




WILLIAM C. WILSON & CO. 

TORONTO: Head Office. Lock 24 Welland Canal, THOROLD, ONT. 



2 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Highest Quality 

Marine Engineers 9 Supplies. 

Brass Goods 

of every description, 

Closets, 
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Electric Deck Light, 
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Marine Folding Lavatory. 






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Brass Port Light 
Made In different types and sizes from 
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Klinger Type Water Gauge 
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The James Morrison Brass Mfg. Co., Ltd, 



93-97 Adelaide St. West, TORONTO 



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Canadian Pacific Railroad Co. R.M.S. "Empress of Russia" 

The Empress of Russia mid her sister vessel the Empress of Asia have attracted consider- 
able attention in shipbuilding and marine engineering circles by reason of the innova- 
tions which they embody; the details here given, for which we are indebted to the "Jour- 
nal of Commerce," will, therefore, be of more than passing interest to our readers. 

'T* HE Canadian Pacific Railway Co.'s 
* R.M.S. Empress of Russia is now 
on a "round-the-world" cruise prior to 
taking up her station on the Vancouver- 
Yokohama-Hong Kong mail service. 

Externally she presents an exception- 
ally handsome appearance, and her great 
white-painted hull, with three massive 
yellow funnels and Admiralty stern, 
give her a "Government-owned" look, 
which adds greatly to the effect. The 
"cruiser" or "Admiralty" stern is 
quite an innovation for the merchant 
service, but there seems every prospect 
of its adoption pretty generally for the 
mail boat class of liner. Special advan- 
tages in regard to increased deck space 
and navigation are claimed for the new 
shape, and four liners will be equipped 
with it during the present year, viz.: — 
The Empress of Russia, Empress of 
Asia, and the two large quadruple-screw 
Allan liners Alsatian and Calgarian. 
Internally the Empress of Russia is 
scarcely less remarkable. Those re- 
sponsible for her design have introduced 
with great advantage several new fea- 
tures, and the dining-room is very hand- 




CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILROAD CO. ROYAL MAIL PACIFIC LINER 'EMPRESS OF ASIA," SISTER VESSEL. 

63 



some. She with her sister ship will set 
an entirely new standard of comfort and 
luxury in Transpacific travel. 

General Features. 

The Empress of Russia is about 590 
feet in length, 68 feet in breadth, and 46 
feet in depth, and of about 15,000 tons 
gross, whereas the vessels presently con- 
ducting the service are of about 6,000 
tons gross. The new boat is propelled 
by four screws, driven by four sets of 
Parsons turbines, and steam is supplied 
by an installation of ten boilers, work- 
ing under Howden's system of forced 
draught at a steam pressure of 190 lbs. 
per square inch. A departure from cur- 
rent practice has been made in deciding 
to construct the vessels with cruiser 
sterns and rudders entirely underhung. 
This form of stern, besides giving the 
vessel a distinctive appearance, in- 
creases the effective length of the water 
line, and so assists propulsion, and adds 
considerably to the available areas at 
the after end. 

The vessel has a double bottom, orlop, 
lower, main, upper and shelter decks, 



and a straight stem. Above the shelter 
deck is a long combined forecastle and 
bridge, the bridge deck being extended 
to the stern on side stanchions. Above 
the bridge deck is a promenade deck, 
about 350 feet long, on which are the 
principal first class public rooms, with 
the officers' quarters and navigating 
bridge over. There are two pole masts 
and three funnels. In order to ensure 
safety in the event of collision or 
grounding, the hulls are sub-divided by 
numerous watertight bulkheads, closely 
spaced, one effect of which will be that 
any four compartments can be open to 
the sea or flooded, and the vessel will 
still remain afloat. The Empress of 
Russia and her sister ship, the Empress 
of Asia, have been contracted under the 
supervision of Lloyd's Register, and will 
be classed 100 Al, three deck and 
shelter deck, with freeboard restricted 
to conform to the bulkhead spacing. 

Passenger Accommodation. 

The vessel has accommodation for 
200 first-class, 100 second-class Asiatic, 
and for 800 third-class Asiatic passen- 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



gers, and will have a total complement 
of 475 officers and crew. The hold, 
orlop, and lower decks beyond the ma- 
chinery spaces are arranged to carry 
general cargo. On the main deck for- 
ward, the mail room is fitted the full 
breadth of the ship. There are also 
spaces for portable steerage or cargo. 
Amidships on this deck are stowed the 
ship's stores and cold chambers. Abaft 
this is accommodation for stewards and 
firemen. Between the firemen's quar- 
ters and the stern, provision has been 



made for carrying valuable cargoes of 
silk. Five hundred Asiatic steerage pas- 
sengers, in suitably divided compart- 
ments, having large airing and dining 
accommodation, ample cooking and 
pantry space, and commodious wash 
piaces, are arranged for on the upper 
deck aft and amidships on the port side. 

On the starboard side aft of amid- 
ships, staterooms for four persons have 
been fitted up for second-class passen- 
gers. Forward of these on the same 
side are a number of rooms for first- 
class passengers. The upper deck for- 
ward provides the accommodation for 
seamen and petty officers. On the 
shelter deck, just forward of amidships, 
is situated the first-class reception room 
and cafe, measuring 44 feet by 64 feet, 
with large embarking gangways on 
either side of the ssip. Access to all the 
first-class accommodation and public 
rooms is gained from this reception 
room. Immediately forward on this 
deck are large staterooms for two and 
three persons. Adjoining the cafe on 
the aft side is the main saloon, 74 feet 
long and 64 feet wide, lit from the sides 
by a number of beautifully designed 
windows nearly five feet wide, and from 
above by a large well, 26 feet by 16 feet 
wide. The tables are arranged to suit 
the demands of various passengers, 
from small tables tor t wo and four per- 
m ns, to semi-private tables for six, ar- 
ranged in alcoves, and larger tables for 
larger parties. 

In the central part of this deck is 
fitted the main kitchen, the pantries, 
cold larders, bakery, etc., equipped 
with all latest hygienic and labor-saving 
devices necessary for effectively serving 
the first and second-class passengers, 
in minimise running to and fro, a 



number of electric lifts have been 
erected between the main kitchens and 
the various stores, and a number of 
' ' deck ' ' pantries installed on the bridge 
and promenade decks above. Indeed, 
the culinary department has received the 
most careful consideration, and every- 
thing possible has been done to make it 
efficient. The first and second-class 
kitchen is fitted with a large central 
range, silver grills, steam stockpots, 
bain maries, hot closets, electrically 
driven roasters, potato peeling machines, 



and every conceivable labor-saving de- 
vice. 

The bakery is fitted with watertube 
ovens of the latest type, and the baker's 
shop contains dough-mixing machines, 
ice cream machines, and refrigerators. 
The pantries for first, second and third- 
class passengers are completely fitted 
with carving tables, bain maries, coffee 
and water boilers, egg boilers, and elec- 
tric hot plates. Abaft the galley and 
adjoining the turbine hatch, within easy 
reach of the promenade on the shelter 
deck, are the engineers' quarters, so 
arranged as to give the maximum com- 
fort to the engine-room staff in hot 
weather. 



Within easy reach of their cabins on 
the upper deck, and leading direct to a 
covered promenade on the shelter deck, 
is a second-class entrance and lounge, 
which in turn leads to the second-class 
saloon. These rooms are fitted in a 
large airy deckhouse about 50 feet long, 
48 feet wide and 9 feet high, lit off 
three sides by large plate glass windows. 
At the aft end of the shelter deck, 
isolated from the first and second-class, 
a large covered airing space for Asiatic 
steerage has been provided. The hos- 
pitals, laundry, embalming-room, etc., 
are at the extreme aft end of the ship 
i.n the shelter deck. 

Ascending the grand staircase from 
the reception room, the first-class state- 
rooms on the bridge deck are reached. 
These rooms are enclosed in a complete 
steel deckhouse 340 feet long; each 
measuring 10 feet by 9 feet, with sleep- 
ing berths for two persons, and a couch 
so arranged as to be easily converted 
to a bed should it be found necessaiw. 
The sleeping berths, again, are so de- 
signed that should one passenger only 
engage the room, all evidence of the 
other berth is hidden leaving only a 
sinlge brass bedstead. Another feature 
is that two state-rooms can be converted 
into one suite, having dressing room 
(with hot' and cold water) adjoining. 
SuiTounding the deckhouse is one of the 
first-class promenades; on either side of 
the house on the straight this promen- 
ade is no less than 430 feet long, with 
a minimum width of 8 feet. At the 
aft end for 100 feet long it extends 
from side to side of the ship. 

Encircling the promenade at the for- 
ward end of the deckhouse, a screen is 
erected at the ship's side and across the 





C. P. R. PACIFIC LINER, "EMPRESS OP RUSSIA.' 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



ship 8 feet in front of the house, with 
large observation windows, which will 
give a sheltered promenade 240 feet 
long. Forward of the screen, the bridge 
deck continues to the forecastle deck, 
and is fitted with powerful cable holders 
and capstans for quick and efficient 
handling of the vessel. 

At the head of the grand staircase is 
situated the promenade deck, with a 
deckhouse 320 feet long by 44 feet broad, 
in which are first-class state-rooms for 
one or two persons, handsome parlor 
suits of two, three and four rooms, all 
self-contained with bath-room, dressing- 



have received special consideration in 
view of the length of the voyage and the 
variety of climate the ship will pass 
through. All the latest devices for the 
quick handling and control of the ship 
have been installed. A dining-room 
served by an electric lift from the ship's 
main pantry, and a cosy smoke-room are 
among the arrangements provided for 
the officers' comfort. 

Heating and Ventilating. 

An outstanding feature of the vessel 
is the size, design, and quality of the 




WRITING ROOM. 
VERANDAH CAFE. 
PUBLIC ROOMS ON THE NEW C.P.R. 

room and lavatory accommodation. At 
suitable intervals in the deckhouse, other 
stairways have been fitted, giving easy 
access to the first-class on the bridge- 
deck below and the saloon on the shelter 
deck. Midway in the length of the 
deckhouse is the lounge, 48 feet long 
by 36 feet broad and 14 feet high at the 
centre. 

Further aft a waiting room has been 
introduced, and at the aft end a smok- 
ing-room and verandah cafe, occupying 
u space 57 feet long, 43 feet broad and 
14 feet high. Around the deckhouse 
is an open promenade with screen pro- 
tection at the forward end, similar to 
that fitted on the bridge deck. On the 
house top with an internal stairway 
from the deckhouse on the promenade 
deck a large gymnasium, 16 feet long 
by 28 feet broad, is fitted up with a 
extensive variety of exercising machines, 
including rowing, vibrator, astride and 
side saddle machines. 

The officers' accommodation and navi- 
gation bridge forward on the house tops 



FIRST-CLASS DINING SALOON. 
FIRST-CLASS SMOKING ROOM. 
LINER, "EMPRESS OF RUSSIA." 

public rooms, parlor suites, special and 
ordinary staterooms, also the large pro- 
portions of the second-class and Asiatic 
accommodation. The public rooms in the 
one ship are of English design, and in 
the other of French design. Each first- 
class room or public room is heated and 
ventilated on the thermo tank principle, 
as is also the second and steerage accom- 
modation, about 20 of these tanks being- 
distributed throughout the length of the 
vessel. Natural ventilation has also been 
provided in various sections. Electric 
radiators and electric fans can also be 
used on the state or public rooms should 
conditions so demand. The sanitary ac- 
commodation is of the most improved de- 
scription, each group of lavatories being 
fitted with an ample number of baths, 
showers, wash-basins, etc., supplied with 
hot and cold sea and fresh water, the 
fresh water passing through specially de- 
signed filters. A powerful electric suc- 
tion fan in each section keeps lavatories 
fresh. 

65 



The electric generating plant, consist- 
ing of five independent sets of engines 
and dynamos, provides a complete sys- 
tem of electric lights, radiators, and 
power for the large stokehold fans, also 
for the ventilating fans throughout the 
ship, and the silent working cranes and 
winches for rapid handling of cargo. Sig- 
nalling at sea can be carried on by a 
semaphore on the bridge of the type used 
in the British Admiralty for short dis- 
tances, while the equipment includes, of 
course, the long range Marconi sys- 
tem. 

Engine-Room Equipment. 

The propelling machinery consists of 
four turbines of the Parsons type, em- 
bodying the most recent improvements in 
design and construction to ensure the 
maximum economy of fuel consumption 
on service being attained. The port 
wing shaft is driven by a H. P. turbine 
which will exhaust into a L. P. turbine 
driving the starboard wing shaft. The 
two inner shafts are each driven by a 
L. P. turbine which has a powerful as- 
tern turbine incorporated in the same 
casing. 

The introduction of an I. P. turbine to 
the installation provides a much wider 
range for the expansion of the steam, 
and will effect a marked improvement in 
steam consumption as compared with the 
usual arangement of turbines driving 
either three or four shafts, adopted in 
some large mail steamers and naval ves- 
sels. Hitherto, these have been fitted 
with either one H. P. turbine exhausting 
with two L. P. turbines, or two H. P. 
turbines exhausting to two L. P. turb- 
ines. For manoeuvring when entering 
or leaving harbors, independent high 
pressure steam connections are provided 
on each L. P. ahead turbine. An inde- 
pendent high pressure steam connection 
has also been provided on the L. P. turb- 
ine, which, combined with a suitable ar- 
rangement of valves, enables the H. P. 
turbine to be cut out, or should the I. P. 
turbine be out of action, the H. P. turb- 
ine can exhaust direct into one or other 
or both of the L. P. turbines. 

The four turbines are situated in one 
watertight compartment, and in a separ- 
ate compartment immediately aft, the 
two condensers are placed, together with 
the circulating pumps, dual type wet and 
dry air-pumps, evaporators and distil- 
lers. The circulating pumps and air 
pumps form two distinct and separate 
sets, each set working in conjunction 
with one condenser, and independent of 
the other, but are also arranged with suit- 
able cross connections, so that either set 
of pumps can, in case of emergency, work 
in conjunction with both condensers. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



The installation of auxiliary machin- 
ery is exceptionally large, and, as in the 
case of the turbine installation, has been 
designed with a view to securing the 
greatest economy in fuel consumption 
and convenience in working. The feed 
water system for the boilers comprises 
two twin filters of the gravitation type, 
through which the water from the air 
pumps is discharged on its way to the 
hot-well tanks; two hot-well pumps 
which discharge the feed water first 
through a surface feed water heater and 
afterwards through a contact feed heat- 
er, from which the four feed pumps take 
their supply and discharge direct to the 
boilers. 

The feed water is heated by the ex- 
haust steam from the auxiliary machin- 
ery throughout the ship, the steam from 
ship 's heating systems and drainage sys- 
tems from steam pipes, etc. The system 
evolved is the result of careful considera- 
tion, and will ensure that all waste heat 
from the auxiliary steam and exhaust 
systems is utilized in heating the feed 
water instead of the heat being carried 
away by the circulating water from the 
condensers. 

Auxiliary Machinery. 

For harbor use a separate auxiliary 
condenser with circulating pump, air- 
pump, feed filter and feed pump is fitted 
to admit of the coresponding auxiliary 
machinery used on service being opened 
out for cleansing and examination as 
necessary. All the bearings for the tur- 
bine and line shafting are connected to 
the forced lubrication system, and the 
oil supply is maintained by four large 
oil pumps which discharge the oil 
through special coolers before entering 
the bearing's. Separate pumps are fitted 
for circulating cold sea-water through 
the oil coolers. Drain tanks, in which 
the oil gravitates from the bearings and 
settling tanks for separating any water 
or impurities from the oil, are fitted in 
the condensing-room. The pumps fox- 
ship's service consist of two general ser- 
vice pumps, three sanitary hot and cold 
water pumps, two bilge pumps, two 
fresh-water pumps, and a ballast pump. 

Refrigerator Plant. 

The refrigerating machinery and elec- 
tric machinery are situated in a separate 
compartment aft of the condenser-room. 
In view of the service in which these 
vessels are to be engaged, the installa- 
tion of refrigerating machinery fitted 
is very large, and comprises two ma- 
chines supplied by the Liverpool Re- 
frigeration Co. for the preservation of 
perishable provisions for ship's use. A 



series of insulated chambers are fitted, 
having separate compartments for meat, 
fish, poultry, game, dairy produce, 
fruits, vegetables, ice, etc., each of which 
can be refrigerated to the desired de- 
gree of temperature, some of the coldest 
rooms having to be kept 20 deg. Fahr. be- 
low freezing point, and others at com- 
paratively warmer temperatures. 

These chambers are placed in the 
lower 'tween decks amidships, and in 
addition, there are a number of cold 
larders, bar refrigerators and water cool- 
ers in vaious parts of the ship for the 
use and conveniences of the stewards' 
department, and for the provision of 
iced drinks for the passengers. All these 
are refrigerated direct by the machines, 
and are under easy control. An ice- 
making plant is also provided for mak- 
ing- ice on board for the ship's use. 

The machinery is in duplicate through- 
out, and is on the Liverpool Refrigerat- 
ing Co. 's well-known carbonic anhy- 
dride system. Each machine includes a 
steam-driven CO. compressor mounted 
on a heavy tank base in which are the 
gas condenser coils of solid drawn cop- 
per tube, specially made to withstand 
the high working pressure. The evap- 
orators and brine pumps are placed in 
an insulated house partitioned off from 
the machinery space. In this house are 
also placed all the cold parts of the 
machinery, such as valves, headers, etc., 
where they are efficiently protected from 
outside heat, while being perfectly ac- 
cessible. Either machine is capable of 
doing the whole of the work • required, 
the other being a standby. 

Boiler Installation. 

Steam is generated in six large double- 
ended boilers and four single-ended boil- 
ers, situated in three separate compart- 
ments, and working under the Howden 
system of forced draught, the air supply 
being maintained by an installation of 
electrically-driven fans fitted in dupli- 
cate and situated on the main deck. 
Throughout the whole of the 64 fur- 
naces, the "Regulator" patent furnace 
bridge has been fitted by the Regulator 
Furnace Bridge Co., Ltd. The two pole 
masts and three large and well-propor- 
tioned elliptical funnels, one for each 
boiler compartment, give the vessel a 
strikingly handsome appearance. 

For dealing with the ashes at sea, 
See 's ash ejectors are fitted in each 
stokehold, and in each boiler compart- 
ment a specially designed ash ejector 
pump for supplying the water under 
pressure to the ejectors is fitted. Steam 
ash hoists of a silent type are also fit- 
ted in each boiler compartment for har- 
bor service. The ash hoisting arrange- 
ments have received special considera- 
tion in order to minimize the noise which 
is so objectionable, and this machinery 
has, therefore, been removed entirely 
from the vicinity of the passenger quar- 
66 



ters. The Willet-Bruee automatic steam- 
ship whistle control has been supplied 
to the vessel, while the pumps are fitted 
with Downie's patent dead light valves. 

Speed Trials. 

The Empress of Russia ran her trials 
on March 22. Loaded to a mean 
draught of 26 ft. 8 in., and carrying 
over 7,000 tons dw., she proceeded to the 
measured mile at Skelmorlie, where a 
series of progressive runs were carried 
out at speeds ranging from 12 to 21% 
knots, the contract maximum require- 
ment being exceeded by three-quarters of 
a knot. The vessel returned to the 
Tail of the Bank in the evening to be 
b;t Hasted to a deeper draught for a fur- 
ther trial of 600 miles at sea. Sailing 
again at 10 p.m., she completed a run of 
610 nautical miles by about 5 o'clock on 
the Monday morning, her average speed 
over the whole distance working out at 
20y 2 knots, or half a knot in excess of 
the contract stipulation. Furthermore, 
the coal consumption proved to have been 
about 10 per cent, less than the con- 
tract requirements. Finally, a series of 
stopping and circle trials were carried 
out with thoroughly satisfactory results. 

We understand that the results as re- 
gards speed, absence of vibration, and 
steering, have fully justified the owners' 
decision to adopt the Fairfield Co. 's 
latest idea in the design of merchant 
vessels. 

@ 

IMPROVED CANADIAN WEST 
INDIES SERVICE. 

1* HE Dominion Government has, it 
is understood, completed arrange- 
ments for an improved steamship ser- 
vice between Canada and the West 
Indies. The arrangement is a tem- 
porary one, the contract being for a 
year. The old service was provided 
by the firm of Pickford and Black, with 
four boats, sailing from Halifax every 
twelve days, and calling at St. John on 
the homeward voyage. The subsidy 
paid by the Government for this ser- 
vice was $100,000. 

The new service will call for a sub- 
sidy of $200,000. Pickford and Black 
will have other steamship interests as- 
sociated with them, and two first-class 
modern passenger vessels will be placed 
on the route. The ports of call will 
be the same as under the old contract, 
providing a service between Canada 
and all the islands which are parties to 
the new trade agreement between the 
Dominion and the British West Indies. 

It is understood that no offers were 
received for a lengthier contract on 
terms satisfactory to the Government. 



New Elevator at United States Most Easterly Lake Port 

Being the Description of a Recently-Erected Concrete Grain Storage Unit, Which Replaces 
the Old Wooden Elevator Destroyed by Fire Tivo Years Ago at Ogdensburg, N. Y. 

f\ GDENSBURG, New York, is the 
most easterly Great Lakes Port in 
the United States. It is not directly 
on any of the lakes, but a few miles 
down the St. Lawrence from Lake On- 
tario. This means, however, that the ad- 
vantages of cheaper water freights are 
increased in the case of Ogdensburg by 
the comparatively longer water haul. 
Not only is Ogdensburg the most eastern 
port on the Great Lakes on the American 
side at the present time, but it always 
will be. Immediately below Ogdensburg, 
the St. Lawrence River breaks into rap- 
ids and on the Canadian side of the 
river, canals have been built around 
these rapids. On the American side 
there is no ship canal, nor will there 
ever be, because, just at the foot of the 
rapids, the international boundary line 
crosses the river, which, from that point 
for 1,100 miles, runs through Canadian 
territory exclusively. Ogdensburg is, 
therefore, at the extreme Eastern end 
of the combined Great Lakes and St. 
Lawrence River route as far as the 
United States is concerned. 

Ogdensburg at a Disadvantage. 

Unfortunately for the development of 
the city, nature arranged Lake Erie at a 
considerably higher level than Lake On- 
tario. The obstacles presented by the 
Niagara River have for many years 




obliged lake traffic to halt at Buffalo and 
the result has been the development of 
that enormous grain port. It is true that 
the Canadian Government has, for a long 
time, had a canal across the neck of 
land between Lake Erie and Lake On- 
tario, but this, the well-known Welland 
Canal, can only accommodate vessels of 
14-foot draught, and of a lengtli of ap- 
proximately 200 feet. Lake Ontario and 
St. Lawrence River ports can, as a con- 
sequence, be visited only by inland ves- 
sels of a very restricted size. The grain 
traffic at Ogdensburg has been restrict- 
ed practically to that handled by the 
Rutland Railroad Co. on their package 
freight steamers from Chicago and Mil- 
waukee and to an occasional tramp boat 
of small size. 

The New Welland Canal Feature. 

The Canadian Government has now 
started work on a deeper Welland Canal 
with larger locks, and although it will 
be some years before this is completed, 
yet, when the work is finished, vessels of 
21 feet draught and of Great Lakes size 
can reach Lake Ontario and go down 
the St. Lawrence River as far as Ogdens- 
burg. Ultimately, if the Canadian Gov- 
ernment deepens and improves the St. 
Lawrence Canals, these large vessels will 
also be able to reach Montreal; but, 
even in that event, grain carried on the 



Great Lakes for export from United 
States points or for domestic consump- 
tion in the East will stop at the eastern- 
most United States port, Ogdensburg. 
Should it occur, as now seems probable, 
that the deepened Welland Canal is 
completed, a considerable time before 
the St. Lawrence Canals are improved, 
it is even reasonable to anticipate that 
a certain amount of Canadian-bound 
grain will be trans-shipped at Ogdens- 
burg from the largest carriers to vessels 
of canal size. 

Elevator Features. 

With a view to having Ogdensburg 
properly equipped when the new Wel- 
land Canal is completed, the Rutland 
Railroad Co. has recently erected a 
rapid-handling marine elevator at that 
point, and in planning a house to replace 
the elevator destroyed by fire in 1910, 
the railroad kept in view the necessity 
of handling grain quickly, and of ar- 
ranging a plant which would be capable 
of - extension. The new elevator is at 
present of 500,000 ^ushels capacity, but 
is so designed that additional storage 
capacity to any reasonable amount may 
be added. The elevator uses a portion 
of the pile foundation of the former 
house, numerous piles having been driv- 
en to take care of the additional load 
of concrete building. The former plant, 



NEW GRAIN ELEVATOR RECENTLY ERECTED AT OGDENSBURG, N.Y. BY THE JOHN S. METCALF CO., MONTREAL. 

67 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



•with the addition of purchased electric 
power, is used to drive the new elevator. 

The entire elevator is of reinforced 
concrete throughout, including- marine 
tower, bins and car shipping house, with 
a structural concrete cupola, curtain 
walls, floors and roofs. The marine leg 
has an unloading capacity of 18,000 
bushels per hour on the dip and is pro- 
vided with ship shovels and clean-up 
shovels operated by air. A 400-bushel 
ltopper scale weighs the stream of grain 
from the marine leg, and a 2,000-bushel 
hopper scale is used for shipping to 
barges. Aside from the marine leg, there 
is a lofter, a shipping and a transfer leg. 

Two car spouts are provided, giving 
the shipping house a loading capacity of 
from 60 to 80 cars per day. This is aid- 
ed by good track room for loads and 
empties. The bins in the car-loading 
elevator are rectangular, while those in 
the storage portion of the building are 
cylindrical. The average size of the 
bins is small, to provide for a maximum 
number of small shipments for interior 
points. When the larger carriers come 
to Ogdensburg and additional storage is 
built, larger bins, similar to those in 
Buffalo and at Georgian Bay ports, will 
be constructed. 

Mr. Thomas Callahan is superinten- 
dent of the elevator, having been in the 
service of the railroad in that capacity 
for many years. The new concrete ele- 
vator was designed and built by the 
John S. Metcalf Company, Chicago and 
Montreal, who also designed and con- 
structed the old wooden elevator which 
was erected in 1888. 

© 

CANADIAN SHIPYARDS. 

TN view of a statement made by Pre- 
mier Borden, when introducing his 
navy proposals a few months ago, to the 
effect that in his opinion no shipbuild- 
ing organization of an efficient character 
could be completed in the Dominion 
within a quarter or, perhaps, half a cen- 
tury, considerable interest attaches to a 
letter which was received by a promin- 
ent member of the House of Commons, 
Ottawa, from the manager of the Fore 
River Shipbuilding Co., Quincy, Mass. 

Among other things, the communica- 
tion states that work on their new plant 
was begun on April 20, 1900. The keel 
of the first vessel, the United States 
steamer Des Moines, was laid on August 
28, 1900, in the new yard, and the ma- 
chinery and buildings of the old estab- 
lishment at East Braintree, about two 
miles further up the river, were moved 
during November, December, and Janu- 
ary following, all work being under way 
in January, 1901, at the new shipyard. 
The contracts for the first battleships, 
the New Jersey and Rhode Island, were 



signed on February 15, 1901, the keel 
of the latter being laid May 1, 1902, and 
of the former on April 2, 1902. This de- 
lay was caused more by the non-receipt 
of revised plans from the Navy Depart- 
ment, Washington, than anything else. 
During the past twelve years, no fewer 
than 114 hulls have been completed or 
are in hand, including those of five sub- 
marines, a torpedo boat destroyer, the 
battleship Nevada, a big old tanker, and 
the war vessels previously named. 

In this connection, it may be mention- 
ed that preparations are now being made 
for laying down a shipbuilding plant 
on a large scale at Sydney, Cape Bre- 
ton; St. John, N.B.; Halifax, N.S.; Mon- 
treal; and Esquimault, B.C. Most of 
these yards will be able to turn out war 
and merchant vessels equal to any in 
size now afloat. 

@ 

CANADA'S OCEAN MAIL SERVICE 

/~\N April 7, the Hon. L. P. Pelletier, 
^ Postmaster General, in a brief 
statement to Parliament before the 
orders of the day were called, laid upon 
the table of the House the contract just 
concluded for Canadian ocean mail ser- 
vice. By its terms there will be in- 
augurated a tri-weekly fast mail be- 
tween Montreal, Quebec, Liverpool and 
Bristol in the summer months, and a 
semi-weekly mail between Halifax, St. 
John and Liverpool in the winter 
months. 

The mail will be carried by four lines 
of Trans-Atlantic steamers — the C.P.R., 
the Canadian Northern, the Allan and 
the Dominion White Star, in all twelve 
fast vessels will operate on the route in 
summer and eight in winter. The sub- 
sidy is to be $1,000,000, an increase of 
some $400,000, a portion of which will 
be saved from the amount of $185,000 
now paid annually for the service via 
New York. 

The sailings from Canada will be on 
Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays. 
The contract comes into force on May 1. 
The four companies concerned jointly 
and severally agree to secure some other 
vessel should any of those stipulated in 
the contract become disabled at any 
time. 

Vessels in the Service. 

The vesssls participating in the ser- 
vice will be the Empresses of Ireland and 
Britain, of the C. P. R. line; the Royal 
George and Royal Edward of the C.N.R. 
line; the Victorian, Virginian, Gram- 
pian and Hesperian, with the two new 
vessels, the Alsatian and Calgarian, of 
the Allan line, and the Laurentic and 
Megantic of the Dominion White Star 
Line. The eight boats for, the winter 
services will be the two Empresses, the 
two Royals, the Alsation, the Calgarian, 
the Victorian and Virginian. The 
68 



White Star will not join in the winter 
service beyond supplying the Teutonic as 
a spare ship. The companies have the 
right of selecting which ports they will 
sail from. The million dollars will be 
divided into weekly appropriations, and 
the companies paid on the basis of week- 
ly service performed. 

The Postal Union Arrangement. 

The Postmaster-General pointed out 
that the Postal Union, which included 
practically all civilized countries, dur- 
ing one month in every sixth year weighs 
up all the mail handled in the world and 
apportions to each country the amount 
it shall pay each other country for the 
handling of its mail. On this basis it 
was six years ago determined that the 
United States was entitled to an annual 
payment of $185,000 for handling Cana- 
dian mail to Europe. Mr. Pelletier said 
that the world's mail would be weighed 
up next month. The improved steam- 
ship service from Canada would be in 
operation then, and it was expected that 
such a large proportion of Canada's mail 
would be going by Canadian routes that 
the amount Canada would have to pay 
the United States during the next six 
years for handling mail via New York 
woidd be substantially reduced. 

He expressed the belief that the im- 
proved service would result in Britain 
paying a larger share of the cost of 
handling mail from the Motherland to 
Canada. Britain's contribution on this 
account was now $23,000 per year, which 
was paid as Britain's share of the ser- 
vices of the Victorian and Virginian of 
the Allan Line. The amount would 
have been $46,000 per year, but for the 
contention of the British postal author- 
ities that the two Empresses were not 
Canadian, but British carriers, inasmuch 
as they were subsidized as a part of 
the Liverpool to Hong Kong service. 
The new scale of payment for mail car- 
riage under the Postal Union will become 
effective Jan. 1, 1914. 

@ 

DREDGE DIPPER TRIPS. 

n^HE dipper dredges Mindi and Chag- 
res operating in the Atlantic en- 
trance channel to the Panama Canal and 
on coral rock excavation for the new 
piers of the Panama Railroad Co. at 
Cristobal, have been equipped with 
steam dipper trips which a test of six 
months has shown to be successful. The 
trips were installed by the dredge crews 
under the direction of one of the crane- 
men, Mr. Henry Cartier, who selected 
the most of the material from scrapped 
French machinery. 

The dredges, mounting 5-yard dippers, 
are used entirely in rock, which when 
necessary, has been partly broken up by 
the operations of the drillboat Terrier. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



They are cutting channels of a minimum 
depth of 42 feet at mean tide. This re- 
quires dipper handles of great length. 
Cartier's Steam Trip for Dipper Lip. 

The procedure requires a quick-act- 
ing trip, to avoid spilling over the edge 



and simple in construction, due to the 
arrangement of boom and clipper stick, 
and be so arranged that the tripping 
line would not have to be overhauled on 
a drum or otherwise. As will be seen 
by the accompanying sketch, the Cartier 
device consists of a steam ram (C), 
mounted on a foundation in an out-of- 
the-way position on the interior of the 





of the barge on the return swing. Oper- 
ation by hand was slow and uncertain, 
because of the weight and accumulated 
slack in so lon,g a trip line, besides, re- 
quiring the use of both hands by the 
craneman. It was necessary that the 
tripping device be both positive in action 



CARTIER'S STEAM TRIP FOR DIPPER 
LIP 



boom. The steam exhausted from the 
operation of the ram is discharged be- 
low the surface of the water, in order 
that it may not obstruct the operator's 
viey. 

T;he cylinder is 5-inch bore and has a 
stroke of 8*4 inches. The piston rod 
carries the equalizing sheave (D), and 
the jamb movement of the ram piston is 
decreased by allowing the shock to be 
taken up in two heavy %-inch by !/2- 
inch springs, 3V2 inches long, mounted 
69 



on the supporting guide arms for the 
equalizing sheave. The cylinder valve 
is of simple design and operated 
through the operating lever (A) and the 
reach rod (B). The latch chain is led 
to the purchase lever (G), which is made 
fast to the dipper handle in the manner 
shown, and a ^-inch flexible steel cable 
(F) is made fast to the opposite end 
and led back over the small idler to keep 
the slack end of the line from becoming 
entangled. It is then led over one of 
the two idler sheaves (E) mounted on a 
stationary shaft parallel to each other, 
thence over the sheave (D) back over the 
other idler sheave (E), and up and dead- 




ended at the top end of the dipper han- 
dle. The 8^-inch movement of the ram 
piston takes up I6V2 inches from the 
line to overcome the necessary operating- 
slack, and pulls on the latch, this being 
sufficient to secure positive action. The 
line attachment as shown overcomes the 
necessity of winding in and out the 
otherwise free end upon a drum, the line 
being free to travel with the dipper 
handle over the idler sheaves (E) and 
the equalizing sheave (D). 

The closing of the door is accomplish- 
ed by its flat surface striking the water 
with such force that it not only closes, 
but takes up the slack in the tripping 
line (F) and pulls the piston into a 
starting position in the ram. The sav- 
ing in time and the increase in yardage 
through use of this device cannot be 
arrived at, as no efficiency tests have 
been made, but it is known that a con- 
siderable increase in the yardage has 
been achieved. 



New Steamer "Alsatian" for Allan Line Canadian Service 



The desire to cater to the comfort and transportation of its patrons by keeping pace with 
an ever increasing standard of requirement has been the secret of the successful growth and 
development of the ''Allan Line," and no one may challenge the assertion that Canada 
ovoes much to-day to the enterprise and dogged perseverance of the Allan family. This 
latest addition to the Co.'s fleet — the "Alsatian"- — is evidence thai the old spirit still 
prevails. 



STERN VIEW OF NEW ALLAN LINER. "ALSATIAN." 



tion Registry, while the Board of Trade carried well up the bilges as an addi- 
i emulations for ensuring the safety of t;onal protection in case of grounding. 




T N our February issue a brief outline 
of the new Allan liner Alsatian was 
given, together with an illustration of 
the ship as she will appear when com- 
pleted. The vessel was recently launch- 
ed, and, from the information concern- 
ing her to hand, we are now able to give 
some details and illustrations connected 
with that ceremony, as well as sup- 
plementary information concerning the 
structure and general equipment of the 
ship. 

The Alsatian was launched from the 
shipyard of Wm. Beardmore & Co., Dal- 
muir, near Glasgow, on Saturday, March 
22. The vessel is 600 ft. in length on 
the water-line and 570 ft. b.p., with a 
breadth moulded of 72 ft., and a depth 
moulded of 45 ft. 6 in. She is of 18,000 
tons gross, 20,000 shaft horse-power, 
and is to have a speed of 19 knots on 
trial fully loaded and 18 knots on ser- 
vice. She has 8 decks, 11 watertight 
bulkheads, and accommodation for 200 
fivst-elass, 500 second-class, and 1,000 
third-class passengers. The . vessel has 
been specially strengthened forward for 
passing through ice, and has been con- 
structed under special survey to meet 
the requirements of the British Corpora- 



passengers and crews" have been more 
than complied with. A cellular double 
bottom is fitted all fore and aft. and is 



Boats and other life-saving appliances 
will be provided sufficient for all on 
board. The vessel has the usual stem, 
but the stern is of the warship type, 
with exceptionally long outreaches be- 
yond the after perpendicular. 

General Features. 

The Alsatian has four sets of en suite 
cabins, each consisting of two bedrooms, 
a sitting-room and a dressing-room, so 
arranged that the sitting-room may be 
let separately as a one-berth state-room, 
or with either or both of the bedrooms. 
There are also eight special cabins with 
bathrooms adjoining. In addition, there 
are 16 other special state-rooms, with 
bath-rooms communicating with each 
pair of rooms, and so arranged that the 
bath-rooms can be let with either room. 
The remainder of the first-class sleep- 
ing accommodation consists of one and 
two-berth cabins, and the public rooms 
comprise a gymnasium, a verandah cafe, 
and an upper smoking-room on the boat 
deck, a library, a lounge, a card-room, 
also a lower smoking-room on the upper 
promenade deck, and a dining saloon on 
the shelter deck. The saloon will seat 
220 persons, and will have small tables 
for two, four, six and eight. The whole 
of the furniture, panelling, etc., in the 
first and second-class public rooms and 




MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



suites will be of oak, and in the Jaco- 
bean style throughout. Accommodation 
will be provided for 500 second-class 
passengers in two and four-berth rooms. 
The third-class accommodation can be 
divided if required into two portions, 
each complete in itself, so that either 
part can be placed in quarantine if 
necessary. 

Propelling Machinery. 

The propelling machine consists of 
Parsons compound steam turbines, ar- 
ranged in series on four shafts, and in- 
cludes one high-pressure, one interme- 
diate, and two low-pressure turbines. 
Two astern turbines, each with impulse 
reaction blading, are incorporated with 
the low-pressure turbines, and the latter 
drive the inner lines of shafting. Steam 
is led direct from the boilers to each 
turbine, and any one shaft may be op- 
erated independently of the others. Six 
double-ended and four single-ended 
boilers of the cylindrical type, working 
at a pressure of 200 lbs., under forced 
draught, and arranged in two compart- 
ments, are installed. 

The Christening Ceremony. 

The naming ceremony was performed 
by Mrs. Hugh Allan, wife of the Allan 
Line chairman. The Marquis of Graham 
took the chair at the subsequent 
luncheon, and amongst others present 
were the Duke and Duchess of Mont- 
rose, Mr. Hugh A. Allan, Mr. W. R. 
Allan, Mr. W. W. May, Lord Malise 
Graham, Col. J. Smith Park, Vice-Ad- 
miral Bearcroft, Dr. John Inglis, Mr. 
A. J. Campbell and Mr. J. Foster King. 



VICTORIA, B.C., SHIPBUILDING. 

JLf R. J. V. PATTERSON, president of 
the Seattle Construction and 
Drydock Co., recently gave his impres- 
sions of a brief visit to Victoria. He 
said: 

"I was accorded the courtesy of in- 
specting the plant and shipbuilding 
yards of the B. C. Marine Railway Com- 



pany at Esquimalt, and I must say I 
was not only greatly interested in learn- 
ing how complete are the facilities at 
this port for the upbuilding of a great 
national industry, but astonished at the 
failure to give those essential encourage- 
ments which we on the other side of the 
line have had conceded. 

"I was allowed to inspect the fine 
steel steamship Princess Macquinna, 
now approaching completion for the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, and I can 
testify that she is, in my judgment, a 



shortly you will find yourselves hope- 
lessly outclassed in respect of ship- 
building facilities unless, to use a slang 
phrase, you 'get a move on.' 

"You are going to have a large dock, 
and shipbuilding yards are inseparable 
from its successful operation. To give 
you an illustration: In order that a ship 
which has been docked for repairs can 
have the same effected with despatch, it 
is essential that there shall be imme- 
diately available large gangs of expert 
workmen. Now, it is obvious that these 




NEW ALLAN LINER "ALSATIAN" AFTER THE LAUNCH. 



credit not only to her builders, but to 
Canadian shipyards. I doubt very much 
if a more staunch and generally credit- 
able craft could be produced in any port 
of the world, notwithstanding the ob- 
vious disparity between the facilities at 
this port and the large shipbuilding 
centres. 

Tremendous Opportunities. 

"In view of the tremendous oppor- 
tunities which are just opening to the 
whole of the North Pacific Coast, due in 
large measure to the imminent opening 
to traffic of the Panama Canal, there can 
be no question whatever that very 



men cannot stay unless there shall be 
provided a continuity of work at the 
shipbuilding yards. All this may be 
rudimentary, but it is a lesson which 
must be learned if your people are to 
understand the situation. 

Continuity of Work. 

"The duty of the Government in the 
matter is clear — and, of course, in say- 
ing this I am mainly depending upon 
what I have learned respecting the 
United States Government's action un- 
der similar circumstances. My company 
has been particularly fortunate in this 
respect, as the Government has given a 





QUADRUPLE SCREW TURBINE ALLAN LINE STEAMSHIP, "ALSATIAN. 

71 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



margin of protection to the shipbuilding 
industry, the coastwise trade being con- 
served for the benefit of American- 
owned vessels, which must be American- 
built craft. 

"One of the difficult things we have 
to contend with when we have attempt- 
ed to arouse public interest in ship- 
building is that of getting people to un- 
derstand that with the yards and plant 
there will be built industries of all sorts 
which enter into the construction and 
equipment for service of a steamship. 
If you were to go into it closely you 
would be amazed at the great variety of 
trades which are stimulated by the in- 
dustry. 

Need of Local Industries. 

"What struck me forcibly during my 
tour round the city is, first of all, your 
need of local industries. After all, it is 
'the man with the dinner pail' who is 
the biggest factor in the permanent life 
of the community, and you should put 
your shoulder to the wheel and try and 
get more of that individual. Then I 
was surprised to find that while at 
Esquimalt and points in your inner har- 
bor you have the most splendid natural 
facilities for the development of ship- 
yards, you are not prepared for what 
the future undoubtedly holds for you in 
the way of shipping expansion in these 
waters. As I said before, considering 
the many handicaps under which the in- 
dustry has to plod along in Canada, 
compared with conditions on my side of 
the line, I can only express amazement 
that your shipbuilding people have done 
so well." 

An Object Lesson. 

The company of which Mr. Paterson 
is the head has the greatest confidence 
that as a result of the opening of the 
Panama Canal there will be a very large 
increase of shipping in North Pacific 
waters, and, anticipating that event, 
they have completed the construction of 
a large floating dock at Seattle of 26,- 
000 tons capacity. 

Government Assistance. 

As indicating the policy of the United 
States Government in assisting to se- 
cure continuity of work at the yards, 
Mr. Paterson mentioned that his com- 
pany has at present under construction 
six submarines for the United States 
navy, a dredge for the Government, an 
ocean-going passenger steamship, a 
cargo boat for the coastwise trade, a tug 
boat for the Milwaukee Kailway, and a 
very large sea-going yacht, which will 
cost some $380,000. 

This company, it will be remembered, 
constructed and equipped the battleship 
Nebraska, which proved one of the most 
efficient and satisfactory vessels in the 
United States navy. 



"When one considers that our ship- 
building plant and its achievements in 
building are on a site which not so very 
many years ago was a howling wilder- 
ness,*' concludes Mr. Paterson, " one 
realizes that, given a chance, we on this 
virgin section of the globe can make 
successful attempts to build up great 
national industries, if unnecessary han- 
dicaps are removed from our paths. 
What we have accomplished on our 
side of the line I am sure you can and 
will accomplish here. ' ' 

® 

"BENGORE HEAD" APPEAL. 

'"P HE following statement has been 
issued by The Imperial Merchant 
Service Guild. London, Eng. : — 

The Imperial Merchant Service 
Guild are at present actively engaged 
in furthering an appeal by Captain J. C. 
Hoy, one of their members, late master 
of the S.S. "Bengore Head," from a de- 
cision of the Canadian Wreck Commis- 
sion Court at an inquiry held into the 
stranding of his vessel. The facts in 
connection with the disaster were that 
the master, after leaving Quebec out- 
ward bound, had been on the bridge 
from 6 p.m. until 2 p.m. the following 
day, a spell of 20 hours in all, without 
rest, navigating his vessel along a dan- 
gerous waterway in thick fog. He took 
advantage of an improvement in the 
weather to take a short rest, leaving in 
charge a thoroughly qualified officer, who 
was fully instructed as to what to do in 
any case of emergency. The master's 
object in doing this was to fit himself 
for a further long spell of duty, his 
intention being to resume charge of the 
vessel before dark in order to navigate 
it safely out of the Strait of Belle 
Isle. 

The instructions left by the master 
were not accurately carried out, and the 
ship stranded whilst he was still in his 
room, the officer in charge not having 
communicated with him at all during 
his absence. In spite of these facts, 
the court of inquiry not only suspended 
the certificate of the officer for nine 
months, but also suspended the certifi- 
cate of the master for three months. 
The Guild undertook the defence of the 
master at the original inquiry, and when 
the result was made known to the man- 
agement committee, they at once decided 
to take a legal opinion upon this 
matter. 

On receipt of this, the committee being 
of opinion that the suspension was a 
great hardship and injustice to the mas- 
ter, decided that no expense should be 
spared in endeavoring to reinstate him 
in the eyes of the world and of his pro- 
fessional brethren. They accordingly 
entered an :i]>| icn I to the I ligh ( 'nun , t o 



which the Board of Trade have been 
made a party, and eminent counsel will 
be instructed to represent the interests 
of Captain Hoy at the hearing, which 
is expected to soon take place in Lon- 
don. 

@ 

GRAIN ELEVATORS. 

"C N LEVATORS as a means of housing 
and handling grain did not make 
their appearance until the latter part of 
the last century. According to Con- 
crete and Constructional Engineering, 
the first real elevator of which there 
is any record was the "cribbed" wood 
type, and there are still a good many of 
these houses in existence. "This old 
type is interesting when it is consider- 
ed that at one time an elevator of near- 
ly four million bushels capacity was 
ereetejd complete, and almost totally 
filled with grain, in a period of forty- 
four days. Of course, lumber was 
plentiful, and no expense was spared 
and no restrictions put on the builder 
except to gain time. The first fire-re- 
sisting elevators were built of steel, 
practically on the same plan as the old 
wooden structures, which were rectang- 
ular in plan and had cribbed bins ele- 
vated on posts and usually arranged to 
suit unloading conditions. 

Up to this point, all storage and 
handling devices were canned under 
one roof, but it was then demonstrated 
that all machinery for unloading, hand- 
ling, and shipping could be more eco- 
nomically installed in separate build- 
ings called the working house. This 
was accomplished by having two or 
more parallel tracks alongside the 
house for unloading, thus shortening 
the house and necessarily making it 
more economical ; a separate building 
for storage having larger compartments 
than in the working house being erected. 
At about this time, brick, tile and con- 
crete came into common use in the con- 
struction of elevators. 

© 

REGARDING INSURANCE. 

1"\ ECIDED steps have now been made 
towards securing better insurance 
rates for vessels travelling on the St. 
Lawrence route. R. J. Dale, who has 
recently returned from a conference with 
the Underwriters in London, read a let- 
ter to the Montreal Board of Trade 
Council, on April 17, that caused general 
satisfaction and gave promise of an 
early revision of the rates. 

In the letter Herbert S. Hines, of the 
Institute of London Underwriters, 
states: 

"The extensive Avorks undertaken by 
t lie Government of the Dominion of Can- 
ada for t lie improvement and safer navi- 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



gation of the St. Lawrence River are 
fully recognized and appreciated here, 
and that so far from the underwriters 
or the marine insurance companies on 
this side being inimical to the interests 
of Canadian producers and Canadian 
shippers, it is their earnest desire, so far 
as the exigencies of their business per- 
mit, to fully consider the interests of 
both, and so far as possible, to give 
effect to any alteration or amelioration 
in the terms of insurance which may 
tend to the advantage of Canada and of 
fill those who are engaged in promoting 
and fostering her great industries and 
natural resources. 

Marine Insurance Risks. 

Mr. Hines also informed Mr. Dale that 
as a result of the latter 's conference 



NAVIGATION OPEN AT MONTREAL 

HP HE first ocean-going steamer to 
reach Montreal this season, the 
Sokoto, of the Elder-Dempster Line, 
docked on the afternoon of April 21. 
She came from Mexican ports. Captain 
J. L. Pierce, a Norwegian, her master, 
received the gold-headed cane, which is 
customarily given by the Harbor Com- 
missioners to the first captain of an 
ocean steamer up the river each season. 
The steamer brought 30,000 tons of 
asphalt from Santa Cruz. 



THE AQUITANIA LAUNCHED. 

/ Tp HE largest steamship ever built in 
Great Britain, the Cunard liner 
Aquitania, was successfully launched on 



That the pension fund be taken over 
and managed by the Minister of Marine 
and Fisheries. 

That the Government appoint a su- 
perintendent of sea-going experience to 
full charge of the district, to organize 
and administer its affairs and be direct- 
ly responsible to the Minister. 

It is also proposed that examinations 
of candidates should be carefully con- 
ducted, under proper supervision, either 
in English or in French, each candidate 
having previously passed a physical and 
standard eyesight test. 

With regard to Quebec pilotage, the 
report says that the whole system is 
loose and unsatisfactory. The superin- 
tendent appointed by the Government 
has generally superintended nothing, 




CUNARD LINE STEAMSHIP "AQUITANIA," THE LARGEST VESSEL VET BUILT IN THE BRITISH ISLES, AND RECENT- 
LY LAUNCHED BY JOHN BROWN & CO., LTD., CLYDEBANK, SCOTLAND. 



with the London Underwriters, special 
sub-committees of the London Institute 
had been appointed in order to confer 
with the joint Hull Committee of Lloyd's 
and the marine insurance companies on 
the subject of marine insurance risks. 

In his conference, Mr. Dale asked 
that vessels might be allowed to trade 
to Halifax and St. John without addi- 
tional premium ; that the period of navi- 
gation for a fixed additional premium, 
might be extended to the 15th if not to 
the end of October, instead of as at pre- 
sent to the 1st of September; that a 
smaller additional premium should be 
charged for vessels chartered for one 
voyage to the St. Lawrence, than is at 
present charged for cancelling the Bal- 
tic, and British North American warran- 
ties. 



the Clyde on April 21. The new vessel 
has a double hull, and will carry boats 
sufficient to accommodate 4,250 persons, 
the entire complement of passengers 
and crew. 

® 

ST. LAWRENCE PILOTAGE COM- 
MISSION REPORT. 

T MPORTANT changes are recommend- 
ed in a report recently submitted by 
the Royal Commission appointed by 
Hon. J. D. Hazen to enquire into the 
pilotage system in the districts of Mont- 
real and Quebec. The commissioners 
were Capt. Lindsay, Thomas Robb and 
Ad jut or Lachance, Quebec. The pro- 
posed changes are: 

That the Corporation of Pilots for 
and below the harbor of Quebec be 
abolished and the charter cancelled. 
73 



but got all information from the secre- 
taries of the corporations, who sub- 
mitted it to the Department as coming 
from themselves. The commission re- 
commends the appointment of a board 
known as the Pilotage Commission, with 
functions partly executive and partly 
administrative. 

In a comparison of pilotage earnings 
of Montreal and Quebec districts in 
1911 it was found that the former was 
$87,928.55, and the latter $143,741.87. 

Minority Report. 

Mr. Lachance, in a minority report, 
differs from the other commissioners 
mainly with reference to the suggested 
abolition of the Pilots' Corporation. 
He gives a number of reasons, and 
makes two important suggestions : 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



First, that some restrictions should 
be made to oblige small craft to keep out 
of the narrow channel when there is 
sufficient water elsewhere. 

Second, that their lights should not 
be all around the horizon, and that ves- 
sels from the lakes should be forced to 
submit to the rule of the road when 
navigating the St. Lawrence. 

Mr. Lachance also suggests an in- 
creased tariff on ocean steamers, be- 
lieving that the Montreal tariff is very 
low. He believes, in conclusion, that 
the Corporation of Pilots for and be- 
low the harbor of Quebec should be 
maintained with all its rights, especi- 
ally in relation to the sharing of the 
earnings. 

@ 

SHIPPING MEN BANQUETTED. 

/ T* HE Sarnia Board of Trade recently 
gave a banquet which was in the 
nature of a welcome to the officers of 
the boats which have wintered at Sar- 
nia, and also a recognition of two men 
whose duties past and present have 
been inseparable from the town. 

Mr. H. H. Gildersleeve, is leaving to 
become head of the Western division of 
the Richelieu & Ontario Navigation Co., 
and Mr. Peter Paton will succeed him 
in charge of the Northern Navigation 
interests centred at Sarnia. The dining- 
room of the Belchamber was handsome- 
ly decorated with flags and potted 
plants, and the end of the room above 
the guests of honor bore the legend 
"Sarnia, First, Last and All the Tine." 

Mr. T. H. Cook, president of the 
Board, was toast master, and kept 
everything running pleasantly. After 
some suitable remarks about the im- 
portance of the marine business in gen- 
eral, and particularly its importance to 
Sarnia, he paid a high compliment to 
Mr. Gildersleeve 's splendid qualities 
which have won him such success. Sar- 
nia would regret his departure as a 
friend, while congratulating him upop 
his step upward. 

Mr. Gildersleeve thanked the Board 
of Trade for the honor done to the 
marine interests of the port, and for 
coupling his name therewith. He had 
found Sarnia and Sarnia people delight- 
ful, and would leave with regret. He 
bespoke for his successor, Mr. Paton, 
the best that the people of Sarnia could 
extend, and could assure them that they 
would find in him a good friend of the 
town. 

The chairman, in introducing Mr. 
Paton. said he would be welcomed also 
as a former president of the Collingwood 
Board of Trade, and he trusted it would 
be possible to interest him along the 
panic lines in Sarnia. 



Mr. Paton Speaks. 

Mi'. Paton 's face was wreathed in 
smiles as he rose to speak, in response to 
the chorus "See Him Smiling." He had 
so often been implicated, he said, in af- 
fairs of this kind when some other fel- 
low was the victim, that he ought to 
know his part. He disclaimed any par- 
ticular knowledge of marine matters, 
having been only two years with the 
company. He endorsed what Mr. Gilder- 
sleeve had said of the splendid body of 
men in charge of the boats. Personally 
he felt some diffidence in the presence 
of two of the captains, who were his 
seniors in years, but none whatever to- 
ward the younger captains, knowing that 
if they did not concur in his ideas he 
would only have to tell their wives, for 
both are henpecked husbands. Of mar- 
ine matters, his first impressions were 
received from Capt. Foote. 

Captain Foote has the splendid re- 
cord of 29 years with the company of 
whose fleet he is Commodore. Of the 
other captains and officers of the fleet. 
Mr. Paton also had kindly words of 
praise. Referring to the removal of Mr. 
Gildersleeve from Sarnia, Mr. Paton 
spoke in feeling and highly eulogistic 
terms of that gentleman's ability as a 
marine man. Before concluding he 
thanked the Board of Trade for the hon- 
or done them. 

The toast of the officers of the fleet 
was responded to by Capt. R. Foote, of 
the steamer Hamonie, Capt. Campbell 
of the steamer Huronic, Capt. J. McNab 
Capt. John Williams, of steamer Osier, 
Capt. Wright, of steamer Stadacona. 

The toast of the mariners was res- 
ponded to by Capt. Hugh McKinnon 
and Capt. Birnie. 

— m — 

BABCOCK & WILCOX BOILERS. 

TUJ R. J. H. ROSENTHAL, in a paper 
read recently at the Institute of 
Marine Engineers, stated that, since the 
trials made by the Admiralty Special 
Boiler Committee of 1900, the Babeock 
& Wilcox boiler had been extensively 
adopted for large naval vessels. In the 
mercantile marine up to June, 1912, 542 
Babcoek & Wilcox boilers had been 
fitted in 253 ships, the total horse-power 
being 411,479. 

A comparison of the cross-Channel 
steamers Victoria fitted with cylindrical 
boilers, and Engadine, fitted with Bab- 
cock boilers, showed that, on 79 and 94 
double trips, respectively, the Victoria 
attained an average speed of 21.272 
knots, and the coal used was 24.59 tons 
per trip; while on the Engadine the 
figures were 22.367 knots and 24.77 tons. 
It had also been found that on the 
Stranraer and Larne service there was 
economy of fuel in favor of the Princess 
74 



Victoria over the Princess Maud, a 
sister ship of the same power fitted with 
cylindrical boilers. 

In the case of three sister ships of 
S,000 tons displacement, engaged on the 
passenger service between New York 
and New Orleans, the average consump- 
tion for a series of voyages was as fol- 
lows: — S.S. Creole, fitted with Babcoek 
boilers, 1.149 tons; s.s. Momus, with 
cylindrical boilers, 1,412 tons; s.s. An- 
tilles, with cylindrical boilers, 1,336 
tons. 

In an intermediate passenger steamer 
of 5,000 horse-power it had been esti- 
mated that by fitting Babcoek & Wilcox 
boilers there would be an increase of 
heating surface of 25 per cent.; an in- 
crease of grate surface of 34.3 per cent. ; 
a saving in weight of 225 tons; a saving 
in floor space of 14.33 per cent., and a 
saving in fore and aft length of 12 ft. 

Mr. Rosenthal, replying to the discus- 
sion, said the tubes did hog sometimes: 
but this did not mean that they were 
appreciably deteriorated. Hogging was 
due to the presence of oil or other for- 
eign substance, causing overheating. 
This was also the cause of local bulging. 
Much of the success of the Babcoek 
boiler was undoubtedly due to the im- 
proved methods of tube manufacture. 

—m— 

CANADA AND THE ICE PATROL. 

'TP HE Department of Marine and 
Fisheries of the Canadian Govern- 
ment will co-operate with the British 
Board of Trade in the Iceberg Patrol of 
the North Atlantic by despatching the 
Government steamer Montcalm to watch 
and report the movements of ice in the 
Cabot Strait, between Cape Breton and 
Newfoundland. The Montcalm will 
carry Professor Barnes, of MeGill Uni- 
versity, who will further test his micro- 
thermometer invention for detecting the 
presence of icebergs. 

— @— 

STEEL FOR POLSON DRY DOCK 

/ T S HE steel for a floating dry dock to 
be built at the Poison shipyards has 
arrived, and it is expected that a start 
on the work will be made shortly. When 
the dock is completed it will accommo- 
date the largest passenger or freight 
steamer on the lower lakes. 

• 

The Booth Felt Co., Ltd., incorporated 
at Toronto to manufacture gaskets, and 
packings. Capital $40,000. Incorporat- 
ors:— N. E. Booth, E. W. Booth, T. R. 
Brawley, all of Brooklyn, New York; 
E, S. Sheppard and B. A. Booth, both of 
Gananoque, Ont. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



The MacLean Pub. Co., Ltd. 

(ESTABLISHED 1888.) 
JOHN BAYNE MACLEAN ... President 
H. T. HUNTER .... General Manager 
PUBLISHERS 

MajrineEngineering 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and develop- 
ment of Merchant and Naval Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, 
the building of Harbors and Docks, and containing a record of 
the latest and best practice throughout the Sea-going World. 



H. V. TYRRELL, Toronto 
PETER BAIN, M.E., Toronto 



Business Manager 
Editor 



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Bldg. 

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Vol. Ill 



APRIL, 1913 



No. 4 



PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. 

Canadian Pacific Railroad R.M.S. "Empress of Russia." . . 63-66 

Improved Canadian- West Indies Service 66 

New Elevator at United States Most Easterly Lake Port.. 67-68 

Canadian Shipyards 68 

Canada's Ocean Mail Service 68 

Dredge Dipper Trips 68-69 

New Steamer Alsatian for the Allan Line Canadian Service 70-71 

Victoria, B.C., Shipbuilding 71-73 

Grain Elevators 72 

"Bengore Head" Appeal 7'i-73 

Navigation Open at Montreal 73 

The Aqnitania Launched 73 

St. Lawrence Pilotage Commission Report 73-74 

Shipping Men Banqueted 74 

Babcock Ss Wilcox Boilers 74 

Canada and the Ice Patrol 74 

Steel for Poison Drydock 74 

Editorial 75 

Montreal Harbor Improvements 76-77 

White Star Liner Olympic 77 

Scottish Shipbuilding 77 

Launch of the "Calgarian" 77 

North Atlantic Ice Patrol, 1913 78 

Lake Carrier's Association 78 

To Stop at Quebec „ 78 

United States Shipbuilding, 1912-1913 78 

Donaldson Bros, Ltd 78 

Marine News irom Every Source 79-81 

Association and Personal 82 

NAVIGATION SEASON, 1913. 

TD Y the time this present issue of Marine Engineering of 
Canada reaches our subscribers the navigation sea- 
son of 1913 will be in full swing. At the moment of writ- 
ing, not only has a large percentage of the Lake fleet cast 
off from their moorings, but the great river St. Lawrence 
is also open to the broad Atlantic, as far as our com- 
mercial capital, Montreal. On the Great Lakes, so far as 
Canadian enterprise is concerned, many changes have tak- 
en place, and while nominally, for a time at least, 
the old steamship lines will be in evidence, new develop- 
ments, due to the merging of individual interests in the 
Richelieu & Ontario Navigation Co., are, in the nature of 
things, bound to come into effect. That the economic ad- 
vantages accruing from a combined interest of those in- 
volved may have its counterpart so far as freight and 
passenger patrons are concerned is a consummation to be 
desired. 



Each recurring season now marks a very appreciable 
advance on its predecessor, in the matter of ship equip- 
ment, their handling, in provision for their guidance when 
pleasant weather prevails and in arrangements made for 
relief and rescue when the waters are tempest-tossed and 
in an angry mood. The lessons of each succeeding exper- 
ience are laid to heart and put to profitable purpose in 
meeting and combating similar or more exacting condi- 
tions should they arise. "Those who go down to the sea in 
ships and do business in great waters," as a result, ap- 
proach their chosen calling each year with added confid- 
ence, and while there may and will be stress and storm 
to be met before King Frost again asserts himself, and 
some vessels and lives, more or less, may be sacrificed 
when disaster overtakes, there is pleasure and pride every- 
where on our rivers, lakes and coast line, that King Sol 
is again supreme, and with the opening of his reign, sail- 
ing craft of every type and description, and hardy men 
and boys to man them are at their posts, eager enthusias- 
tic and confident. 

@ 



THE "DREADNOUGHT" CONTRIBUTION TO 
BRITAIN. 

TITE are inclined to think that the doings of our par- 
liamentarians at Ottawa relative to the $35,000,- 
000 contribution to Great Britain towards the building 
of three Dreadnoughts, whatever else they may have 
shown, indicate, pretty clearly, that the question is merely 
an excuse for a party battle, and that, if any conscientious 
ideas of a combined duty to the Motherland and their own 
country entered into the project at first, there is little evi- 
dence of the latter, now existent. 

We had hoped to see incorporated in any proposition 
of assistance to Great Britain, arrangements for the pro- 
pagation of existing shipbuilding and marine engineering 
industries, together with the establishment of additional 
and accessory plants. The restricted vision of those who 
support the contribution, only, is to be regretted, being as 
it seems to us nothing short of a desire to adopt any 
course, so long as it be an opposite one, irrespective of the 
claims and needs of this Dominion to add further to her 
industrial achievement. Too much capital is made of the 
representative value of the heterogeneous majority con- 
stituting the party in power, and which, after all, is in no 
sense entitled to express the views of our population on 
the subject. The present government went into power 
on a particular issue, vital, if you like, and on a no less 
vital question — the welfare of this Dominion industrially, 
should our electors also be allowed to exercise their views 
through the ballot box, if no other settlement of the dead- 
lock be possible. Any policy which does not seek to stim- 
ulate the feature of our own industrial enterprise, cannot 
be regarded as one which will add to our country's wealth 
and welfare. Both Liberals and Conservatives should 
at once cease sparring for its own sake, and get together 
with an earnest desire and purpose to create a policy 
which will express the ideas of the people of the Dominion 
and at the same time aid its upbuilding and render loyal 
individual support to the Empire. 

The past few months have made our rulers the laugh- 
ing stock of the world, and have certainly created mis- 
givings in the minds of those responsible for the direction 
of Imperial affairs, as to worth of purpose of those who 
are supposed to speak for Canadians, on either side of the 
House. The Dominion as a field for shipbuilding enter- 
prise will have to be reckoned with sooner or later, and no 
shortsighted policy pursued by statesmen whose personal 
purposes are first considerations, will stay its pro- 
gress. 



75 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



MONTREAL HARBOR IMPROVE- 
MENT. 

'■pHE estimated cost of works for the 
harbor improvement to be under- 
taken by the Montreal harbor commis- 
sioners this season is over $2,000,000, and 
the programme which has been drawn 
up includes works which will have the 
effect of diminishing the velocity of the 
St. Mary's current, and making its na- 
vigation perfectly safe in the near fu- 
ture. The programme of works this sea- 
son marks the commencement of the 
second stage of the great plan for the im- 
provement of the port which is to extend 
over a period of 12 years from its incep- 
tion three years ago, the first stage hav- 
ing been commenced in 1910. 

The St. Mary's Current Project. 

The most important of the many new 
works which will be carried out before 
the navigation season of 1913 closes, is 
that which will decrease the velocity of 
the St. Mary's current to within the 
safety margin for vessels navigating the 
harbor, and it is one that will reduce the 
necessity for the system of signalling by 
semaphores which was at once time 
considered by the former commissioners. 
The reduction of the current's velocity 
will be accomplished by dredging at the 
Guard Pier, to the south of St. Helen's 
Island also, and by the removal of the 
artificial works at Moffat's Island. 

To Complete Dredging. 

A good deal of dredging was accom- 
plished last season in connection with 
the Guard Pier. This will be complet- 
ed, and the south side of the pier, which 
is described on maps of the harbor as 
the East Quay Wall Embankment, will 
be continued so as to form a boot or 
curve which will have the effect of back- 
ing the volume of water immediately 
below the Victoria Pier, across the chan- 
nel in the direction of Moffat's Island. 
This will render simultaneous compen- 
satory works necessary, which will con- 
sist of the removal of the artificial works 
at Moffat's Island, and the continued 
dredging of the channel to the south of 
St. Helen's Island. 

Last year, this channel was dredged 
for a distance of about a mile, between 
the island and Longueuil, to a depth of 
20 feet at low water, and the work will 
be continued on similar lines for three 
quarters of a mile in the direction of 
Moffat's Island. The object of the en- 
largement of the south channel, and the 
removal of the artificial obstructions at 
Moffat's Island, is to diminish as much 
as possible the force of the St. Mary's 
current, which is, and has always been, 
considered the most difficult problem 
requiring to be solved in connection with 
the harbor. 

The removal of the artificial works at 
Moffat's Island is alone estimated to 



result in the reduction of the current 
by 15 per cent., and when the whole of 
the above plan has been carried out, 
it is believed that vessels will be able to 
navigate the current as easily and safe- 
ly as though it were dead water. The 
safety of shipping navigating the harbor 
will have been secured as far as human 
foresight can accomplish it, within the 
limits of a single season, and that con- 
sideration alone is sufficient for the 
above works to be regarded as the most 
essential of all that are to be undertaken 
this year. 

St. Lambert Embankment. 
In connection with this work, the de- 
velopment of the embankment at St. 
Lambert will be continued with a view 
of its finally being incorporated in the 
harbor railway terminal system. The 
embankment at St. Lambert has been 
constructed with the debris taken by 
excavator buckets from between Mof- 
fat's Island and the opposite bank. 
Already the commissioners have a line 
of railway running along this artificial 
embankment from the Victoria Bridge 
to as far as the Moffat's Island excava- 
tion works. 

Pier Extensions. 

The increased length of steamers and 
the enhanced volume of the business 
carried on by steamship lines which use 
the Alexandra, King Edward and Jac- 
ques Cartier Piers render necessary the 
extension of these piers to a further dis- 
tance of 250 feet. The commissioners 
feel that they would like to proceed with 
this work at once, but they are unable 
to do so until such time as the dredging 
at the G uar d Pier shall have been com- 
pleted and the locks at the entrance to 
the Lachine Canal altered. 

Soundings and rock borings in con- 
nection with the latter project have been 
made recently, not only by the Harbor 
Commissioners, but also by the Depart- 
ment of Railways and Canals, acting in- 
dependently. The commissioners rea- 
lize, however, that nothing further can 
be done until the Government under- 
takes the work of altering the locks, for 
which no provision has been made in the 
estimates. 

The necessity for extending these piers 
may be estimated from the fact that 
liners moored alongside often have their 
sterns projecting for a distance of from 
50 to 75 feet beyond the end of the pier 
at which they are moored. This is "not 
only obviously dangerous to vessels na- 
vigating the channel, but to the vessels 
moored at the piers also. 

Sheds and Elevators. 

A 15-ton electric freight hoist, capable 
of taking teams up to the second floors 
of the Allan and White Star sheds, is to 
be erected at once. Additions are to be 
made to grain elevator No. 1, which will 
76 



add 1,500,000 bushels to its capacity, so 
that when these additions are complet- 
ed, it will total 2,500,000 bushels. Grain 
elevator No. 2 is to have completed the 
conveyer galleries leading from the ele- 
vator to shed No. 16 on the Victoria 
Pier. 

Increase Quayage. 

With regard to the extensions to the 
A 7 ictoria Pier, only one new length of 
quayage has, so far, been erected, viz., 
the one which extends for a distance 
of from 600 to 700 feet from the wharf 
so as to accommodate shed No. 16. Be- 
fore the end of the approaching season, 
this length of quayage will have been 
completed, so that it will project to a 
total distance of 900 feet. Another 
length is to be constructed at right ang- 
les with it, which will not be completed 
until near the end of 1914. When fin- 
ished, the latter will measure 1,800 feet, 
but, of this distance, only 800 feet will 
have been completed by the end of the" 
present season. When the above exten- 
sions are all finished, they will provide 
accommodation on the outside for 5 
ocean steamers. On the inside of the 
basin formed by the extensions, accom- 
modation will be provided, at a low 
level, for river craft. 

Wharf and Warehouse Construction. 

Right opposite the Richelieu-Ontario 
berth at section 23, are the foundations 
for a large warehouse which were put in 
last year. The warehouse superstruc- 
ture will now be erected, and, adjoining 
it, high level bulkhead wharves, suitable 
for permanent sheds. In 1911, the for- 
mer commissioners constructed low-level 
wharves at the Richelieu-Ontario berth, 
to accommodate craft belonging to that 
line with slips to fit their hatches. In 
addition to these, there will now be 
erected high level wharves from section 
23 to section 30, or from Beaudry St. to 
Papineau Ave., which will be capable of 
accommodating several big, first-class, 
ocean lfners. Large sheds will be erected 
on these wharves, although not this year, 
but just as soon as the filling has suffi- 
ciently settled to permit of their erec- 
tion. 

The warehouse, which is intended to 
provide storage room for butter, cheese 
and other provisions, is an experiment 
which will be carried out along similar 
lines to the experiments of a like nature 
which have proved so successful in con- 
nection with the Bush Terminals at New 
York, and at several 'British and other 
European ports, notably at Bristol. 
Liverpool, and also at Hamburg. 

It will lie connected with the Harbor 
Commissioners' Railway, so that the 
necessity for carting will lie reduced to 
a minimum and the dangers of loss from 
breakages will be almost eliminated. At 
t lie same time, the improvements to the 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



navigation of the harbor, including t lie 
lessening of the velocity of St. Mary's 
current, will enable provisions of a simi- 
lar nature to be brought down all the 
way from the Lakes, through the canai 
and harbor, to the warehouses, and they 
will be lightered therefrom to ocean 
steamers, as is the custom in Dutch and 
German ports, where a perfect canal 
system permits of goods being lightered 
instead of being carted. The saving of 
cartage will be appreciated in Montreal 
as rates there rule excedingly high 
when compared with those which obtain 
in many other ports. There will also be 
a welcome diminution of the present in- 
evitable handling of perishable merchan- 
dise, with its many drawbacks. 

Will Ballast Tracks. 

The high level tracks which have 
been laid down from the Victoria Pier 
.to the Racine Pier will be ballasted, 
trimmed, and made permanent this 
year. At Pointe aux Trembles, a 
wharf 500 feet long will be built for the 
Canada Cement Co., and other industries 
which are about to be established in 
that neighborhood. There is already a 
wharf at Longue Pointe, built by the 
former commissioners, and the railway 
will finally be extended from the Racine 
Pier, which is the present terminal, so 
as to connect with both these piers. 

Of the four sheds which were com- 
me iced on the Tarte Pier in 191'-!, two 
»vere completed last year. One of 
(hem is leased to the Elcler-Demp- 
ster (Jo., and the other to the Head Line. 
The remaining two sheds will be com- 
pleted this year, one of them having al- 
ready been leased to the New Zealand 
Shipping Co., while negotiations are now 
pending for the lease of the other. 
Floating Dock Site. 

Yet another very important work 
that will be finished this year is that in 
connection with the site of the floating 
ship dock, Duke of Connaught. The dry 
dock site will be completed to proper 
levels, so that the Canadian Vickers Co. 
can erect the large machine shops and 
ship repairing plant they have in view. 
The commissioners are even now having 
the ground adjoining the dock leveled. 
The wall adjoining the slipway is to be 
removed, and its disappearance will per- 
mit of the slipway being enlarged 100 
per cent., which will enable ships to be 
constructed double the size of those for 
which the existing accommodation would 
suffice. 

@ 



WHITE STAR LINER "OLYMPIC." 

*p HE White Star Liner Olympic is 
once more in service, after leaving 
the works of Messrs. Harland and 
and Wolff at Belfast, where, during the 
last few months, she has had an inner 
skin fitted. This work consisted in the 



construction of an inner skin, port ami 
starboard, from the tank top up to a 
point well above the water-line, and in 
the increase of the number and height 
of the water-tight bulkheads. 

The wing boilers had to be removed 
to leave room for the riveters and plat- 
ers to work at the inner shell; and to 
enable one of the boilers to be taken 
out of the ship, the forward funnel and 
uptakes were temporarily removed. 
The auxiliary machinery in the engine 
room and turbine room had also to be 
removed, likewise the ship's side valves 
and fittings, some of these valves weigh- 
ing upwards of a ton. The ship was 
entirely dismantled for the time being, 
which, of course, entailed a consider- 
able amount of alteration to the pipes 
and fittings generally, and the with- 
drawal of all the auxiliaries along the 
ship's side, including their seatings and 
fittings, whilst the placing of them, fur- 
ther involved additional labor. 

It may be mentioned that, as an addi- 
tional safeguard, an extra line of piping 
of large diameter has been fitted, run- 
ning right through the ship, to enable 
all the pumps to draw through this 
medium in case of emergency, so that any 
compartment can be pumped out by any 
of the bilge or ballast pumps, which are 
so arranged that in case of the valves 
being inaccessible through any contin- 
gency, they can be operated from the 
upper deck. 

The inner skin or shell is very 
strongly constructed in order to with- 
stand extreme water pressure, if neces- 
sary. The frames are of heavy chan- 
nel steel, and the longitudinals giving 
increased strength to the structure ex- 
tend the entire length of the double 
skin. The inner shell or hull, as it 
might be called, consists, of course, of 
strong steel plating. The space be- 
tween the outer and inner shells has 
been specially subdivided, both verti- 
cally and horizontally, by retaining the 
ship's original water-tight bulkheads 
out to the outer shell, and by the in- 
troduction of intermediate watertight 
vertical divisions between the two 
shells; while the top or crown of the 
structure and upper longitudinals have 
been specially fitted as watertight flats, 
so that each side of the ship has been 
converted into a series of watertight 
compartments. Thus, in the recon- 
struction carried out, the object in view 
has been to provide a margin of safety 
that cannot be surpassed. 

Advantage has been taken/ of the 
time during which the vessel has been 
in the builders' hands to add still fur- 
ther to her attractiveness by the en- 
largement and re-decoration of the re- 
staurant, while, adjacent thereto, a 
large cafe Parisien has been construct- 
ed. A reception-room in connection 
with the restaurant has also been pro- 
77 



vided; this adjoins the cafe Parisien and 
t he first-class after entrance. Additions 
to the luxurious accommodation have 
also been made by the arrangement of a 
suite of state-rooms with bath-rooms 
and lavatories on the saloon and pro- 
menade decks, similar to those already 
in (lie ship; additional cloak-room ac- 
commodation is provided on the pro- 
menade ileck. 



SCOTTISH SHIPBUILDING. 

A LARGE amount of new tonnage 
was turned out from Scottish ship- 
yards during March, the total for the 
Clyde being the best for the month which 
has ever been recorded. Of the 29 ves- 
sels of 64,173 tons which were launched 
all over Scotland, 19 of 61,053 were 
waterborne on the Clyde. Notwithstand- 
ing the large output in March, however, 
the first quarter of the year closed with 
the figures considerably less than those 
of the corresponding periods of the two 
preceding years. This shortage was due 
to the very small output in January. 

The Three Months' Output. 

The following table shows the work 

done during the three months in the 

Clyde and East of Scotland : — 

Clyde. Forth. Tay. Dee. 
Ves. Tons Ves.Tons Ves.Tons Ves.Tons 

Jan. ... 5 9755 1 70 5 805 

Feb. ...17 47050 2 2300 1 1000 4 903 
Mar. ...19 61053 3 1270 1 1100 6 750 

41 117858 6 3640 2 2100 15 2458 
The work of the Clyde during the first 

quarter of each year since 1880 has been 
as follows : — 

Three Three 

March Months March Months 

Tons. Tons. Tons Tons 

1913 61,053 117,858 1896 40.790 94.666 

1912 ... . 52,205 135,340 1895 .... 16.966 52,867 

1911 60.355 126,707 1894 18,416 58,321 

1910 30.723 90,658 1893 24,722 52.444 

1909 27.198 71,113 1892 51,614 91.941 

1908 .... 22.028 60,084 1891 .... 41,274 75,894 

1907. .. .43.943 121,325 1890. . . .28,7&5 81,005 

1906 .... 58,478 ' 128,533 1889 .... 19,991 51,518 

1905..,. 42,714 105.415 1888 .... 25,265 42.320 

1904 44,813 100,804 1887 21,787 43,986 

1903 33.629 87,461 1886 8,169 28,669 

1902 33,419 97,265 1885 13,216 38,406 

1901. .. .3.3,430 106.450 1884. .. .28,150 63,309 

1900. .. .31.440 88.520 1883. .. .30.622 a3,563 

1899 .... 53.355 110,555 1882 .... 14,996 70,210 

1898 36.028 75,290 1881 29,497 60.484 

1897.... 32.735 59,439 1880. .. .17,567 43,585 

® 

LAUNCH OF THE "CALGARIAN." 

*"P HE Calgarian, the latest addition 
to the Allan fleet, was launched at 
Glasgow on Saturday, April 19, Mrs. 
Andrew Allan naming the vessel, 
which is a sister ship to the Alsatian, 
launched a month ago. 

Speaking after the ceremony, Mr. 
Andrew Allan said that ag a Canadian 
he was not proud of the recent political 
disturbances in the Canadian Parlia- 
ment over the Naval Bill. He, however, 
hoped the matter would be settled by 
the Canadian Parliament passing the 
donation of $35,000,000, and that vessels 
for the Imperial navy would be built in 
Scotland on behalf of, and as a gift 
from, Canada to the Mother Country. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



NORTH ATLANTIC ICE PATROL, 
1913. 

OR the purpose of safeguarding- lives 
and property at sea, the U.S. Re- 
venue Cutters Seneca and Miami have 
been detailed to proceed to the vicinity 
of the tail of the Grand Banks of New- 
foundland and establish a patrol of the 
ice fields and icebergs drifting down into 
those waters. The object of the patrol 
is to locate the icebergs and field ice 
nearest to the trans-Atlantic steamship 
lane. It will be the duty of patrol ves- 
sels to determine the southerly, easterly 
and westerly limits of the ice, and to 
keep in touch with these fields as they 
move to the southward, in order that 
radio messages may be sent out daily, 
giving the whereabouts of the ice, par- 
ticularly the ice that may be in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the regular trans- 
Atlantic steamer lane. 

The Seneca left New York on April 
1 for this duty and arrived at the ice re- 
gions about April 6. Later, she will be 
relieved by the Miami, and during the 
months of April, May and June, and as 
much longer as necessary, these two ves- 
sels will patrol alternately, making al- 
ternate cruises of about 15 days in the 
ice region ; the 15 days to be exclusive of 
time occupied in going to and from Hali- 
fax. The movements of the vessels will 
be so regulated that on the fifteenth day 
after reaching the ice region, the vessel 
on patrol will be relieved by the second 
vessel if possible, at which time the first 
vessel will proceed to Halifax, replenish 
her coal supply, and return in time to 
relieve the other vessel at the end of the 
latter 's 15-day cruise. It is important 
that the patrol be continuous, and the 
vessel on patrol will not leave her sta- 
tion until relieved by the other, unless 
it is absolutely necessary to do so. 

Ice Report Arrangements. 

Having located the ice, the patrol ves- 
sel will send the following daily radio- 
grams. All times in radiograms will 
be in 75tL meridian time. 

(a) — At 6 p.m. (75th meridian time) 
ice information will be sent broadcast 
for the benefit of vessels, using 600 meter 
wave length. This message will be sent 
three times with an interval of two min- 
utes between each. 

(b) — At 6.15 p.m. (75th meridian 
time) the same information will be sent 
broadcast three times in similar manner, 
using 300 meter wave length. 

(c) — At 9 p.m. (75th meridian time) 
a radiogram will be sent to the branch 
Hydrographie Office, New York City, de- 
fining the ice danger zone, its southern 
limits, or other definite ice news and an 
endeavor will be made to communicate 
this message to the Newport or Boston 
Radio Stations. If unable to communi- 
cate with either of these stations direct, 
the message will be. relayed to the New- 



port Station through any convenient 
steamer. If unable to relay by steamer, 
the message will be sent via any Can- 
adian or other radio station. If this 
radiogram is communicated direct to the 
Newport or Boston Station, or relayed to 
Newport by steamer, it will be preceded 
by the address ' ' For Hydrographie. ' ' If 
it is necessary to send the message via 
a Canadian or other shore station, it will 
be addressed "Hydrographie, Maritime 
Exchange, New York." 

(d) — Ice information wilL^be given at 
any time to any ship with which the pa- 
trol can communicate. 

Ice information will be given in as 
plain concise English as practicable, and 
will state in the following order: 

(a) — Ice (berg or field.) 

(b) — Date. 

(c) — Time (75th meridian time.) 

(d) — Latitude. 

(e) — Longitude. 

(f) — Other data as may be necessary. 
While on this duty, the patrol vessel 

will endeavor by means of daily radio 
messages to keep ships at sea advised 
of the limits of the ice fields, etc. 

The radio calls of the patrol vessels 
are as follows : 

Name of Call Power in Wave length 
of ship letters kilowatts in meters 

Miami N R Q 2 300-600-725 

Seneca NRE 2 300-600-750 

® 

LAKE CARRIERS' ASSOCIATION. 

•p IREMEN on all ships of the Lake 
*" Carriers' Association will be divid- 
ed into three watches, working 8 hours 
out of 24, and a new deck officer will be 
installed on all ships of 4.500 or more 
gross registered tons. The new officer 
will be known as boatswain, and will be 
paid $5 a month more than a wheelman. 
He will assist the mates in handling the 
vessel in port, and will be in charge of 
the deck crew when the ship is outside. 

The rearrangement of crews was de- 
cided upon at a meeting of the Board of 
Directors of the Lake Carriers' Asso- 
ciation recently. Under the new 
scheme, on vessels carrying 6 firemen 
the men will break their own coal and 
do all other fire-hold work. Some of the 
larger ships have had 6 firemen working 
on the three-watch system for some 
time, but no ship has carried a boats- 
wain. To house the extra help on some 
of the vessels it may be necessary to do 
away with the passenger quarters. 

@ 

TO STOP AT QUEBEC. 

a T the time the Alsatian was launch- 
ed. a cable was received from 
(ilaso-ow to the effect that she would 
sail on the Liverpool-Quebec-Montreal 
78 



route. Since the launch, further con- 
sideration has been given to the size of 
the Alsatian and her sister ship, the Cal- 
garian, in comparison with the depth 
and width of the ship channel above 
Quebec. The result has been that an 
official announcement was made on 
April 2 to the effect that the new Allan 
liners would stop at Quebec, "for the 
present, at any rate." The meaning of 
the addendum may be that the new 
ships will dock at Montreal after the 
ship channel has been widened and 
deepened. 

© 

UNITED STATES SHIPBUILDING 

IN 1912-1913. 

■p ETURNS received by the Bureau of 
Navigation indicate that the cur- 
rent fiscal year will show an output of 
American shipyards greater than for 
any of the past four years, and equal to 
the average annual output for any series 
of active years of construction. For the 
nine months ended March 31 the mer- 
chant vessels built in the United States 
and officially numbered, comprised 1,114 
of 260,265 gross tons, compared with 
1,051 of 151,341 tons for the previous 
corresponding nine months. As the 
spring and early summer are generally 
the season of greatest progress, the out- 
put for the year will probably reach 
400,000 tons. Steel steamers built aggre- 
gate 151,507 tons, compared with 75,507 
tons for the corresponding nine months 
a year ago. Shipbuilding on the Great 
Lakes shows little change, but the total 
output on the Atlantic seaboard has in- 
creased from 64,522 tons to 161,061 tons. 
Wood sailing vessels show a decrease, 
and form only a small fraction — 11,971 
tons, of the total. 

@ 

DONALDSON BROS., LIMITED. 

T T is reported that the owners of the 
Donaldson line of steamships, oper- 
ating between Glasgow and Canadian 
ports, have registered themselves as a 
limited liability company with a capital 
of £200,000 in £1 shares. The registra- 
tion embodies an agreement between 
members of the Donaldson family, the 
firm of Donaldson Bros., and R. M. 
Maclay, to carry on the company as a 
business for owning ships and manag- 
ing steamship lines. The first directors, 
who are to number not less than three 
or more than seven, are Messrs. W. C. 
Donaldson, C. Donaldson, W. B. Donald- 
son, and N. P. Donaldson. As "Fair- 
piay" remarks: — "The incorporation 
should set at rest the rumors that have 
been ffoins around as to the Donaldson 
line having been acquired by the Grand 
Trunk Railway." 




St. Stephen, N.B.— The Eastern S.S. 
Company have purchased the Frontier 
Steamboat Company. 

Levis, Que. — The first collier of the 
season from Sydney with a full cargo ar- 
rived here on April 14. 

Kingston — The steamer Pierrepont 
broke through the ice jam to Cape Vin- 
cent "March 27, and opened navigation. 

Montreal, Que. — The water was let in- 
to the Lachine Canal on April 22, and 
navigation was open on the following 
day. 

Ottawa, Ont. — Tenders for Kingston 
habor improvements will be received up 
to April 30, by the Department of Public 
Works. 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. — The Canadian 
lock opened its gates for the first time 
this year on April 14, when the car 
ferry St. Ignace passed up. 

Levis, Que. — The steamer Natashquan 
left here at 7 a.m. on April 13, for Anti- 
costi and the north shore. She took on 
cargo, passengers and mails at Quebec. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The steamer Huronic, 
Capt. Campbell, of the Northern Navi- 
gation Co., left on April 23 on the first 
trip of the season for up-the-lake ports. 

Kingston, Ont. — The steamer Antelope 
was put up for sale on March 27, under 
a commission issued by the Exchequer 
Court, but the price offered did not reach 
the reserve bid, and no sale was made. 

Vancouver, B.C. — Mayor Baxter and 
W. A. Blair, secretary of the Board of 
Trade, were in Ottawa on April 16 to 
call on the Government re the establish- 
ment of a dry dock in Vancouver harbor. 

Montreal, Que. — The steamer City of 
Montreal was damaged by fire while at 
her berth in the Lachine basin at Mont- 
real. A nearby freight shed was des- 
troyed and the flames spread to the boat. 

Kingston, Ont. — Parties in Three 
Bivers, Quebec, have purchased the lit- 
tle steamer Jessie Bain from the R. & 
0. Navigation Co. This vessel was the 
smallest of the Thousand Island Steam- 
boat Co.'s fleet. 

London, Ont. — City Engineer Ash- 
plant has been instructed by the Board 



of Works to prepare a report on the 
cost and advisability of constructing a 
permanent breakwater for the protection 
of West London. 

Toronto, Ont. — James Carruthers, 

president of the Richelieu and Ontario 
Navigation Company, denies the story 
that his company is about to take over 
other boat lines. They will build their 
own boats 1 , he says. 

St. John's Nfld.— With a catch of 
36,000 seals, the steamer Stephano re- 
turned on March 20, being the first of 
the sealing fleet operators in Newfound- 
land waters to report. 

Windsor, Ont. — For the 23rd consecu- 
tive year, the steamer City of Detroit II., 
of the Detroit & Cleveland Navigation 
Co. fleet, opened the season of navigation 
between Detroit and Cleveland on April 
1. 

Quebec, Que. — The steamer Natash- 
quan left March 31 for Seven Islands, 
Anticosti and other Gulf ports, with 
passengers, mails and general cargo, be- 
ing the first outward merchant steamer 
from here this season. 

The Cabotia Steamship Co., Ltd., in- 
corporated at Ottawa, as shipbuilders 
and engineers. Capital $50,000. Incor- 
porators: — C. A. Pope, Gregor Barclay, 
W. Bridges Scott, R. E. Moyse, and A. 
A. Wanklyn, all of Montreal. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The old Lake Michigan, 
which has lain for some time at the 
mouth of the Black River, is being re- 
built. She is being fitted with new cab- 
ins, pilot house, etc., and will be placed 
in the lumber trade this season. 

Trenton, Ont.— The Donnelly Wreck- 
ing Co., of Kingston, has succeeded in 
floating the dredge D. Stewart, which 
sank in Picton harbor. The Stewart was 
engaged in deepening the harbor at 
Kingston and is owned in Cornwall. 

Windsor, Ont. — Large fog bells oper- 
ated by water-power are being installed 
on the light vessels maintained at Lime- 
kiln Crossing, in the lower Detroit River, 
by the Department of Marine and Fish- 
eries. 

Toronto, Ont. — The dock at the east- 
ern end of the foot of York Street 
bridge, recently leased by the R. and O. 
79 



lines, is being remodelled to accommo- 
date the boats of the Toronto-Hamilton 
line — the Modjeska and the Turbinia. 

The River Lievre Navigation Co., Ltd., 

incorporated at Ottawa, to build steam 
and other boats. Capital $50,000. In- 
corporators: — G. Bothwell, G. N. Both- 
well, A. MaeLaren, A. O. Anderson, and 
R. MaeLaren Kenny, all of Bucking- 
ham. 

Montreal, Que. — Mayor Michaud, of 
Maisonneuve, accompanied by Mr. A. 
Morin, counsel for the town, waited on 
the Harbor Commissioners recently re- 
lative to the establishment of a ferry 
service between Maisonneuve and Long- 
ueuil. 

Ottawa, Ont. — A contract for dredging 
at Victoria Harbor was awarded to the 
Canadian Dredging Co. this month. 
Quinlan, Robertson & Miller have been 
awarded a contract for improvements 
in connection with lock No. 4, Lachine 
Canal. 

Toronto. — Captain Maddock, of the 
steamer Dalhousie City, won the silk hat 
offered by the harbormaster to the first 
captain to bring his vessel into port at 
the opening of the season. 

Ottawa, Ont. — Tenders for a second- 
hand sea-going tug, 70 ft. long, 16 ft. 
beam, 6ft. draft, 100 tons displacement, 
and speed of 10 to 12 knots per hour, 
will be received by L. K. Jones, Asst. 
Deputy Minister of the Department of 
Railways and Canals. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The first cargo of any 
nature to arrive at this port this sea- 
son was brought in on April the 
14th, by the steamer Hugh R. 
Harvey, which had a cargo of 500,000 
feet of dry hemlock for the Laidlaw Co. 
This boat was loaded at Alpena, Mich., 
and made the trip down without trouble. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The Reid Wrecking 
Company have a number of men and 
the steamer Manistique at work on the 
wreck of the City of Genoa. All the 
machinery and other parts of the boat 
that are worth anything will be removed, 
after which the wreck will be abandoned. 

The Ojibway and Detroit Ferry Com- 
pany, Ltd., incorporated at Ottawa, to 
build and operate a ferry between 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Sandwich, Ont., and Detroit, Mich. Ca- 
pital $500,000. Incorporators: — R. J. 
McRae, Leslie H. Coombes, A. U. Gulli- 
ford, T. H. Kilg-ore, and Murray Gor- 
don, all of Toronto, Ont. 

New Westminster, B.C. — Orders for 
the construction of an immense grain 
elevator and milling plant at Port Co- 
quitlam will be issued by Messrs. David- 
son & Smith, of Fort William and Port 
Arthur, as soon as the Dominion Gov- 
ernment announces its determination to 
erect elevators on the Pacific Coast. 

Sarnia. — The license of Captain 
Charles Yates, of the steamer Alpena, of 
the Wyandotte Transportation line, has 
been suspended by the local steamboat 
inspectors of Port Huron for careless 
navigation of his boat on June 27, 1912, 
when he rammed and sank the steamer 
Sahara just off the mouth of the river 
in Lake Huron. 

Capt. McLeod, of Collingwood, open- 
ed navigation on Lake Ontario between 
Toronto and Kingston this season, ar- 
riving at the latter port for overhaul. 
The steamer went to the dry dock. From 
Kingston, the steamer will go to Og- 
densburg and during the summer will be 
in the pulp trade between Thorold and 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

Lake Vessel Insurance. — Underwriters 
have made 4 3 /4 per cent, the rate for 
insurance on steel steamers this season, 
effective from April 15th. This is one 
per cent, lower than last year. The new 
rate is made for steamers plying on the 
Upper Lakes, but vessels trading be- 
Lake Erie and Montreal are subjected 
to a 2 per cent, extension. 

Toronto, Ont. — The specifications for 
the harbor were completed by Engineer 
Cousins recently. Many prominent con- 
tractors in Britain and the United 
States, it is said, wish to submit tenders 
for the work, and if the figures are low 
enough, the Board will abandon its plan 
to do the work itself. The work is to 
be commenced by the middle of July. 

Kingston, Ont. — Capt. A. R. Hinckley, 
of Oswego, N.Y., who had been at work 
on the sunken steamer Island Belle, at 
Alexandria Bay, succeeded in raising 
the craft. It is not believed that much 
time will be required to place the vessel 
in running order again so that she will 
soon be in condition to make her usual 
runs between Ogdensburg and Alexan- 
dria Bay. 

Collingwood, Ont. — The steamers New- 
ona and City of Naples, which arrived 
here, April 21, are now receiving repairs 
in dry dock. Good progress is being 
made with the large bulk freighter 
which is being' constructed by the Col- 
lingwood Shipbuilding Co. for the Chi- 



cago and St. Lawrence Navigation Co. 
This steamer will be launched within 
the next few weeks. 

Vancouver, B.C. — "In view of the in- 
creasingly large steamships which will 
visit this coast after the opening of the 
Panama Canal, it is imperative that a 
drydock be built without any further 
delay," said Mr. E. J. M. Nash, spe- 
cial rejaresentative for Canada and the 
United States of the Royal Mail Steam 
Packet Company of London, England, 
recently at Vancouver. 

New Westminster, B.C. — The Canadian 
Northern Railway Company is planning 
the construction of two large ferry ter- 
minal docks at Woodward Slough on Lulu 
Island, to handle their Vancouver Island 
freight and passenger car ferry service. 
Each will have three tracks. For hand- 
ling the freight business three scoavs with 
three tra«ks each will be constructed, 
to be towed to Vancouver Island by tugs. 

Toronto, Ont.— The R. & O. have open- 
ed new offices on the Yonge Street wharf 
at a cost of about $2,500. This move 
means at least that the offices on the 
dock will be the head offices of the com- 
pany for freight in the city. The pas- 
senger department will, it is understood, 
retain their offices in the Traders Bank 
Building. Vice-president Playfair and 
Manager Gildersleeve will have offices on 
the dock. 

Montreal, Que.— W. A. Black, of the 
Pickford & Black Steamship Co., says 
that four steamers are to be provided 
for the new fortnightly service between 
St. John and Halifax and Bermuda, St. 
Kitts, Antigue, Monserrat, Dominica, St. 
Lucia, Barbados, St. Vincent, Trindad 
and Demerara. The four new boats 
which will be in commission within two 
years, are to be about 4,500 tons dead 
weight each. 

Fredericton, N.B. — A company com- 
posed largely of Fredericton men, and 
headed by Aid. E. G. Hoben, closed a 
deal on March r22, for the purchase of 
the steamer Hampstead from the St. 
John River Steamboat Co. The price 
paid for the steamer is said to be be- 
tween $3,000 and $5,000. She will be 
renovated and properly fitted up in time 
to go on the Fredericton-Gagetown route 
the coming season. 

North Bay, Ont. — The Government 
breakwater under construction in North 
Bay Harbor, Lake Nipissing, has been 
almost completely destroyed by the ice 
breaking up and shoving shoreward. 
Propelled by a strong south-west wind, 
great masses of ice, two feet thick in 
places, crashed into the structure. Heavy 
piles and timbers snapped like pipe 
stems, the whole winter's work being de- 
molished in a few hours. 

80 



Ottawa, Ont. — The Dominion Govern- 
ment awarded contracts to the Thor 
Iron Works of Toronto for the construc- 
tion of two steel barges and two scows, 
to be used on the harbor works at the 
terminus of the Hudson Bay Railway. 
The cost will be $18,500. As soon as 
constructed, these barges and scows will 
be sent to Hudson Bay with a drdging 
plant, and work on the harbor and docks 
at Port Nelson will be commenced. 

Parry Sound, Ont. — The work of fit- 
ting out the Dominion Government 
steamers Simcoe and Lambton which are 
lying at Parry Sound has been commenc- 
ed by order of the agent of the Marine 
Department there. Captain Rich. Smith, 
who last year was in command of the 
steamer Lambton, has been promoted 
to the command of the Simcoe, and Cap- 
tain Alex. McNab, who was first officer 
of the Lambton last year, has been pro- 
moted to the command of that steamer. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The first boat to make 
her way through from Lake Erie to Lake 
Huron this season was the car ferry Ste. 
Marie, which passed Sarnia shortly after 
six o'clock on Friday evening, April 14, 
bound for the Straits of Mackinac, 
where she will be stationed. The vessel 
is but recently out of the Toledo ship- 
yards, and this was her maiden trip. 
Capt. Graves, in command, stated he en- 
countered ice thirty inches thick from 
Presque Isle northward, but experienced 
no trouble. 

Owen Sound, Ont. — The loss on the 
steamer Manitou which was partly burn- 
ed at Owen Sound, has been adjusted by 
Mr. Hugh Calderwood, df Barrie, repre- 
senting the owners, and Capt. Smith, of 
Cleveland the marine underwriters who 
carried the risk. The amount of damage 
was found to be quite extensive and will 
involve a considerable outlay for repairs. 
Mr. Robert Morrill, shipbuilder, of Col- 
lingwood, will have charge of the re- 
pairs and overhaul. Work will be com- 
menced at once. 

St. John's, Nfld.— The British steam- 
er Scotia, which has been commissioned 
to patrol the North Atlantic as an ice 
patrol during the spring and early sum- 
mer months in conjunction with the 
United States revenue cutters, put in 
here on April 14 for coal after a three 
weeks' tour of duty on the Grand Banks. 
All hough ice has been reported at sev- 
eral points off the coast, the Scotia 
sighted no bergs in the steamer lanes. 
After replenishing her bunkers, the Sco- 
tia proceeded northward. 

Ottawa, Ont. — The position of the 
front range lighthouse at Corunna, St. 
Clair river, has been changed, modifying 
the axis of the lights in such a way as 
to enable vessels to give a wider berth 
to Stag Island. The Department of 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Marine and Fisheries announces that the 
now position of the front range light- 
house is 17 1-3 feet eastward of the old 
site, 568 feet 347 degrees 15 minutes 
(north nine degrees 45 minutes west 
mag) from the back range lighthouse in 
latitude north 42 degrees 53 minutes 11 
seconds, longitude west 82 degrees 27 
minutes and 21 seconds. 

New Westminster, B.C. — The contract 
for the construction of the new ferry 
boat for the West Vancouver Ferry Com- 
pany Limited has been awarded to Cap- 
tain Wessel of Vancouver. The boat will 
be 80 feet in length, with a beam of 15^2 
feet, and will be equipped with the latest 
type Atlas engines, 80 h.p. The con- 
tract is dated April 2nd, and calls for 
the delivery of the boat on June 11th. 

New Westminster, B. C. — Crane & 
Hampton, shipbuilders, who were form- 
erly located on Lulu Island, where they 
sold their site, and who were premised 
another site by the city last year, which 
site, however, was found to be needed 
for the Heaps Co. foundry, applied re- 
cently to the council for a temporary ten- 
ure, it being understood that they would 
move on one month's notice. The firm 
wishes to carry on business here while 
seeking another site, which may be avail- 
able from the city when the plans of the 
harbor committee are completed and the 
distribution of water lots is made. 

Port Arthur, Ont. — May 24th, Victoria 
Day, has been selected as the date for 
the launching of the Northern Naviga- 
tion Co.'s new flagship from the yards 
of the Western Drydock and Shipbuild- 
ing Co. It is the intention of the ship- 
building company and the navigation 
company, in collaboration, to make the 
occasion memorable by the greatest cele- 
bration ever held at (he head of the 
lakes. This celebration will be fitting 
by reason of the fact that this will be 
the first passenger steamer to leave the 
ways in Port Arthur, a steamer which 
will be the finest Canadian owned boat 
on the Great Lakes. 

Vancouver, B.C. — Secretary Blair, of 
the Board of Trade has received a letter 
from the United States manager of 
Furness, Withy & Co., asking for in- 
formation regarding this port, the 
amount of tonnage handled, the class of 
shipments, and what was looked forward 
to in connection with the opening of the 
Panama Canal. It is explained in the 
letter that this information is to be for- 
warded to the chairman of the company 
in England so that lie may have some 
advance information previous to a visit 
that he and some of his associates pro- 
pose to make to Vancouver with a view 
to establishing a line of steamers. 

Detroit, Mich.— In the decision just 
rendered by Judge Tuttle of the United 



States Court, responsihility is placed 
solely with the steamer S. S. Curry for 
the collision of June 23 last year, in 
which the Canadian steamer Bothnia 
was sunk in the St. Clair River just 
above Star Island. Judge Tuttle 's de- 
cision was given immediately after the 
attorneys had completed their argument 
in the suit of the Meaford Transporta- 
tion Co., owners of the Bothnia, against 
the Hawgood & Avery Transit Co., own- 
ers of the Curry, for $28,000, the amount 
of damages claimed as resulting from the 
loss of the Bothnia, her cargo and the 
belongings of her crew. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The decision of the Port 
Huron local inspectors, charging Capt. 
Wm. H. Yates, master of the steamer 
Alpena, of the Wyandotte Transporta- 
tion Company, with reckless navigation 
at the entrance of the St. Clair River, 
on June '27, 1912, for which his license 
as master and pilot was suspended for 
fifteen days, was revoked to-day by 
Capt. C. H. Westcott, supervising steam- 
boat inspector of the district. After the 
decision of the local inspectors of Port 
Huron was rendered, Capt. Yates ap- 
pealed to Capt. Westcott. In making the 
ruling, Capt. Wescott said that after 
carefully considering the testimony sub- 
mitted by him, he had reached the con- 
clusion that the evidence did not justify 
the charge of reckless navigation. 

Toronto, Ont. — The Harbor Commis- 
sioners on April 15 sanctioned the lease 
of the docks on Harbor Square, under 
the supervision of the Board, to the 
Richelieu & Ontario Navigation Co., at a 
rental of $13,000 a year, which is $2,200 
more than last year. These docks were 
occupied by the Merchants-Mutual and 
the Canadian Lake lines last season. This 
year the R. & O. Co. will use them for 
their freight steamers, also one of therir- 
for the excursion steamers plying on the 
Toronto-Hamilton route. The two docks 
are to the west of the wharves of the 
Toronto Ferry Co. The Commissioners 
also decided to make extensive improve- 
ments on the ferry wharf at Centre Isl- 
and, which is in a bad condition. An 
appropriation of $2,500 was made for 
this work. 

Detroit, Mich. — Plans for merging 
seven lake transportation companies, 
comprising in all 39 vessels, under one 
control have p7-ogressed to a point where 
it is now practically assured that the 
deal will be completed. The plan in- 
volves the taking over of vessels of other 
companies by the Lackawanna Steamship 
Co., and its reorganization as the Inter- 
lake Steamship Co., with a capital stock 
of $6,500,000, and bonds of $3,000,000. 
Of the capital stock $4,585,680 is to be 
issued in exchange for properties of 
the Mesba Steamship Co., comprising 4 
vessels; the Lackawanna Steamship Co., 
81 



7 vessels; the Interlake Co., and Huron 
Barge Co., 2 vessels each; the Provident 
Steamship Co., and Acme Steamship 
Co., 3 vessels each, and Standard Steam- 
ship Co., 1 vessel. The fleet will include 
also 17 of the former vessels of the Gil- 
christ, Transportation Co., which were 
bought out by a creditors' committee, 
making 39 vessels in all. It is proposed 
that the new corporation shall carry its 
own insurance on the vessels, which are 
to be under the management of Pick- 
ands, Mather & Co., Cleveland. 

• 

Personal 

Henry J. Turner, Buffalo, has been 
elected vice-president of the Chadwick 
Brass Co., Hamilton, Ont. 

H. J. Hamilton, Toronto manager for 
Drummond McCall & Co., returned this 
week from a trip to Florida, after an 
absence of several months. 

J. W. Canvin, formerly distric pas- 
senger agent of the Richelieu & On- 
tario Navigation Co. at Alexandria Bay, 
has been promoted to the position of 
advertising agent of the company, with 
headquarters at Montreal. In addition 
to having full charge of the publicity 
department, Mr. Canvin will also have 
jurisdiction as passenger agent in the 
Atlantic coast cities and east of New 
York. 

Robert Cooney, St. Catharines, Ont., 
one of the best known lake captains, 
dropped dead recently as he was leaving 
Dr. James White's office on Cannon St. 
He had been ill for some time, but had 
just finished telling the doctor how much 
better he was feeling when death over- 
took him. For years he sailed the Ma- 
cassa when she was first put on the 
Hamilton-Toronto run. The past few 
seasons he has been in- command of the 
Dundurn. 

Gustav W. Wolff, one of the founders 
of the great shipbuilding firm of Harland 
and Wolff, at Belfast, died recently, 
aged 79. He served eighteen years in 
Parliament. Five years ago he retired 
from active business. He was the son 
of Morltz Wolff, a merchant of Ham- 
burg, and was born there in 1834. He 
was educated in Hamburg and at Liver- 
pool College, and served an apprentice- 
ship as engineer and shipbuilder with 
Whitworth and Company, of Manches- 
ter. Later he entered the service of 
Goodfellow and Company, of Hyde. Tn 
1860 he joined the late Sir Edward Har- 
land, of Belfast, starting the famous 
shipbuilding and engineering firm of 
Harland and Wolff. Belfast East was 
the constituency he represented while in 
Parliament, from 1892 to 1910 as a 
Unionist. 



ASSOCIATION AND PERSONAL 

A Monthly Record of Current Association News and of Individuals 
who Have Been More or Less Prominent in the Marine Sphere 



Victor Gray has been appointed purser 
of the N. N. Co.'s steamer Waubic. 

Arnold Potter, formerly baggage- 
master on the S. S. Yarmouth, has been 
promoted to the office of purser. 

Admiral Togo, the naval hero of the 
Russo-Japanese War, was promoted, on 
April 21, admiral of the fleet. 

Wilfrid Stanley Strong, of Brighton, 
Ont., has been appointed wharfinger of 
the Government wharf there. 

Angus Winchester, son of Mr. Charles 
Winchester, of Digby, N.S., has resigned 
his position as purser of the S. S. Yar- 
mouth. 

W. Grant Morden, a director of the 
Richelieu and Ontario Navigation Co., 
lias been elected a director of the Col- 
lingwood Shipbuilding Co., Colling- 
wood, Ont. 

Captain William Milner, for nearly 
thirty years a retired mariner, died at 
Sackville, N.B., on March 30, at his 
home. Captain Milner was in the eighty- 
second year of his age. 

Edwin E. Horsey, of the Lake On- 
tario and Bay of Quinte Steamboat Co., 
has been appointed assistant to H. H. 
Gildersleeve, manager of Western lines 
for the R. & 0. Navigation Co. 

Kaniinistiquia's officers. — The West- 
ern Navigation Co. has appointed the 
officers to its steamer Kaministiquia as 
follows: — Captain, E. L. Stephen; first 
officer, William Darling; chief engineer, 
H. Young. 

Captain William Benyon, who for the 

past thirty-six years has been a well- 
known member of the Victoria shipping 
community, passed away recently, aged 
fi4 years. Captain Benyon was born at 
Swansea, Wales. 



LICENSED PILOTS. 

River St. Lawrence. — Captain Walter 
Collins, 43 Main Street, Kingston, Ont., 
Captain M . McDonald, River Hotel, 
Kingston, Ont. ; Captain Charles J. Mar- 
tin, 13 Balaclava Street, Kingston, Ont.; 
Captain T. J. Murphy, 111 William St., 
Kingston, Ont. 

River St. Lawrence, Bay of Quinte, 
Murray Canal. — Captain James Murray, 
106 Clergy St., Kingston, Ont.; Captain 
James H. Martin, 259 Johnston Street, 
Kingston, Ont. ; John Corkery, 17 Rideau 
Street, Kingston, Ont.; Captain Daniel 
H. Mills, 272 University Avenue, Kings- 
ton, Ont. 



ASSOCIATIONS 

DOMINION MARINE ASSOCIATION. 

President — James Playfair, Midland ; Coun- 
sel— P. King, Kingston, Ont. 

GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE 
RIVER RATE COMMITTEE. 
Chairman — W. F. Wasley, Gravenhurst, Ont. 
Secretary — Jas. Morrison, Montreal. 

INTERNATIONAL WATER LINES 
PASSENGER ASSOCIATION. 
President — A. A. Heard, Albany, N.Y. 
Secretary — M. R. Nelson, New York 

THE SHIPPING FEDERATION OF CANADA 
President — A. A. Allan, Montreal; Manager 
and Secretary— T. Robb, 526 Board of Trade, 
Montreal. 

SHIP MASTERS' ASSOCIATION OF 
CANADA. 

Grand Master — Capt. J. H. McMaugh, Tor- 
onto, Ont.; Grand Secretary-Treasurer — Capt. 
H. O. Jackson, 376 Huron St., Toronto. 



GRAND COUNCIL, N.A.M.E. GRAND 
OFFICERS. 
James T. McKee, 268 Douglas Avenue, St. 
John, N.B., Grand President. 

Tbos. Tberiault, Levis, P.Q., Grand Vice- 
President. 

Neil J. Morrison. P.O. Box 238. St. John, N.B., 
Grand Secretary-Treasurer. 

Jno. A. Murphy, Midland, Ont., Grand Con- 
ductor. 

George Bourret, Sorel, P. Q., Grand Door- 
keeper. 

Richard McLaren, Owen Sound, Ont. 
L. B. Cronk, Windsor, Ont. 

Grand Auditors. 



C. J. Smith, who recently resigned the 
management of the Richelieu and On- 
tario Navigation Co., has accepted the 
vice-presidency and general manager- 
ship of the North Railway and Hudson 
Bay Steamship Companies. 

Capt. W. R. Wakely, a sailor on the 
Great Lakes from his boyhood days, died 
in Toronto recently, in his fifty-ninth 
year. He was born in the vicinity of 
Port Hope, and comes from a family of 
sailors. 

Captain Harrison, who was in charge 
of the C.N.R, liner "Royal George" 
when she foundered in the St. Lawrence 
above Quebec last fall, and whose certi- 
ficate was suspended, has, we under- 
stand, succeeded in having the judgment 
of the Canadian Court quashed. 

Capt. George Ross, one of the best 
known marine men along the Welland 
Canal, died recently at his residence. 
Port Robinson, aged sixty-three years. 
He was born in Canada, and resided 
nearly all his life at Port Robinson, 
being engaged in the tug business on the 
Welland Canal. 

Col. Lamb, engineer in charge of mar- 
ine matters from Port Bruce to Kin- 
cardine, has been in Sarnia with his as- 
sistants on work in the St. Clair River 
near the mouth. This work is prelimin- 
ary to new charts of the river bottom at 
this point, which are made, necessary by 
vast dredging operations. 

Capt. Matthew Patterson, of King- 
ston, Ont., died on April 31, aged eighty- 
one years. Deceased was looked upon as 
being the oldest marine captain in Can- 
ada, having sailed the ocean and the 
great lakes for seventy-two years. He 
was born in England, and came to King- 
ston sixty years ago. Last season he 



Directory of Subordinate Councils for 1913. 



St\ me. 



N'o. 



■ 'resident. 



Address. 



Secretary. 



Address. 



1 IA. J. Fisher, 

2 J. P. Matthews, 

3 Andrew Kerr, 

4 A. E. Kennedy, 

5 A. P. Hamelin, 
Alex McNivern, 
7 A. S. DeGruchy, 

Helalre Mercier, 
|Oeo. Bourret, 
H. W. Fletcher. 

11 |AIex. McDonald. 

12 I.Tos. Sllverthorne, 

13 |D. J. Murray, 

14 Thos. O'Reilly. 

15 |.T. K. Sutherland, 
10 lArthur Abbey, 



9 
10 



490 Concord Ave. 

50 Douglas Ave., 

Box 343, Collingwood, 

305 Johnston Street, 

3208 Le Tang Street, 

P. O. Box 234. 

Room 23, Williams Bldg., 

nienville, Levis, 

Sorel. P.Q.. 

036 4th Ave. Fast, 

Windsor, Ont., 

Midland, 

Victoria Bd., Dartmouth, 
Sault Ste Marie. 
Charlottetown, P.E.I., 
Fort William. Ont. 



B. A. Prince, 
G. T. G. Blewett, 
Robert McQuade. 
James Gillie, 
O. L. Maichand. 
Peter Gordon, 
R. Rend, 
S. G. Guenard. 
Al. Charbonneau, 
F. J. Rllev. 
Noll Mnltlnnd, 
Jno. A. Murphy, 
Chris. E. Pearce, 
Geo. S. Biggar, 
Lem Winchester. 
John A. S mith. 



01 Elm Grove, Toronto. 

05 Harrison St.. St. John. N.B. 

P.O. Box 97, Collingwood, 

101 Clergy St., Kingston. Out. 

St. Vincent de Paul, P.Q. 

808 Blanehard St.. Victoria, B.C. 

85!) Thurlow St 

Bienville, Levis, P.Q. 

P.O. Box 132, Sorel, P.Q. 

1030 1st Ave.. Owen Sound, Ont. 

221 London St. W., Windsor, Out. 

Midland, Ont. 

Portland Street, Dartmouth, N.S. 

Sault Ste Marie, Ont. 

302 Fitzroy St., Cunrlottet'n, I'.F.I. 

Fort William. Ont. 



82 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



23 



sailed the schooner St. Louis, and was 
preparing to handle her again this year. 

Marine Engineers Meet. — There was a 
big attendance at the meeting of marine 
engineers, held at Campbell & Gibbons' 
hall, Port Arthur on April 9. Amongst 
those present were a large number of 
visiting engineers who were then assem- 
bled in the twin cities preparing their 
vessels for the navigation season. Music 
and speeches formed the program, which 
made the evening a pleasant one. Arthur 
Foote, mechanical superintendent of the 
Western Drydock Co., gave an interest- 
ing address on engineers and their pro- 
fession. 



ENGINEERS 

BOILERMAKERS 

BLACKSMITHS 




Marine 
Repair s 
r Specialty 



W. J. C. White 
22 Prince St. MONTREAL 

Phone M. 2435. 



GEORGIAN BAY SHIPBUILDING 
& WRECKING COMPANY 

MIDLAND, ONTARIO. 

Yachts, Tugs, Dump Scows 
and Repair Work a Specialty. 
All Kinds of Wrecking and 
Diving. 



BELL TELEPHONE : 
Office No. 163 Residence No. 149 

P. O. Box 83. 
D. G. DOBSON, - General Manager 



THE DIXON MFG. CO. 

Mfrs. of 

High-Class Marine Gasoline Engines and 
Marine Motors, Experimental Machinery, 
Gray Iron, Brass and Bronze Castings. 
Repair work a specialty. 
Address: COLLING WOOD, ONT. 
Tel. No. 164. 



DAVIS DRY DOCK COMPANY 

Builders of Wood and Steel Passenger 
Steamers, Tug, Steam and Gasolene 
Engines of all Descriptions. New 
catalogues February 1st. 

KINGSTON, ONTARIO 



Office 'phone 528. Private 'phones 437 aod 49 

Donnelly Salvage and 
Wrecking Co., Ltd. 

Kingston, Ont. 

Tugs, Lighters, Divers, Steam Pumps, 
etc., supplied on shortest notice. 

700 Ton Lighter with McMyler clam 
shell Derrick. 

Tug "Saginaw" has two 100-ton Pull- 
ing Machines with 4,000 feet of l£ inch 
Steel Cable, and two 3-ton anchors, 
always ready for work. 

JOHN DONNELLY. Pres. and Gen. Mgr. 



J. J. TURNER & SONS 

Peterborough, Ont., and Regina, Sask. 



The largest manufacturers and dealers 
in Canada of 



Sails. 
Tents, 
Flags, 
Life Belts. 
Life Buoys, 
Waterproof 

ing. 
Coal Bags. 



Cloth- 



Horse Blankets, 
Lap Rugs, 
Canoes and Row 

Boats, 
Vessel, Yacht, Boat, 

and Canoe Sails 

made by Expert 

Sail Makers. 



Tents to Order and Camping Outfits to rent. 

Write for Catalogue. 



^L\RLO£/r 




The SECRET 
oE PRODUCING 

High Pressure Packing that will give reliable and 
efficient service without injury to piston rods lies in 
the thoroughness of its lubrication as well as in the Garlock High Pressure Ring, 

quality of material used. Every fibre of Garlock High Pressure Packing is thoroughly 
lubricated, and the design, material and workmanship are unexcelled. 

Write for Garlock catalogue showing 
"Packings for Every Purpose." 

The Garlock Packing Company 

Head Office and Factory : 

HAMILTON ONTARIO 




Garlock High Pressure Spiral 



Branches -MONTREAL TORONTO 

"Pioneers in the Packing Business." 



WINNIPEG 



24 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 





MORRIS, 
BULK ELEY 
& HALLIDAY 



MARINE ENGINEERS 
and NAVAL ARCHITECTS 

Specialists in 

Steel and Wood Vessels 



17 Promis Bldg. 
VICTORIA. B.C. and 



514 Holden Bldg. 
VANCOUVER, B.C. 




With Exceptional Facilities for 
Placing 

Fire and Marine Insurance 

In all Underwriting Markets 



Agencies : TORONTO, MONTREAL, 
WINNIPEG, VANCOUVER, 
PORT ARTHUR. 



Cablegram : Curr, Port Arthur. 

Telephone 1553 North. 
ROBERT CURR 

Surveyer to Lloyd's Register of Shipping. 
Plans and specifications furnished for all 
types of vessels. Careful attention given 
to superintending construction and repairs. 
Instructions on theoretical and practical 
shipbuilding by correspondence. 

The Observatory, 28 South Water St., 
Port Arthur, Ont. 



T. B. F. BENSON 

(Assoc. Inst. N. A.) 
NAVAL ARCHITECT. 

All types of vessels designed and construc- 
tion superintended. 

Estimates promptly furnished. 
205 Yonge Street, Toronto. 
Phone Main 5379. 



BREWER & McBRYDE 

NAVAL ARCHITECTS • MARINE BROKERS 

142 Hastings St., Vancouver, B.C. 

15 yean' practical experience designing all 
types of vessels. 



THOS. G. BISHOP 

ENGINEER AND MACHINIST 

Marine and General Repairs, Gas and 
Gasoline Engine Repairs a Specialty 
PHONE 38 

FOOT OF PRINCESS ST.. KINGSTON. ONT. 



THIS SPACE 
$15. A YEAR 



MARINE ENGINEERING 

OF CANADA 



is edited and published with a view to providing for all sections of marine 
men, an attractive and newsy record of Shipbuilding, Engineering, Harbour, 
Port and Dock Progress and Development throughout the Dominion of 
Canada and over the World. 

One Dollar per year is our regular subscription rate 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 

143 UNIVERSITY AVE., TORONTO 

Date 1913 

Gentlemen, — 

Please find enclosed herewith $1.00, being subscription to Marine Engineering of Canada. 

. NAME 

RANK OR POSITION 

ADDRESS IN FULL 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 




Bobbie's Patent 
Liquid Compass 

With Reduced Diameter 
Gard. 



Furnished complete with 
Binnacle or Compass only. 



Dobbie's Patent Sounder, and Recording 
Winch. 

Prices on application. 

Marine Hardware and Supplies. 
OUR NEW CATALOGUE NOW READY 

JOHN LECKIE LIMITED 



77 Wellington St. W. 



Toronto 




THE 



D A K E 



Steam Steerers 
and Steamers, 
double wheel. 



for Tugs 
Single or 



000<X>0-0- 



Write for 
Complete 
Catalog and 
prices. 

Dake 
Engine 
Co. 

Grand 
Haven 
Mich. 



Centrifugal Pumps direct 
connected to DAKE engines, 
all on one base. 




MANGANESE BRONZE 




PROPrjTLER 
WHEELS 



Tensile 
Strength 
75,000 lbs. 




Write to-day for our descriptive booklet. 

Lumen Bearing Company 



Brass Founders, 



TORONTO 




Ship and Yacht 



Fittings of Every 
Description 

Pumps, Portlights, 
Sanitary Appliances, 
Folding Lavatories, 
Baths, Ventilators, 
Bells, Hinges, etc., 
Send for Catalogue. 



AGENTS WANTED IN CANADA 





J. DOWNTON & CO. 

69-71 West India Dock Road 
LONDON, ENG. 

Cables : "John Downton, Phone London." 



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MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Collingwood Shipbuilding Co., Limited 

Collingwood, Ont. s Canada 




Keystone Transportation Co.'s Steamer "KEYBELL" — 258 -244' x 42 -6 x 20\ 
Built by Collingwood Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. 



Steel and Wooden Ships, Engines, Boilers, 

Castings and Forging s 

PLANT FITTED WITH MODERN APPLIANCES FOR QUICK WORK 

Dry Docks and Shops Equipped to Operate 
Day or Night on Repairs 

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CIRCULATES IN EVERY PROVINCE OF CANADA AND ABROAD 

MarjneEngineerjno 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and development of Merchant and Naval Marine Engineering, 
Shipbuilding, the building of Harbors and Docks, and containing a record of the latest and 
best practice throughout the Sea-going World. Published by 
The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 

MONTREAL, Eastern Townships Bank Bldg. TORONTO, 143-149 University Ave. WINNIPEG, 34 Royal Bank Bldg. LONDON, ENG., 88 Fleet St. 

Vol. III. Publication Office, Toronto— May, 1913 No. 5 

POLSON IRON WORKS, LIMITED 

TORONTO - - CANADA 

Steel Shipbuilders 
Engineers and Boilermakers 




Manufacturers of 

Steel Vessels, Tugs, Barges, Dredges and Scows 
Marine Engines and Boilers all sizes and kinds 



Works and Office : Esplanade Street East. 



Piers Nos. 35, 36, 37 and 38 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



THE SOLUTION, 
of the Corrosion Problem 



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O 
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■-PATENT 

c Luminous - 

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CD 

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WM. BRIGGS & SONS, Limited 

DUNDEE & LONDON 

Agents for Canada : MACDONALD & SONS, 

176 King St. East, TORONTO. 



Dipper Dredges 

Clam Dredges 

Steel Scows 

Drill Boats 




Equipment of this nature together with Hoisting 
Engines of all kinds are specialties with us. 

Let us figure on your requirements. 

We have the experience necessary to build any- 
thing you need in this line and you will find our 
prices right. 

Send for descriptive matter now. 

M. BEATTY & SONS, Limited 
WELLAND ONTARIO 




This is one of our Compound Jet Condensing 
Engines with Pumps and Thrust attached. 



The Doty Marine Engine & Boiler Co., 



LIMITED 



Builders of 



'*T High Grade Marine Engines & Boilers 



Compound Jet Condensing Engines 

Compound Surface Condensing Engines 
Triple Expansion Engines 

Non-Condensing Stern Wheel Engines 

Tandem Compound Stern Wheel Engines 



Marine Boilers of various types including Scotch, Locomotive, 
Fitzgibbon, Fire-box Return Tubular and Safety Water Tube. 



Estimates furnished for complete Marine outfits. 

The Doty Marine Engine & Boiler Co., 

LIMITED 

GODERICH, CANADA 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



SHIP CHANDLERY 




OLD COUNTRY FIRMS 



FOR WHOM WE ARE 



SOLE CANADIAN AGENTS 



CLARKE, CHAPMAN & CO., LIMITED. 

Windlasses, Winches, Hoisting Gears, 
Electric Lighting, Steam Pumps, Marine 
Boilers. 

MURRAY, McVINNIE & CO., LTD. 

Cooking Ranges, Kitchen Utensils, Ship 
Chandlery, Second-hand Shipyard Ma- 
chinery of all descriptions. 

JOHN HASTIE & CO., LTD. 

Steam, Hand, Electric Steering Gears. 

ANSELL, JONES & CO. 

Reid-McFarland 's Patent * Steel 
Lubricating Blocks. 

DARLINGTON FORGE CO. 

Steel Castings and Forgings. 

WOODITE COMPANY. 

Woodite Gauge Glass Washers. 



Self- 



HOME RUBBER CO. (New Jersey, U.S.A.) 

N.B.O. Sheet Packing, Mechanical Rub- 
ber Goods. 

SHANKS & CO., LIMITED. 

Sanitary Appliances, Folding Lavatories, 
Plumbers' Fittings, Baths, W.C.'s, Etc. 

GIBSON & JONES. 

Patent Gem Flue Cleaners. 

DOBBIE-McINNES, LIMITED. 

Nautical-Navigation Instruments. 

R. B. Lindsay & CO. 

Lindsay Glasgow Patent High Pressure 
Piston Packing. 

HOSKIN & SON, LTD. 

Metallic Ships' Berths. 



WM. McGEOCH & CO., LTD., Ships' Hardware, Electric Fixtures, Lamps. 

J. & A. STEWART & CO., Lignum Vitae, Teakwood, Mahogany, 
Hardwoods, Etc. 




WILLIAM 

TORONTO: Head Office. 



C. WILSON & CO. 

Lock 24 Welland Canal, THOROLD, ONT. I 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 




Brass Binnacle on Polished 
Brass Pedestal. 

We also make short patterns 
in different styles, with or 
without compass. 



When You Require 
Anything in the Line of 

Engineers' Supplies 



• or 



Brass Goods 

It Will Pay You to Get in 
Touch With Us 




Electric Deck Light. 
Heavy Type. 




We only carry lines of proven de- 
pendability — only lines we know 
will do credit to our business and 
insure the user against 'trouble 
and expense. 

While we handle nothing but the 
highest quality marine goods 
you'll find our prices reasonable. 

Your enquiries will receive 
prompt attention. 





J.M.T. Valve. 

Renewable disc made standard 
and extra heavy pattern, 
screwed or flanged. 





Reliable Water Column. 

With heavy water gauge 

mountings, marine gauge 

cock, high and low whistle 
alarm. 



The James Morrison 
Brass Mfg. Co., Ltd. 

93-97 Adelaide Street West, Toronto 




We make a large variety of 
Steam Whistles from 2 inch 
diam. to 14 inch diani. — for 

all users. 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



Launch and Description of Cunard Steamship "Andania/ 



The popularity of the St. Lawrence Route and the increasing freight and passenger t/rans- 
portation between Europe and Canada are responsible for the appearance of the Cunard Line 
as a competitor for a share of the business offering. The vessel described in this article 
will rank with the many fine examples of naval architecture and marine engineering of 
of In r lines, in the feature of comfort, speed and general appointments. 



some time to come, at any rate, however, two classes of accommodation only, see- 

Greenoek will have steamers for the ond cabin and third-class, provision 

great Liverpool company in hand, for, on being made for 520 passengers in the 

the berth from which the Andania was former, and 1,620 in the latter. The 

launched, there will be laid down the propelling machinery consists of two sets 




NEARLY OFF THE WAYS. WATERBORNE. 

NEW CUNARD CANADIAN LINER "ANDANIA." 



r\ N Saturday, March 22, the first of 
three new vessels for the Cunard 
Canadian service was put into the water 
at Greenock on the Clyde. Named 
the Andania, she has been constructed 
by Scott's Shipbuilding and Engineer- 
ing Co., in whose yard — then under dif- 




THE "ANDANIA" BEGINNING TO MOVE. 



f'erent management — the Britannia, the 
first steamer owned by the Cunard Line, 
was constructed in 1840. From that 
date to the present, only one other Cun- 
ard boat has been launched at Greenock, 
namely, the Columbia in 1852. For 




Transylvania, while alongside, the Alau- 
nia is taking shape. 

Like the last named vessel, the An- 
dania is of 13,000 tons gross, with a 
length of 540 feet , a breadth of 64 ft., 
and a depth of 46 ft. She provides 



of quadruple expansion engines, balanc- 
ed on the Yarow, Schlick and Tweedy 
principle, and developing 8,000 i.h.p. 

The vessel has been built to Lloyd's 
highest class, and is on the shelter deck 
type, with long bridge, promenade and 
boat decks above. Nothing is being 
spared by the Cunard Co. to make the 
quarters of both classes of passengers 
as comfortable as they can be. The 
dining-rooms for both are high up in 
the vessel, and extend right across the 
ship; between them, following a prac- 
tice now general on up-to-date liners, 
are the kitchens and serving rooms, 
which arrangement, it is hardly neces- 
sary to point out, is of the greatest con- 
venience to those responsible for the 
expeditious working of the catering de- 
partment. The decorative scheme, 
throughout, promises to be something 
well above the average for a vessel of 
this class, there being, in addition to a 
smoking and a writing room, luxurious 
innovations in the shape of a lounge and 
a gymnasium; while all the second- 
class cabins will contain dressing-tables, 
wardrobes, and basins supplied with run- 
ning water. The third-class passengers 




MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



will be berthed in cabins, many of 
which are of the two-berthed variety, 
though in the majority there are four or 
six berths. 

The provision of large bilge keels 
should make the vessel very steady at 
sea, and among the details of her equip- 
ment, it may be noted that she has a 
full provision of bulkheads and water- 
tight doors, a Marconi wireless installa- 
tion, a submarine signalling apparatus, 
spare dynamo in the event of the ordin- 
ary electric lighting power failing, and 
sufficient boats to carry every person on 



SHIPS AND SHIPPING. 

T\yr R. Francis Henderson, of the 
Anchor Line, whose experience of 
shipping extends over forty years, has 
been lamenting, in an after dinner 
speech, the lack of beauty which distin- 
guishes the modern steamer. Formerly, 
he says, vessels were all goodly to look 
upon. Steamers had masts and funnels 
raked aft, the masts had yards, and sail 
was invariably used. Now, they have 
straight funnels and masts, if they have 
them at all, and yards and sails have 
gone for good. There would, of course, 




QUADRUPLE EXPANSION ENGINES OF THE "AXDAXIA.' 



board. Altogether she is a worthy re- 
presentative of the Cunard fleet- — well- 
built, well-found, and with no expense 
spared where the comfort or safety of 
the passengers is concerned. 

The ceremony of naming the ship was 
performed by Lady Inverclyde, and with- 
in a very short time — about 1 min. 40 
sec. — from the moment the hull began to 
move, the vessel was riding gracefully 
on the water. Subsequently, the guests 
repaired to the shipbuilding company's 
offices, where Mr. C. C. Scott invited 
them to drink to the success of the new 
ship and of the Cunard Co. Mr. M. 
H. Maxwell, a director of the latter un- 
dertaking, briefly replied, after which 
Mr. Scott presented Lady Inverclyde 
with a silver casket containing the 
scissors which her ladyship used at the 
launching ceremony. Later, at the 
Central Hotel, Glasgow, a large party 
sat down to luncheon, Mr. Maxwell being 
in the chair. 



be many more mastless steamers but for 
the demands of wireless equipment and 
the need for carrying masthead lights. 
At one time it was said to be in contem- 
plation to provide the mammoth Olym- 
pic with but a single pole-mast. With 
the increasing use of internal-combus- 
tion engines in ships, a row of smoke- 
stacks even in very big steamers may 
obviously be no longer required in the 
near future. Mr. Henderson's point is, 
that appearances are not considered at 
all, and that utility alone is the order 
of the day. 

Present Day Features. 
This is especially true of certain 
classes of ships. It is to be feared, for 
instance, that the tramp steamer, which 
was never a thing of beauty, has at no 
time been built on more severely utili- 
tarian lines than to-day. The derricks 
with which so many cargo-carrying 
steamers are provided are valuable time- 
savers in port, but they do not add to 
the appearance of the vessel. Mr. Hen- 
84 



derson, however, was not confining his 
remarks to such cargo-carriers. 

The liner apparently comes equally 
under his lash. To the public, there is 
consolation in the thought that, if 
steamers do not appear destined to 
grow in beauty, they were never more 
comfortable. It may be, as Mr. Hend- 
erson suggests, that luxury on shipboard 
has been carried to an extreme point, 
but it can hardly be doubted that if the 
ocean traveler had to make his choice 
between exterior charm and internal 
elegance, he would give his vote for the 
latter. 

The Shipbuilding Boom. 

The large amount of tonnage at pre- 
sent under construction must no doubt be 
accounted a sign of the healthiness of 
the shipping trade, but to the mind of 
an experienced shipowner like Mr. Hen- 
derson the future of the industry, be- 
cause of this very shipbuilding activity, 
holds its special problems. Ships, he 
points out, now cost much more to build, 
and considerably more to operate. He 
puts the advance in the cost of stores at 
30 per cent., and the increase in wages, 
one way and another, at little short of 
$15,000 a year in the case of a 7,000-ton 
steamer. This means, of course, that the 
shipowner now puts more capital into 
ships, and incurs heavier working costs 
in order to do pretty much the same 
amount of work as previously, and that 
his profit must therefore depend upon 
the maintenance of higher rates of 
freight than formerly obtained. Mr. 
Henderson's view is that when the 
whole of the vessels now under con- 
struction are delivered the shipowner 
will require all his customary energy, 
ability, and thrift to meet the new si- 
tuation. 

It is difficult to challenge such an 
opinion, because in the long run the new- 
tonnage must tell, even though much of 
it consists of special types of vessels, 
such as oil tankers. On the other hand, 
it is not to be overlooked that the ship- 
ping trade is on the eve of a great event 
which may help to neutralize what is 
known as overbuilding. The opening 
of the Panama Canal, with the new 
trades which it ■will inaugurate and the 
new markets which it will render ac- 
cessible, has in it the possibilities of a 
demand for tonnage which may well 
tend to protract the present period of 
shipping prosperity. Meanwhile, freights 
keep steady, and strikes, which ate away 
a good deal of profit last year in the 
shipping trade, are almost conspicuous 
by their absence. 

Canadian Rate War. 

There has been no serious extension 
of the dispute between the North Atlan- 
tic Pool and the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way Co. The Canadian emigration sea- 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



son has already opened, but it is quite 
clear that there is to be a "cut" in 
rates, not only from Trieste, but also 
from Antwerp. This policy apparently 
does not meet with entire approval in 
Germany, for the reason that the cheap- 
er the rates in the Dominion the better 
it is for the Canadian Pacific. Its inter- 
ests, that is to say, are better served by 
a large influx of labor into Canada than 
by the carriage of emigrants at normal 
rates in its own ships. The circumstance 
suggests that this is a case in which 
the ordinary weapon of a combination 
of shipping companies, namely, a reduc- 
tion of rates, is worse than useless. The 
German view is that it would be better, 
if possible, to strike in some indirect 
way at the interests of the Canadian 
Pacific by sending traffic to ports which 
are not within the company's sphere. 
In this connection a desire to help the 
Grand Trunk is particularly mentioned. 

Canadian ports, however, are rather 
limited in number, and if, as is definite- 
ly stated, the Allan Line has withdrawn 
from the Pool, it is conceivable that a 
policy of "divide et impera" may not be 
altogether applicable to the particular 
case. To the student of the subject of 
steamship combination, the present dis- 
pute over the right of the Canadian Pa- 
| cific to start a line from Trieste pre- 
sents features which are specially inter- 
esting because the conditions are so un- 
usual as to be practically abnormal. We 
have seen contests between steamship 
companies, but we have seen no contest 
between a number of European steamship 
lines and a ereat Canadian railway com- 
pany, which is only incidentally a steam- 
ship owner. 

So far the Canadian Government has 
taken no hand in the dispute, but that 
is a contingency which is not to be alto- 
gether overlooked. The Austrian Gov- 
ernment is also a factor in the situation. 
It is apparently not content with a po- 
sition under which some 80 per cent, of 
the emigration from Central and North- 
ern Europe passes over the German rail- 
ways to North Sea ports. 

Colonies and Liners. 

Passed by the Federal Parliament, 
the Australian Navigation Act has been 
reserved for the King's approval. This 
inevitably means delay in connection 
with a measure that will not be with- 
out some effect on British interests. Gen- 
erally speaking, the Act regards ship- 
ping between Australian ports as of the 
nature of coasting trade. It is true that 
power is given to the Governor-General 
to declare that cargo and passengers car- 
ried in British vessels between Austra- 
lian ports may not be deemed to be 
coasting trade, but this is interpreted 
as no more than putting the policy as to 
British vessels in the hands of the Min- 



ister of Customs. It is thought that if 
they trade between Commonwealth ports 
British steamers will have to pay the 
Australian rate of wages between those 
ports. Thus, the Peninsular and Ori- 
ental Co., who employ Lascars, would 
have to pay them at current Australian 
rates, and settle their accounts before 
the ship finally leaves Freemantle for 
home. The Orient Co., again, would 
have to make up to their white crews the 
difference between their ordinary wages 
and the current Australian wages be- 
tween Commonwealth ports. 

Whether one of the objects is to try 
and keep British and other lines from 
carrying cargo and passengers between 
Australian ports is not quite clear. Any- 
how, the foreign lines, with their lower 
rates of wages, will find the leveling-up 
process rather expensive. Moreover, 
the Act refuses permission to any for- 
eign line to engage in Australian coast- 
ing trade at all, if it has during the 
preceding twelve months received any 
subsidy, direct or indirect. This provi- 
sion certainly cannot be described as 
unfriendly to the British lines. The Act 
has a good deal to say about accom- 
modation for officers and seamen, and 
the necessity of providing bath-rooms 
for stokers. It also requires that where 
there is no library for seamen's use, 
they shall be at liberty to borrow books 
from the ship's library. In this way 
it assures the creation of special lib- 
raries for sailors. The Act also contains 
provisions with respect to the compul- 
sory equipment of ships with wireless 
telegraphy. 

Turbined Cargo Boats. 

One of the most interesting passages 
in Mr. Noble's speech at the Cairn Line 
meeting concerned the question whether 
the geared steam-turbine or the interna) 
combustion engine has the best chance 
of adoption in cargo boats. The Cairn 
Line undoubtedly took a bold step when 
it decided to equip the Cairnross with 
geared turbines. Mr. Noble now gives 
the results of comparative trials between 
her and the sister-ship Cairngowan, the 
latter fitted with triple-expansion en- 
gines. Both vessels were furnished with 
bunkers from the same colliery, and in 
every other respect were rendered as 
nearly identical as possible. For thirty- 
six hours they were run side by side at 
full-power in the Bristol and English 
Channels, an observing staff being placed 
on board each steamer. The main point 
was, of course, to determine the relative 
consumption of fuel, and it is now inti- 
mated that the expectation that the boat 
with geared turbines would prove the 
most economical was fully realized. 

Thus far it would appear that geared 
turbines are superior to triple-expansion 
engines, but what of internal combus- 
85 



tion engines? Mr. Noble's statement is 
that a geared turbined steamer, with coal 
at $3.65 per ton, will hold its own 
against the oil engine, with oil at about 
$9.00 per ton, or less than half its pre- 
sent price. He claims, therefore, that 
a vessel like the Cairnross has little to 
fear for a long time to come from the 
competition of the oil engine. This 
opinion appears to confirm the view that 
the future of the internal combustion 
engine on shipboard may be largely de- 
pendent on the question of oil prices. 
It is for this reason, perhaps, that the 
British ship-owner is at present disposed 
to fight shy of it. If anything, the ex- 
periment of the Cairn Line certainly 
seems to justify a waiting attitude, but 
in no sense an attitude of indifference. 

© 

ELECTRIC PROPULSION OF SHIPS. 

HETHER the new vessel Tyne- 
mount, launched recently from 
the yard of Smith's Dock Co., Middles- 
bro, England, will inaugurate a new 
epoch in ship propulsion or not, time 
will tell, but at present, when so much 
is being said concerning the adoption of 
the Diesel engine for marine service, 
this vessel is certainly of special in- 
terest. As yet but little experience of 
electrical transmission in marine instal- 
lations is available, for, as a matter of 
fact, the Tynemount is about the first 
large vessel of her class to be turned 
out. Nevertheless for certain conditions, 
as, for example, the Canadian Lakes 
trade, where the largest and coarsest 
pitched propellers running at a slow 
speed are desirable, this system of pro- 
pulsion seems to have its advantages. 

General Particulars. 

The Tynemount, which has been built 
for the Montreal Transportation Co. for 
service on the Great Lakes, is a vessel 
of 250 ft. in length by 42 ft. 6 in. beam 
by 19 ft. moulded depth, and has a 
deadweight carrying capacity of 2,400 
tons. The electricity for driving the 
motor coupled to the propeller shaft is 
generated by two 300 b.h.p. Diesel en- 
gines of the Mirrilees, Bickerton & Day 
type, while the complete electrical in- 
stallation, consisting of alternating cur- 
rent dynamos, motors, switch gear, etc.. 
is by Mavor & Coulson, Glasgow. The 
prime movers or Diesel engines run at 
400 r.p.m., while the propeller shaft has 
a speed of but 80 r.p.m. 

Propelling Machinery Features. 

For this installation claim is made 
that it provides a means for applying 
the power of one or any number of en- 
gines to one or more propellers so that 
the power generating units, each con- 
sisting of a Diesel engine with its own 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



generator, may be situated in any part 
of the vessel, each working independent- 
ly. By this system, Diesel engines of 
different types and widely differing 
speeds of rotation may be used on one 
or more propellers, as, for example, it is 
practical to employ an oil engine at 150 
r.p.m. to assist a turbine at 3,000 r.p.m. 
In the past the sub-division of power 
units to meet conditions of varying load 
has not been seen in marine practice, it 
being necessary to have the whole of 
the power units in motion while the ship 
is being driven, however, slowly. The 
power units can be in the form of either 
steam engines, gas engines, or Diesel 
motors, and can be made of the most 
economical sizes, each unit being self- 
contained; furthermore, the number of 
propellers can be fixed with sole refer- 
ence to the speed and type of ship, and 
all propellers can be in use at all 
powers. 

As is well known, the oil, steam, or 
gas engine is most economical when run 
at its designed speed, for once it is 
throttled down, the fuel consumption 
per horse-power developed increases 
considerably, and here is claimed econ- 
omy for the electrical transmission sys- 
stem. In cases where the ship is re- 
quired to operate at widely differing 
speeds, the saving in the fuel bill re- 
sulting from the adjustment of the 
operating plant to the required power is 
caluculated in favorable cases to be over 
30 per cent. Another point about this 
installation is that non-reversible Diesel 
engines can be employed, as the prime 
movers are always running in the one 
direction. This prevents frequent 
handling of the Diesels, and accordingly 
reduces the air compressing plant. 

The "Electric Arc." 

The Tynemount, we may say, is not 
altogether an experimental vessel. This 
same system was tried in the spring of 
1911 in the 50 ft. vessel, Electric Arc, 
built by Maclaren Bros., Dumbarton, 
for Mavor & Coulson, Glasgow, and 
proved quite successful. 

In the Electric Arc the machinery con- 
sisted of a 40 b.h.p. oil engine driving 
an alternating current dynamo with its 
exciter, while on the propeller shaft was 
coupled an alternating current motor. 
Notwithstanding a loss of power of 10 
to 15 per cent, between the prime mover 
and the propeller shaft, this little ves- 
sel showed herself good for a speed 
above what would have been attained 
had the oil engines been driving the pro- 
peller direct. The drawbacks to the 
electric transmission appear to be in- 
creased first cost, additional weight on 
board ship, and accordingly reduced 
deadweight carrying capacity, and a re- 
duction in the cargo space owing to a 
somewhat larger machinery room. 

The trials of the Tynemount will, in- 



deed, be of considerable interest, as 
should the new system of propulsion 
fulfil expectations, there is every likeli- 
hood that it will be adopted for the big 
Canadian canal freighters of the future. 
The contract for the vessel came through 
John Reid Co., of Glasgow and Mont- 
real, a firm who have in the past devoted 
much time to the development of the 
cargo carrier on the Great Lakes. 



REID-NEWFOUNDLAND CO. 
R. M. S. "KYLE." 

Op HE K. M. S. "Kyle"' has been 
A built and engined by Swan, Hun- 
ter & Wigham Richardson, Ltd., Nep- 
tune Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne, for the 
Reid-Newfoundland Co., of St. John's, 
Newfoundland, and is intended for 
their coastal service between St. John's, 



upholstered with blue leather. It is 
divided from the entrance by a very 
effective screen of polished mahogany, 
filled in with stained glass. The en- 
trance hall and staircase connect the 
smoking room, dining saloon and first 
class staterooms, etc., and are panelled 
with polished mahogany, whilst the floor 
is of indiarubber tiling. The first class 
staterooms are on the main deck below 
the dining saloon. They are 15 in 
number, with accommodation for 68 per- 
sons, one room being a ladies' room 
with 10 berths. These are all enamelled 
white, with mahogany furniture and 
upholstered with rose-colored moquette. 

The second class passengers are 
berthed in the after part of the vessel. 
On the main deck there is a compart- 
ment for 102 men, and aft of this an- 
other for 39 women. Above on the up- 




KRIIi -NEWFOUNDLAND CO. R M.S. ' KYLE.'" 



Newfoundland, and Cape Chudleigh. on 
the coast of Labrador, a service occupy- 
ing a fortnight for the round trip, and 
often having to be carried on through 
ice. The steamer is finely modelled, 
220 ft. in length by 32 ft! beam, and 
has passenger accommodation for 68 
first class and for 141 second class. 

Passenger Accommodation. 

The first class passengers are berthed 
amidships. They have a fine promenade 
deck and in a house on that deck there 
is a comfortable smoking room, the 
walls being of oak, slightly fumed, with 
corresponding furniture upholstered in 
green leather. In the same house are 
the captain's room, the chief officer's 
room, and the wheelhouse. Below this, 
on the upper deck, are the ladies 'room 
and the first class dining saloon. The 
ladies' room has walls of sycamore, 
satinwood furniture upholstered in old 
rose moquette, the whole effect being 
very pleasing. Aft of the ladies' room 
is the entrance to the first class dining 
saloon. This is an attractively decorated 
room, with walls and furniture of 
polished mahogany, the latter being 
86 



per deck, right aft, there are two hos- 
pitals, one for men, the other for wo- 
men, together with rooms for doctors, 
baths, etc. The officers and engineers 
have rooms on the main deck at the 
sides of the engine casing, and the 
galley is placed on the upper deck for- 
ward of the engine casing, conveniently 
near the dining saloon. 

Operating Equipment. 
The steamer is fitted with an installa- 
tion of wireless telegraphy, a complete 
installation of electric light, including 
a searchlight, and an efficient arrange- 
ment of steam heating suitable for the 
climate. The propelling machinery con- 
sists of a set of single screw triple ex- 
pansion engines, having cylinders, I8V2 
in. -301/2 in., and 50 in. diameter by 36 
in. stroke, supplied with steam from 
two single-ended boilers, 13 ft. 9 in. 
diameter by 11 ft. 6 in. in length, fitted 
with six corrugated furnaces, and work- 
ing under Howden's system of forced 
draught, at a pressure of 180 lbs. per 
square inch. The main condenser is one 
of Weir's latest "Uniflnx" type. On 
the trial I rip off the Tyne a speed of 
13 3 4 knots per hour was attained. 



Launch and Description of the Freighter James Carruthers" 



The Collingwood Shipbuilding Co. are to be congratulated on their achievement of con- 
struction of the Dominion's largest lake freighter, the culmination of which was the high- 
ly successful launch of the huge vessel on Thursday, May 23. To those who were present 
at the latter function, there was disclosed a re relation of Canadian shipbuilding capacity, 
both in yard facilities and individual fitness. 



/ T* HE largest bulk freighter of her 
type yet built in the British Em- 
pire — the James Carruthers — was suc- 
cessfully launched by the Collingwood 
Shipbuilding Co., Colling-wood, Ont., on 
Thursday, May 22. The new vessel 
which has been built to the order of the 
St. Lawrence & Chicago Steam Navi- 
gation Co., Ltd., Toronto, also bears the 
distinction of being the largest vessel 
of any description built in the Dominion. 
Mayor Gilpen, of Collingwood, pro- 
claimed a half holiday for the occasion 
and several townspeople in addition to 
many hundreds from the surrounding 
districts witnessed the ceremony. 

Mr. James Carruthers, the man whose 
name the new boat bears, and who, in 
addition to being a director of the St. 
Lawrence & Chicago Navigation Co., is 
a director of the Richelieu & Ontario 
Navigation Co., together with the lead- 
ing officials of both the navigation and 
the shipbuilding companies, and a large 
number of the leading marine men of 
the Dominion were present. 

Christening Ceremony. 

The gigantic freighter was christened 
by Miss Lilian Wright, the ten-year-old 
daughter of Mr. A. A. Wright, one of 
the directors of the St. Lawrence & 
Chicago Navigation Co, and as a sou- 
venir of the occasion she was made the 
recipient of a gold band wrist watch, 
together with a sheaf of American 
Beauty Roses, from the vessel builders. 



Vessel Inspection. 

An inspection of the vessel while on 
the ways, was made following the ar- 
rival of the noon train from Toronto, 
and, needless to say, there was nothing 
but commendation expressed concerning 
this latest product of the Colling-wood 
Shipyard. Mr. James Smith, manager, 
was, of course, busy directing the pre- 
parations for getting the ship safely 
afloat, yet in spite of the weight of 
responsibility resting on him, he found 
time to answer questions and explain 
features of construction, accommoda- 
tion, etc. 

At 1.30 dinner was served in the 
Globe Hotel, and here, too, as aboard 
the "Carruthers," the satisfied appear- 
ance of each of the guests, spoke vol- 
umes for the ample provision made, 
and the accomplishments of "mine host" 
the proprietor of the Globe Hotel. 

The launch took place at 4.30 in the 
afternoon, making the 38th vessel built 
by the company, and what is perhaps 
of more than passing interest, Captain 
Peter Campbell, of Collingwood, and a 
director of the shipyard, kept up his 
record of having been present at all 
of them. 

Nearly Finished. 

All the machinery has been installed 
in the vessel, and with the exception of 
the smokestack and a few minor fittings 
the boat was completed when launched. 
The finishing touches will now be rush- 



ed, and the ship will be ready for ser- 
vice between the Georgian Bay ports 
and the upper lakes early in June. Up- 
bound she will carry coal, obtaining this 
at Cleveland, and eastbound she will 
carry wheat or ore. She will sail under 
Captain W. H. Wright and Chief Engin- 
eer E. J. O'Dell. 

Amongst Those Present. 

A large party of officials of the com- 
pany and their guests came up from 
Toronto in a special car and included the 
following: W. D. Matthews, president 
St. Lawrence & Chicago Steam Navi- 
gation Co.; James Carruthers, after 
whom the vessel is named; J. H. G. 
Hagarty, vice-president St. L. & C. S. 
N. Co.; Messrs. T. P. Phelan, A. Pepler, 
Gordon Osier, Robert Kerr, C. W. Band, 
A. W. Grassett, D. T. Simons, A. E. 
Matthews, John Carruthers, W. H. Hol- 
land, Capt. W. J. Bassett, John Carrick, 
D. 0. Ellis, A. Hagarty of Toronto and 
Mr. Kittleman of New York; Thos. 
Britt, general fuel agent C.P.R. ; P. 
Paton, Sarnia; D. S. Pratt, Midland; 
James Playfair, vice-president and gen- 
eral manager R. & 0. Lines; A. A. 
Wright, director St. L. & C. S. N. Co., 
and Mrs. A. A. Wright, Peter Bain, 
M.E., Editor Marine Engineering of 
Canada, etc. 

General Particulars. 

The vessel is of the single deck type 
with topgallant forecastle, texas and 





. . 

LAUNCH OF LAKE FREIGHTER "JAMES CARRUTHERS," AT COLLINGWOOD, MAY 22. 

87 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



observation room on the forecastle deck 
with pilot honse and bridge above. 
There is a large deck-house aft for crew 
accommodation. 

The dimensions of the ship are as 
follows: — Length, over all, 550 feet 8 
inches; length on keel, 529 feet; beam 
moulded, 58 feet; depth moulded, 31 
feet. She will have a carrying- capa- 
city of over 10,000 gross tons on 19 feet 
draft, and has been designed to handle 
bulk cargoes of coal, ore and grain. 
The hull is built of steel on the arch 
and web frame system, leaving the holds 
unobstructed, by stanchions, a neces- 
sary feature where coal and ore cargoes 
are unloaded with clam shell buckets, 
which system is now universal on the 
Great Lakes. For the same reason, 
there are no deck-houses, spars or other 
obstructions on the weather deck for 
the length of cargo holds. 

There are 31 cargo hatches, 38 feet 
wide by 9 feet fore and aft, spaced 12 
feet centres, to facilitate loading and 
unloading operations, dispatch in port 
being a matter of the utmost importance 
where the season of navigation is so 
short. 

The arches and web frames are spaced 
12 ft. centres, forming transverse gird- 
ers, with channel bottom and side 
frames between, spaced 3 ft. centres. 
The vessel is constructed with complete 
double bottom 5 ft. deep and side tanks 
of same width to height of main deck 
stringer for water ballast, and forming 
a double skin over this portion of the 
ship to a point above the deep load line. 
The capacity of these tanks, including 
the peak tanks, engine room tanks, and 
deep tank forward is approximately 
6,600 tons. 

The tank top on which the weight of 
cargo is carried, is supported by centre 
keelson and side girders of full depth 
of double bottom, carried continuously 
fore and aft, the tank top being of very 
substantial construction to withstand the 
heavy service where clam shell unload- 
ers are used. There are two complete 
collision bulkheads, the space between 
these forming a deep tank. The cargo 
hold is divided by screen bulkheads into 
six compartments, and the double bot- 
tom by four watertight divisions into 
five compartments for water ballast. 
There is also fitted a cross bunker 
bulkhead between boiler and engine 
rooms and an after peak bulkhead. 
The spar deck stringer plating is sup- 
ported by longitudinal channel girders, 
a new feature in a vessel framed on the 
transverse system, and one well calculat- 
ed to give the stringers the support they 
require under the heavy stresses which 
lake vessels of this type, are subjected 
to. The scantlings of this vessel are, 
in many resepcts, in excess of those 
called for by the Great Lakes Register 



of Shipping in which Society the vessel 
is classed ' ' 100 with star and crescent, ' ' 
having been built under inspection of 
Mr. Hugh Calderwood, of Barrie, acting 
for the Society and the owners of the 
vessel. 

Handling Equipment. 

The auxiliaries for handling and man- 
oeuvring the ship are as follows. Steer- 
ing gear — a 9 ft. by 9 in. quadrant gear- 
ed steering engine, by the American 
Engineering Co., of Philadelphia, placed 
aft on main deck, direct connected by 
toothed quadrant to rudder stock and 
controlled from steering stands in the 
pilot house and on top of same by a 
hydraulic telemotor. In addition, there 
is an Aker's emergency steering gear, 
also a complete and independent steam 
gear, placed on the main deck, on. port 
side, direct connected to a toothed quad- 
rant on rudder stock and controlled 




JAMES CARRUTHERS. 



from a steering stand on top of the 
pilot house. 

Steam is always turned on this gear, 
and should an accident occur to the 
regular gear, the Aker's gear may be 
engaged in three seconds by means of a 
crank on the steering stand controlled 
by the officer on the bridge which trips 
the regular gear and throws it out of 
service for the time being. 

The windlass is of the Emerson- 
Walker quick-warping direct grip type, 
arranged to handle two Britannic stock- 
less Bower anchors with 2*4 inch cables. 
The anchors are arranged to stow in 
pockets entirely within the hull. The 
balance of the deck machinery consists 
of four 8 in. by 10 in. single drum 
mooring winches, fore and aft on spar 
deck; one 8 in. by 10 in. single drum 
winch in windlass room, and one 8 in. 
by 10 in. double winch on spar deck aft, 
88 



arranged to handle 3V2 in. circumference 
mooring cables. 

The second drum on the after winch 
is to take the kedge anchor warp, a 4V2 
in. circumference wire cable, and by 
means of which the stern anchor, weigh- 
ing 400 lbs. and placed on an inclined 
platform, may be instantly let go over 
the stern of the vessel, in case of acci- 
dent. Two" 5 in. by 5 in. single drum 
hatch winches are located amidships to 
handle the hatch covers. These are 
of steel and are opened and closed by 
a small steel cable led to these winches. 
All deck winches were supplied by the 
Chase Machine Co., of Cleveland. 

Officers' Quarters. 

The accommodation forward under 
the forecastle deck is conveniently ar- 
ranged. On the port side are to be 
found five large and well ventilated 
rooms for first and second officers 
wheelsman and watchman. The fur- 
nishings are of oak, and there are two 
clothes closets in each room. Adjoin- 
ing is the crew's hall, wash and bath- 
rooms with improved sanitary fitting-s. 
On the starboard side are arranged the 
owners' staterooms. 

Owing to the immense size of this ves- 
sel, these rooms are much more com- 
modious than is usually found aboard 
ship. There are three sleeping cham- 
bers and bath, all fitted with linen and 
clothes closets. The panelled walls are 
beautifully tinted and decorated with 
gold, the ceilings are also panelled and 
painted in flat shadings. Each room is 
furnished with a solid brass bed around 
which is tastefully draped rich dark 
green velour hangings, giving each bed 
the four poster effect. The window 
hangings are made to correspond further. 
Each room is furnished with a ladies' 
princess toilet dresser of quaint design, 
and with gilt chairs, etc. The cabin 
floors, together with others are flush 
steel suitably decorated and supplied 
with deep pile rugs and runners to 
harmonize with other surroundings. 

From the hall of these quarters there 
leads a solid oak stairway entering the 
deck above and into the lounging or 
observation room which is handsomely 
panelled in oak. There are ten large 
windows in this room, giving a splen- 
did view on either side of the ship. The 
furniture is English willow of a ricli 
Baronial brown tint and consists of 
chairs, rockers and couch with chintz 
cushions upholstered with best hair 
filling. A desk and dainty library 
table of same finish make a most de- 
lightful lounge. The floor is furnished 
with two beautiful seal brown Persian 
patterned rugs, and the window hang- 
ings are of rich poplin to match, caught 
back with silk cords. 

Just aft of this observation room is 
situated the captain's office with heavy 



MARINE ENGINEERING 01" CANADA 



oak roll top desk, rotary chains, etc., 
and a convenient lounge upholstered in 
leather. Connected with this room by 
an oak panelled hall is the bathroom 
and sleeping compartments of Hie cap- 
tain. This is also of panelled solid 
oak with tinted panejled ceiling. The 
furniture consists of a handsome chif- 
foniere couch, easy chairs, etc., uphol- 
stered in blue. The bed is of solid 
brass prettily draped with silk corded 
and blue velour curtains as are also the 
several windows. The floor is covered 
with deep pile carpet of blue to har- 
monize. 

The after quarters are conveniently 
arranged to take care of the officers of 
that end of the ship. The chief en- 
gineer has a particularly large state- 
room and bathroom. The walls are 
of solid oak panelled with tinted ceil- 
ings, while the oak desk, library chairs, 
couch, etc., together with the rich blue 
velour hangings of berth curtain and 
window curtains, go to make a most 
pleasant and comfortable room. The 
floor is covered with a fine rug to match 
other furnishings. Just aft of this is 
the hall and stah-way to the engine room, 
the assistant engineer's room and that 
of the chief steward. Across on the 
port side, are to be found the cabins of 
assistant steward, and steward's bath 
and crew's rooms, all rooms being well 
ventilated. Abaft these is the crew's 
mess, and the galley, furnished with 
the most modern equipment. 

Dining Rooms. 

Opening from the pantry are two 
large, well-lighted and ventilated din- 
ing-rooms with trunk skylights, that on 
the port side having seating capacity 
for eleven officers. The table chairs, 
and handsome sideboard together with 
the panelled walls are of solid oak 
finished in a rich golden color. The 
floor is of inlaid linoleum. Alongside 
this dining-room, on the starboard side, 
is the dining saloon of the owners. This 
is furnished quite similar to that of the 
officers. The entire upholstery and 
furnishings, linens, cutlery, galley equip- 
ment, etc., of the ship was supplied by 
Mr. H. Trott. 

Except where cement floors are used, 
as above mentioned, and for sanitary 
reasons, the steel decks have not been 
sheathed with wood, in the usual man- 
ner, but are covered with heavy remov- 
able rugs. Screens are provided for 
all doors and windows. The rooms are 
equipped with steam heating of ample 
capacity, hot and cold running water; 
the plumbing being of the highest qual- 
ity. A telephone is installed in the 
captain's office for communication with 
the galley, for the convenience of guests 
and another located in the pilot house 
has connection with the engine room. 



Navigating Equipment. 

The navigating outfit is very complete 
and thoroughly up-to-date in every par- 
ticular. It comprises repeating tele- 
graph to engine room, with stands in- 
side pilot house and on top, mates' tele- 
graph for docking purposes with stands 
in the pilot house and aft on the spar 
deck, all with large dials; additional 
emergency signals; engine whistle pull 
inside and on top of pilot house and on 
each bridge; 2 sets of main signal 
whistle pulls, one for emergency use, 
with levers inside and on top of pilot 
house; a fog bell, a steering compass in 
pilot house and standard compasses in 
pinnacle on top of house, of Dobbie 
Mclnnes make, and a helm tell-tale, with 
indicator on top of pilot house and 
direct connected to rudder stock, show- 
ing true helm angle at all times, in case 
of derangement of the telemotor ap- 
paratus. There is also installed on top 
of the pilot house, a McNab engine in- 
dicator. This instrument is a splendid 
safeguard against the very costly acci- 
dents which occur frequently through a 
mistake in signals between bridge and 
engine room. 

A Morrison trim gauge forms part of 
the equipment, as also a draft gauge, by 
which the mates can read the exact 
draft of the ship, in rough water, or at 
night, from an indicator and scale 
located on forecastle bulkhead forward 
and on deck-house, aft. A Thomson 
sounding machine is installed on the 
spar deck abaft forecastle bulkhead, 
with a crane on the bulkhead to handle 
the sounding device when overboard. 

Deck Equipment. 

The deck outfit is about as usual in 
large lake ships, there being two 20 ft. 
metallic lifeboats and an 18 ft. gaso- 
line launch having a speed of about 8 
miles per hour for vise in harbor, all by 
Wm. Watts & Sons and equipped with 
Huff's releasing hooks, placed aft 
on cabin deck, under sliding davits. 
The fire and life-saving equipment, etc., 
all conform to Dominion Government in- 
spection service. 

There are two steel pole masts, one 
forward and one aft, to carry the run- 
ning lights, while awnings are fitted over 
forecastle deck and pilot house. 

There is installed a complete electri- 
cal installation, consisting of two 10 k. 
w. generators with a capacity of about 
200 lights, being ample for accommoda- 
tions, hold and deck lights and running 
lights. These are arranged on separ- 
ate circuits, and an electric tell tale in 
pilot house gives indication of .any de- 
rangement of the running lights. 

Propelling Machinery. 

The propelling machinery consists of 
one set of triple expansion engines with 
89 



cylinders 24, 40 and 66 in. dia. by 42 in. 
stroke, supplied with steam by three 
Scotch marine boilers 15 ft. in dia- 
meter and 11 ft. long, at 185 lbs. steam 
pressure. Howden's system of forced 
draft is installed. The indicated horse- 
power is 2,400 which gives the vessel 
a speed of 11 miles per hour loaded and 
13 miles light. 

The engines are located directly on 
the tank top, as far aft as possible, with 
the boilers forward of this located ath- 
wart-ships, three abreast, on heavy sad- 
dles. A cross coal bunker forward of 
the fire hold, has a capacity for about 
300 tons. 

The engines are handled from a work- 
ing platform, below main deck level, of 
convenient height to suit the levers, with 
dynamo room abaft this. Great care 
has been taken in laying out the engine 
room to insure ample working space, 
while at the same time studying the 
comfort of the engineering crew. 

The pumping equipment comprises one 
centrifugal and two duplex pumps locat- 
ed in the engine room to take care of 
water ballast ; a sanitary pump and deck 
pump; one duplex main feed; one duplex 
auxiliary feed and fire pump on the 
upper engine room floor ; air bilge and 
circulating pumps direct connected to 
engine; also hand bilge and fire pumps, 
forward and aft. 

Refrigeration Equipment. 

A refrigerating machine, by Kroes- 
ehell Bros., Chicago, having capacity of 
one ton in 24 hours is located in the 
upper engine room, and piped to re- 
frigerator in the deck house above, this 
being fitted with cooling coils and also 
an ice door, opening on spar deck, for 
use should a supply of natural ice be at 
any time required. 

Miscellaneous. 

The hull of the vessel is painted black 
outside and grey inside, the interior of 
the double bottom and side tanks being- 
coated with Briggs anti-fouling composi- 
tion. The deck-houses are white, the 
spars yellow and the funnel black with 
red diamond, bearing the owners' 
mark. 

@ 

MOTOR ENGINES FOR NEWFOUND- 
LAND FISHING BOATS. 

T"v URING recent years, an increas- 
ing number of the people of New- 
foundland have been installing motor 
engines which burn kerosene or gaso- 
line in their fishing boats. They have 
been encouraged in doing so by the pro- 
vision of the customs tariff which ex- 
empts from duty such engines as are 
to be used in fisheries, and by the liberal 
terms of purchase offered by some of the 
agents. 

In the herring fisheries it has been 
noticed that in the last few years the 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



fish have shifted about much more than 
previously. This has been attributed 
by some to the presence of power boats, 
the claim being made that the herring 
are very sensitive to noises and are 
easily frightened by the vibratory noise 
of such boats. However true this con- 
jecture may be (I do not think it has 
been proved correct), it has become 
almost impossible for the fishermen to 
follow the fish without auxiliary power. 
Besides migrating farther and oftener, 
the herring are found in smaller schools 
than formerly. This makes the plac- 
ing of a number of fleets of nets in one 
place unprofitable, and increases the 
labor of the fishermen by requiring 
them to watch a number of scattered 
nets or fleets of nets. In the cod 
fishery of the west shore, which is the 
only other fishery in this neighborhood, 
power boats have proved useful. 

Reliability a Requirement. 

The demands upon an engine for such 
purposes are heavy. The herring sea- 
son immediately precedes the winter, 
that is, it prevails in October, Novem- 
ber, December, and if ice is slow in 
forming, tin January. The weather 
during these months is probably the 
worst of the year. The bays are large 
enough to permit very rough seas, strong 
tides prevail, shelters are none too good 
and are distant from each other, and 
a fisherman's life is frequently depen- 
dent on the staunchness of his craft and 
the reliability of its motive power. For 
these reasons only heavy-duty engines 
are in demand and a motor engine in- 
capable of standing the severest tests 
has a very short day of popularity. 

Boat Models. 

The problem of designing the larger 
boats has been overcome by the pur- 
chase and use of patterns from t he 
United States. Such patterns have 
given excellent satisfaction, and are now 
used by many fishermen not only for the 
large but also for their smaller boats. 
Firms of St. Johns, Newfoundland, and 
Canadian firms are taking much inter- 
est in designing boats, particularly 
power boats, and in some cases, it is 
said, are now endeavoring to build up 
businesses in stock patterns such as 
have become popular. Ready-made 
frames are sometimes bought with the 
patterns. The increasing scarcity of 
lumber already mentioned has made 
orders for ready-sawn frames and for 
timbers and planking from the United 
States or Canada more frequent every 
year. It will be seen, therefore, that 
during recent years when the returns 
from herring fishing have decreased, 
the fishermen have had to buy or build 
larger boats and pay more for smaller 
ones. 



An Appreciation of Newfoundland 
Fishermen. 

P. T. McGrath, in writing of New- 
foundland, says : — ' ' These fishermen 
know their own boats as well as a 
jockey knows his horse. They build 
their fishing boats, rig and sail them 
and are execllent navigators. Child- 
ren learn to sail boats at six or seven 
years of age. All skiffs are tested for 
their work before they are put into 
actual daily service, and if there is 
reason to fear that they might fail in 
an extremity, they are run ashore and 
left to rot, because there are times in 
the life of every fisherman when only 
the proved stability of his craft will 
save him from destruction." 

Canadian-made dories have been 
bought by some of the fishermen because 
they are cheaper than those made in 
the United States. A Canadian single 
dory 10 feet long, costs about $10; a 
double dory, 14 feet long, about $16, as 
compared with $15 and $25 respectively 
for the same sizes of American dories. 
However, regardless of size, Canadian 
boats and ships do not give as good 
service, partly because 'the Canadian 
factories have not an equal quality of 
stock available. Only a comparative 
few of the Newfoundland fishermen can 
afford to buy ready-made boats, not to 
mention foreign built ones. 

The Tariff Favors Fishermen. 

Various tariff concessions are made 
for the benefit of the fishermen. Under 
a provision in the Newfoundland cus- 
toms tariff, exempting from duty ships 
and other vessels to be continuously em- 
ployed in the trade or fisheries of the 
colony, several New England schooners, 
built in the nineties, have been pur- 
chased and entered in the last few years 
for use in the west coast fisheries. A 
few new Canadian-built schooners have 
also been obtained for the same pur- 
pose, but, as I have indicated. old 
American vessels of this sort are favor- 
ably known and are cheaper and gen- 
erally preferred. — U. S. Consular Re- 
ports. 

■ — m— 

NEW HYDROGRAPHIC STEAMER 
"ACADIA." 

Hp HE Hydrographic Service steamer 
"Acadia," built to the order of 
the Canadian Government, was launched 
from the Neptune Works of Swan, Hun- 
ter & Wigham Richardson, Limited, on 
May 8. The vessel is 170 feet in length 
by 33V2 feet beam, and has been built 
to attain the highest class in Lloyd 's 
Register. She will be propelled by a set 
of triple expansion engines, supplied 
with steam by two boilers working un- 
der Howden 's forced draught. The ves- 
sel will be schooner rigged, and will 
90 



make 12 knots per hour. She is built of 
steel, is strengthened to enable her to 
run through ice, and will be completely 
outfitted for her intended service, in- 
clusive of two motor launches, Lucas 
sounding machine, marine sentry, sound- 
ing winch, electric light, projector, etc. 
Besides the usual accommodation for 
the deck and engine-room officers, there 
will be well furnished rooms for the 
various officials engaged in survey work. 

She has been constructed to the de- 
signs and under the superintendence of 
Mr. R. L. Newman, Canada, whose re- 
presentative in England is Mr. F. L. 
Warren, of London. Both Mr. Newman 
and Mr. Warren were present at the 
launch. 

As the vessel left the ways, she was 
named "Acadia," the christening cere- 
mony being gracefully performed by 
Miss Hilda Thompson, daughter of Mr. 
R. Thompson, consulting engineer, of 
London. 



FREIGHT THROUGH CANADIAN 
CANALS. 

THE total quantity of freight which 
passed through the several Can- 
adian Canals during the season of 1912 
was as follows: — 

Forest 
Farm Produce 
Stock of Wood 
Tons Tons 

Sault St. Marie 372 54,114 

Wetland 678 227.684 

St. Lawrence 9.375 578,7bO 

Chamblv 338 425.313 

St Peter's 2,996 11,161 

Murray 37 706 

Ottawa 2.880 226,600 

Rideau 3,151 28,642 

Trent 361 67.489 

St. Andrew's 14,153 

Agri- 
Mann- Products cultural Total 
factures of Mines Products 
Tons Tons Tons Tuns 

975,303 34.109.074 4.530,792 39,669,655 
625,569 797.072 1.205.912 2,851.915 

464,091 1.305,395 1,119.567 3.477.1S8 
11,600 161,458 19,706 618.415 

7.583 37,642 15,427 74.S09 

101.511 07.379 ■ 44S 170.0S1 

20.958 J 36.634 5,278 392,350 

18.814 105.531 3.995 160.133 

::. ).-.!• 3.327 2,514 77,150 

60 81,299 37 95,549 

The total quantity of freight moved 
on the Welland Canal was^ 2,851,915 
tons, of which 1,205.912 tons were agri- 
cultural products. 

On the St. Lawrence canals, the total 
quantity of freight moved was 3,477.188 
tens, of which 1,119.567 were agricul- 
tural products, and 464,091 tons were 
manufactures. 

On the Ottawa canals, the total quan- 
tity of freight moved was 392,350 tons; 
of this quantity 226.600 tons were the 
produce of the forest. 

© 



Kingston, Ont. — The tug Florence, of 
the Quebec Transportation Co.. which 
ran ashore on Farran's Point, has been 
floated by the Donnelly Wrecking Co. 
of Kingston. 




PACIFIC 





Coast 



HYDRAULIC CAPSTAN FOR FISH- 
ING CRAFT. 

T N view of the increasing employment 
of motor-driven hydraulic capstans, 
special interest attaches to a new model 
designed and built by the Torbinia En- 
gineering Co for the British Columbian 
fishing industry, for which they have a 
number of engine sets and capstans on 
order. In the design of the new cap- 
stan, the main principle of hydraulic 
transmission of power, as adopted with 
the firm's ordinary capstan, is the same, 
but the rotating winding barrel is re- 
placed by two exterior pulleys. It is 
hardly necessary to mention that both 
types are driven off the main propelling 




FIG. 1. TORBINIA HYDRAULIC CAPSTAN. 

engine or by an auxiliary motor on deck, 
and so are adaptable for sailing, steam 
or motor craft. Briefly the operation 
action is as follows: 

Operation Features. 

The capstan is mounted on a heavy 
bed plate bolted to the deck, through 
which is carried the driving shaft and 
enclosed bevels from the engine. The 
driving shaft runs in ball bearings, and, 
when necessary, is fitted with universal 
joint couplings to compensate any slight 
alignment error when installing. The 
driving shaft rotates an enclosed drum 
fitted with a number of interior vanes, 
and contains a mixture of oil and 
water. Running within this drum is a 



cage fitted with exterior feathering 
blades or vanes, which are controlled to 
any angle by a hand wheel. A shaft 
and worm gearing connects these blades 
to the winding pulleys. As the drum 
rotates, the liquid is carried round, and 
the centrifugal force throws it against 
the wall and pockets of the drum, and, 
impinging against the central blades, it 
hydraulically transmits the power. 

At first it may be thought that the 
vanes are most efficient when set at 
right angles to the power. Curiously 
enough, however, the greatest efficiency 
is obtained when the central blades are 
feathered to a certain angle between 
right angles and edge-on to the liquid, 
due to the side thrust; yet when the 
blades are feathered until they are dead 
edgewise, no power is transmitted, and 
the liquid merely slips past. The ad- 
vantage of this hydraulic arrangement 
is that any power or speed from zero to 
full engine power can be transmitted 
without jerking or strain on the engine. 

Turning to Fig. 2, the construction 
can more easily be followed. (A) is 
the shaft from the engine, and this op- 
erates by means of the reduction bevel 
pinions (B), (C), and the shaft (Q), 
the latter being coupled to the rotating 
drum (D), its flange running on the ball 
bearings (P). As the drum (D) re- 
volves, the liquid impinging in the poc- 
kets formed by the vane (R) transmits 
the force to the blades (F). The bosses 
of the latter are fitted with eccentric- 
ally-mounted pins at (G), which slide in 
slots in the flange (H). By turning 
the hand wheel (K), an inner shaft (J) 
lifts the flange (H), and thus feathers 
the blades. This inner shaft is bushed, 
and can revolve independently of the 
cage (T), which carries the blades. 

Any axial thrust set up is taken by 
the ball-bearing (V), which is inter- 
posed between the hand wheel and the 
squared section of the shaft. A thread- 
ed extension (L), which works in a boss 
formed in the cover, is fitted to the 
hand wheel, and as the cover (U) re- 
mains stationary, a turn of the hand 
wheel will cause the inner shaft (J) to 
move up and down, as before mentioned, 
thus deflecting the blades. Normally, 
this shaft rotates with the blade cage, 
91 



and has the vertical motion when the 
hand wheel is manipulated. 

When the cage (T) is turned by the 
force of the liquid action on the blades, 
it turns the outer shaft (S), which it 
will be seen runs between a pair of ball 
bearings, and has a worm gear (M) on 
its upper end. The latter meshes with 
a gear wheel (N) between, and is keyed 
on the same shaft as the two winding 
drums (0). 

The same transmission has been 
adapted for the Torbinia winch. On 
the one bed-plate are arranged the driv- 
ing motor and the winch, with the 
hydraulic gear interposed, the engine 
being arranged either vertically or 
horizontally. After passing through the 




PIG. 



TORBINIA HYDRAULIC CAPSTAN. 



hydraulic transmission, the drive to the 
winding drum consists of duplicate 
worm and gearwheel operation, actuated 
by eccentric motions, while control is 
by frictionally locking or releasing the 
worm drives, in addition to feathering 
the blades in the drum. 



Lightship Contract. — The Dominion 
Government has contracted with Bow, 
McLachlan & Co., Paisley, Scotland, for 
a screw steamer to .be used as a light- 
ship at Halifax. The price is said to be 
$127,384. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



BUOYS FOR THE PANAMA CANAL 
CHANNEL. 

HE sides of the Panama Canal chan- 
nel will be marked by gas buoys each 
consisting of a cylindrical floating steel 
body surmounted by a steel frame which 
supports a light and lens at a height of 
15 feet above water level. The body is 
eight feet in diameter, made of 5-16 inch 
steel plate with dished heads, to the 
bottom of which is attached a steel tube 
and counterweight. The draught of the 
buoy will be twelve feet, and it will be 
moored on its station by a heavy chain 
and a concrete sinker. 

The corroding action of the salt water 
and sea air in the tropics is such that 
extra precautions must be taken to pro- 
tect the buoys, and, therefore, the en- 
tire inside of the buoy is given first a 
coat of bitumastic solution, applied cold, 
and second, one coat of enamel applied 
hot. The exteriors of the buoys which 
will be moored in salt water will be 
given one coat of boiled linseed oil ap- 
plied hot and two successive coats of 
the best quality of red lead, after which 
they will be treated with an antifoul- 
ing compound. 

The entire bed of what will be Gatun 
Lake, when the water is allowed to rise 
to an elevation of 87 feet, is covered 
with a dense tropical growth which in 
the state of decomposition causes the 
water to scour all ordinary paints from 
any kind of metal. To overcome this 
chemical action, the exterior of the 
buoys will first be painted with red lead 
and linseed oil, after which they will 
be painted with anti-corrosive paint. 

The lens and lantern at the top of the 
steel superstructure contains the source 
of light which in all buoys is a small 
acetylene flame of about 40 candle power 
The rays of light of this flame when pro- 
jected through the lens produce a light 
of about 450 candle power. The acety- 
lene gas for each buoy is stored under 
about 150 lbs. pressure in four tanks 
technically known as accumulators; each 
accumulator being inserted in a pocket 
in the body of the buoy, from which it 
may be withdrawn when empty and re- 
placed by a fully charged accumulator 
without taking the buoy out of the water 
The gas of the four accumulators is led 
through piping to a manifold, thence up 
one leg of the steel superstructure to a 
governor in the base of the lantern. This 
governor reduces the high pressure to 
the uniformly low pressure required at 
the burner. 

Each accumulator is a steel cylinder 
nine inches diameter and 69 inches long, 
tested to 75 atmospheres and completely 
filled with a porous mass possessing a 
porosity of 80 per cent. Half of the 
porous space is occupied by acetone 
which is a peculiarly excellent solvent for 
acetylene. Acetylene dissolves as free- 



ly in it as sugar does in water, and the 
solubility increases with the pressure 
applied. Acetone dissolves 25 times 
its own bulk of the gas at ordinary tem- 
perature and for each addition- 
al atmosphere of pressure to which it is 
subjected a similar quantity will be dis- 




BUOYS FOR THE PANAMA CANAL. FOCAL 
PLANE 15 FEET ABOVE WATER LEVEL. 
EIGHT OF THESE BUOYS WILL BE 
PLACED IN THE ATLANTIC ENTRANCE. 
6 IN THE PACIFIC ENTRANCE, AND 43 
IN EASTERN LAKE. 

solved. Compressing acetylene to more 
than two atmospheres at a temperature 
of 71 degrees F. makes it liable to ex- 
plosion, but when the gas is forced into 
acetone, a mixture is secured which is 
free from danger of explosion, and there- 
fore available for safe transportation 
and handling. 

92 



All the gas buoys will have flashing 
occulting lights, similar to those of the 
beacons for the Culebra Cut, and to ob- 
tain the flashes and occultations, the gas 
issuing from the governor at the base of 
the lantern passes into a small device 
known as the flasher through a valve 
which remains open during the whole 
dark interval. When a certain pre- 
determined quantity of gas has passed 
into the flasher, so that a flexible leather 
diaphragm is at the top of its stroke, the 
inlet valve instantaneously closes, and 
simultaneously the outlet valve of the 
main burner opens, allowing the accum- 
ulated gas to pass to the main burner 
where it is ignited by a constantly burn- 
ing pilot flame. The gas outlet remains 
open until the total gas quantity has 
been consumed in the main burner, 
whereupon the outlet closes and the inlet 
opens, remaining open until a similar 
quantity of gas accumulates in the 
flasher, when the cycle of operations is 
again repeated. Thus the light and 
dark intervals alternate automatically, 
and produce a flashing or occulting 
light. 

The gas supply in each of the buoys 
will last from three to seven months de- 
pending upon the characteristic of the 
light, and will burn continuously day 
and night during that time. The acety- 
lene gas will be made at the oxy-aeety- 
lene gas house at the Balboa Shops 
where it will be compressed and forced 
into the portable accumulators. 

@ 

THE OLYMPIC-HAWKE DECISION. 

'TP HE long-delayed judgment of the 
Court of Appeal in the case aris- 
ing out of the collision between the 
Hawke and the Olympic was delivered 
on April 5— about a year and a half af- 
ter the casualty occurred. There had 
been a great conflict of evidence as to 
the exact place of the collision, but, 
roughly, it was agreed that it took place 
to the eastward of Egypt Point (where 
the Hawke had altered her course) and 
of the Bramble Buoy (to round which 
the Olympic had slowed), and to the 
west ward of the Ryde Middle. When 
it came to fixing the spot with exacti- 
tude it was found that the Olympic 
made the spot 220 yards to the N.N.E. 
of that given by the Hawke. Moreover, 
Capt. Smith, the late commander of the 
Olympic, thought the collision took 
place 260 yards to the NW. of the place 
fixed by his ship's case ;the pilot made 
it 420 yards to the N.W. instead of the 
260 yards; and Col. Saxton White, a 
passenger, put it as 650 yards to t ho 
S.E. of the official spot. The three offi- 
cers of the Hawke, on the other hand, 
agreed as to the place where the ship 
came to rest, and said it had been fixed 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



by the taking of two cross bearings, and 
had been logged. 

The Admiralty Court judge accepted 
tbe Hawke's position as the true one. 
He was also of opinion that the Olym- 
pic's speed at the material times was 
higher than her witnesses admitted, and 
it was obvious from the conditions that 
it was an increasing speed, the vessel 
gathering way after slowing to round 
the buoys. The Hawke's speed, in the 
then condition of her bottom and with 
the horse-power developed, was ad- 
judged to be about 15 knots at the ma- 
terial times. The speed of the two ves- 
sels was a vital point in this case, be- 
cause so much turned upon the question 
as to whether the case was one of an 
overtaking ship. Then came the ques- 
tion of the courses of the two ships. The 
Hawke's course, after rounding Egypt 
Point, was given as S. 74 deg. E., the 
ship being put a little more to the south- 
ward because of the presence of the 
Olympic. That course was taken by the 
navigator in view of the appearance of 
the line of the West Conical, Chequer 
and East Conical buoys ahead of his 
vessel, he setting the course named to 
keep as close to them as he could in 
passing, adding that he, in fact, passed 
within 20 to 30 yards of each of them. 
This evidence was accepted by the pres- 
ident. 

After rounding the Bramble Buoy, the 
Olympic's course was steadied on a 
course S. 59 E., the two vessels thus 
converging at an angle of 15 deg., but it 
was held that the line taken by the 
Olympic was much farther to the south 
than appeared from her case. It was 
alleged on behalf of the Olympic that, 
from the time she steadied on her course, 
the Hawke was the overtaking ship, but 
the examination of the evidence made 
by the president showed that to bear 
out the contentions submitted, the speed 
of the Hawke would either have had to 
have been beyond her possible maxi- 
mum, or that of the Olympic must have 
been far below anything that was sug- 
gested. So it was held that, if anything, 
the Olympic was the overtaking ship — at 
all events, that the Hawke was not. 
Then came the decision that the collision 
was not due to any starboarding on the 
part of the Hawke, though she might 
have been carried towards the Olympic 
by a swerve which was beyond her con- 
trol, but apart from the possible 
swerve she kept her course and speed. 
Finally, the Court was of opinion that 
the Olympic came too close to the 
Hawke, whilst her obligation was to 
avoid her, a thing which she had plenty 
of room to do. On this ground the 
Hawke was absolved, and the Olympic 
found alone to blame, though, being un- 
der compulsory pilotage, judgment was 
entered for her in the suit brought 



against her by the Hawke. Of course, 
in the circumstances, her action against 
that ship's commander failed. This was 
in December, 1911. 

In February, 1912, dredging opera- 
tions were undertaken in the Solent, and 
parts of the bow of the Hawke found 
in a position much nearer the position 
fixed by the Olympic's evidence than 
that given by the Hawke's and accepted 
by the Admiralty Court. Circumstances 
which we need not mention here post- 
poned the hearing of the appeal for a 
year, but meanwhile an interesting dis- 
cussion arose in the courts as to the ad- 
missibility of the new evidence; and it 
was only when determining the main 
questions that the Lords Justice decided 
that it should be admitted. Having re- 
gard to it, they were of opinion that it 
fell pretty much at the spot of the col- 
lision, which must, therefore, have oc- 
curred somewhat to the northward of 
the position indicated by the Hawke 
and accepted by the Court below. Even 
when that was conceded, however, it 
was impossible to consider her an over- 
taking vessel, the speeds being such that 
it would be impossible for the Hawke 
to have reached the place of collision in 
the time, if she had not been the leading 
vessel at the moment when the Olympic 
steadied on the S. 59 E. course. Thus, 
if either of the ships was an overt'aking 
ship it must have been the Olympic, 
which, on this ground, had the duty of 
keeping clear laid upon her. 

Lord Justice Kennedy expressed his 
decided opinion that the officers of the 
Hawke were mistaken in their statement 
that their ship had passed within 20 or 
30 yards of the three buoys. She must 
have been more to the northward, or 
else she must have been more than 300 
yards away from the Olympic when the 
swerve commenced. On this latter 
hypothesis, t he suction theory was im- 
possible. The Court of Appeal further 
held that the Olympic had failed to 
prove that there would have been no 
collision if the helm of the Hawke had 
never jammed. They believed that a 
very slight starboarding on the part of 
the Olympic at any time down almost to 
the last moment would have averted the 
collision, and she had room to execute 
such a manoeuvre, which they held she 
should have done under the rules, as she 
was, in spite of the ingenious argument 
put forward on her behalf to the effect 
that they were not crossing ships, with- 
in the meaning of Article 19. 

Because their courses would involve 
risk of collision, Lord Justice Vaughan 
Williams held that a convergence to the 
extent of 15 deg., leading to eventual 
intersection being proved, he could not 
see any reason why the Court should 
find that the article did not operate un- 
der the circumstances. Nothing that the 
93 



Hawke did or omitted to do was held to 
have in any way contributed to the 
casualty. The Court of Appeal even 
said that an alteration by the Hawke 
in her course or speed might have mis- 
led those in charge of the Olympic, and 
there was no obligation on her to give 
way. On this point there was an argu- 
ment by Mr. Laing, who sought to im- 
plicate the Hawke for not giving way 
by extending the principle of the Pekin 
case — which arose out of a collision in a 
winding river — so as to extend the duty 
to the case of such a ship as the Hawke, 
which was, on the occasion before the 
court, navigating a curved channel lim- 
ited by buoys. 

Lord Justice Vaughan Williams, how- 
ever, held that that decision could not 
be prayed in aid of the Olympic on this 
occasion. The fact of the matter seems 
to be that, as Sir Samuel Evans re- 
marked, the case between the Olympic 
and the Hawke is largely a dispute as to 
the facts. The courses of the two ships 
and the times of their passing certain 
points have been found as facts by the 
court of first instance ; the speeds of the 
two vessels are also approximately fixed, 
by their capabilities on the one hand 
and the admitted facts on the other, and, 
that being so, the case of the Olympic 
fell to the ground. For the same reason 
the Hawke was not considered an over- 
taking ship, so she was fixed with no 
duty to avoid the other ship on that 
head. It has been found as a fact that 
she did not starboard into the Olympic, 
and the converging courses and the posi- 
tion of the Olympic before the collision 
lay upon that vessel the obligations of 
the crossing rule. — Syren and Shipping. 

— m — 

STEEL SHIPBUILDING IN NOVA 
SCOTIA. 

qp HE special agent of the British 
manufacturers has recommended 
the building of a steel ship plant and 
traction engine works at Sydney, Nova 
Scotia. The shipbuilding scheme in- 
volves an expenditure of about $5,000,- 
000, and provides a plant capable of 
building steel ships of any size up to 
7.000 tons for the freight and coasting 
service. The smaller craft will include 
tugs, tenders, and other ships of such 
size and class. The product of the trac- 
tion engine works will include all 
classes and types. 

In connection with the shipbuilding 
plant and the traction works, it is point- 
ed out that Sydney is exceptional in its 
advantages for this class of industry. 
Rail and water connection, steel pro- 
ducing mills, and the close proximity of 
coal, make it a very desirable location 
for any iron or steel manufacturing 
concern. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



The MacLean Publishing Company 

LIMITED 



(ESTABLISHED 1888.) 

JOHN BAYNE MACLEAN 
H. T. HUNTER - 

PUBLISHERS 



President 
General Manager 



Marine Engi neering 



of Canada 



A monthly journal dealing with the progress and develop- 
ment of Merchant and Naval Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, 
the building of Harbors and Docks, and containing a record of 
the latest and best practice throughout the Sea-going World. 



H. V. TYRRELL, Toronto 
PETER BAIN, M.E., Toronto 



Business Manager 
Editor 



CANADA 

Montreal — Rooms 701-702 
Eastern Townships Bank 
Bldg. 

Toronto — 143-149 University 
Ave. Phone Main 7324 

Winnipeg — 34 Royal Bank 
Bldg. Phone Garry 2313 



OFFICES: 

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Cable Address : 
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SUBSCRIPTION RATE. 
Canada, $1.00: United States, $1.50; Great Britain, Australia and 
other colonies, 4s 6d., per year; other countries, $1.50. Advertis- 
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Subscribers, who are not receiving their paper regularly, will 
confer a favor by telling us. We should be notified at once of 
any change in address, giving both old ind new. 



Vol. Ill 



MAY, 1913 



No. 5 



PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. 

Launch and Description of Cunard Steamship "Andania".. 83-84 

Ships and Shipping 84-85 

Electric Propulsion of Ships 85-86 

Reid-Nevvfoundland Co. R.M.S. "Kyle" 86 

Launch and Description of the Freighter "James Carruthers" 87-89 

Motor Engines for Newfoundland Fishing Boats 89-90 

New Hydrographic Steamer "Acadia" 90 

Freight Through Canadian Canals 90 

Hydraulic Capstan for Fishing Craft 91 

Buoys for the Panama Canal Channel 92 

The "Olympic-Hawke" Decision 92-93 

Steel Shipbuilding in Nova Scotia 93 

Editorial 94 

Marine News from Every Source 95-96 

To Encourage Shipbuilding in Canada 97 

Shipping Agreement 97 

Livingstone Channel Navigation 97 

Toronto Harbor Improvement Tenders 97 

Two Ceil* Grain Rate 97 

Echo of "Royal George" Stranding 97 

Changes in Aids to Navigation 98 

Bethlehem Purchase of Fore River Shipyard 98 

The Cunard' Liner "Aquitania" '. 98 

Montreal's Floating Drydock 99 

Steam Car Ferry for N.T.R 99 

Atlantic Ice Patrol 99 

Motor Ship "Fordonian" 99 

Association and Personal 100 

The Provision of Lifeboats 102 

Canada Ninth in World Shipping 102 

Montreal Harbor Authority 102 

Council No. 4, Kingston, N.A.M.E ... .\ \ .......... .. 102 



CANADA'S MERCHANT AND NAVAL MARINE. 

T T is abundantly evident from a perusal of the edi- 
torial pages of this issue of Marine Engineering of 
Canada, that Canada's merchant and naval marine, if we 
may use the latter term, is growing and developing in 
size and number of vessels at a rate undreamt of a few 
years ago, and we can take a pardonable pride in the 
achievement of our premier shipyard at Collingwood, 
Ont., as exemplified in the successful launch of the big 
lake freighter, "James Carruthers," even although the 
vessel 's size and appointments do not approach to the 



masterpieces of naval architecture and marine engineer- 
ing produced in Great Britain and Germany. 

A growing disposition is becoming apparent, particu- 
larly with reference to vessels required for Government 
purposes, to have these either built by already estab- 
lished shipyards within our borders, or make it necessary 
for British builders who contract for them, to establish 
plants for the purpose at a number of our leading ports. 
There has been much loose talk regarding the coming of 
leading British shipbuilders to our shores, but, so far, 
little has materialized in this direction, and it does not 
seem likely that much progress will be noted until steps 
are taken to insist on our ships being built on Canadian 
soil, and by resident Canadian artisans. 

The shipbuilding and marine engineering industry 
needs fostering by our Federal Government, and a little 
more intimacy with what is now being accomplished by 
the existing concerns, on the part of the responsible 
Departments at Ottawa, is all that is necessary to secure 
increased support to what should be one of our important 
national industries. 



SHIPBUILDING AT MONTREAL. 

*Tp HE Canadian Vickers Company have decided to go 
ahead with their Montreal plant at once. Located in 
Maisonueuve, their work will make the place alive with 
activity. They will begin almost immediately with the 
construction of their administrative offices and the estab- 
lishment of a shipbuilding and repairing plant, according 
to a statement made by one of their officials recently. One 
big building has already been completed and equipped 
with machinery, and it is understood that several hun- 
dred thousand dollars will be spent on work to be under- 
taken. The company has made application to the Montreal 
City authorities, regarding the line of road on Notre 
Dame St. East, upon which their new offices will face. 

The main works have been planned so that they will 
in no way interfere with the extension of the city streets 
down to the water front, and the general scheme involves 
machine shops, boiler and engine shops, storehouses, ship 
ways and a score or more of big structures necessary to 
the carrj r ing out of their various enterprises. All the 
ground in the neighborhood of the floating dry dock has 
been cleared and leveled, and a member of the Vickers' 
organization states that they are only waiting now for 
the plans to reach them from England in order to proceed 
with construction. 

The shipbuilding slip will be started this summer, and 
while it is explained that the actual ship building plant 
will not be completed this year, every facility will be 
afforded and provision made for the repairing of vessels 
during the present season of navigation. The Harbor 
Commission are obliged to co-operate with the dry dock 
people by providing permanent improvement of their rail 
connection with the works, in addition to dredging the 
basin in which vessels will in future be launched. 

'From the foregoing it will be noted that despite the 
political feature, which is, of course, more or less relative 
to warship building, there is every evidence that the 
development of the shipbuilding and marine engineering 
industry towards the front rank of the manufacturing 
enterprises of Canada bids fair to make rapid progress. 
As has been pointed out in these columns on previous 
occasions, there is both need and opportunity for the 
higher and larger achievement that the shipbuilding- 
industry will bring; we, therefore, express the hope that 
the near future will witness a like display of confidence 
in our country by others, as that exemplified by Vickers, 
Ltd. 
94 




MarineNew& 




E/EK/SOURCE 




Montreal, Que. — The Canadian Paci- 
fic Railway Co. will build two new At- 
lantic liners of about the size of the 
Alsatian of the Allan Line. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The steamer Midland 
Prince arrived on May 23 with the first 
cargo of iron ore for the Hamilton Iron 
and Steel Co. of Point Edward. 

Collingwood, Ont. — This town will be 
included in the route of the steamer 
"North American" during July and 
August, which is the excursion season. 

Brantford, Ont. — It is announced 
that in the supplementary Federal esti- 
mates there will be a preliminary grant 
of $75,000 towards the improvement of 
Port Dover Harbor. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The steamer Ionic, of 
the Northern Navigation Line, will be 
taken to Midland by the tug Premier, 
and later to Collingwood, where new 
boilers will be installed. 

Fort William, Ont.— The City Council 
will make improvements to the subway 
leading to the city dock, and will erect 
a shelter, ticket office and baggage room 
for the accommodation of passengers. 

Parry Sound, Ont. — A new tug has 
been built for the Conger Lumber Co. at 
the Thompson boat works. The tug, 
which is 40 feet long with a beam of 10 
feet, will be used chiefly for harbor 
work. 

Port Stanley, Ont. — The London 
Board of Trade recently passed a reso- 
lution agreeing to assist the Richelieu 
and Ontario Navigation Co. to make a 
port of call for their own boats at Port 
Stanley. 

Kingston, Ont. — The steamer Simla 
with the barge Burmah in tow ran 
ashore on Simmons Reef recently. The 
vessels were loaded with square tim- 
ber, and were bound from the Georgian 
Bay to Kingston. 

Montreal, Que. — Shipowners declare 
that the $2,000,000 floating drydock 
placed here last year is likely to prove a 
failure, as no company will put a ship 
in the dock while there is a chance of 
sending it to British ports for repairs. 

Toronto, Ont. — The Poison Iron 

Works Co. has given orders to Eng- 



berg's Electric and Mechanical Works, 
St. Joseph, Mich., for two generating 
sets, searchlights, etc., to be used in 
connection with Dominion Government 
contracts. 

Port Arthur, Ont.— The Great Lakes 
Dredging Co. of Port Arthur has issued 
a writ against the Poison Iron Works 
Co., Toronto, claiming $47,513 damages 
for alleged breach of guarantee respect- 
ing certain boilers purchased from the 
defendants. 

Lachine, Que. — Two days earlier than 
any previous record, the Lachine Canal 
opened for the season on April 23. 
Between nine and ten o'clock — the first 
hour after it was ready for business — 
six vessels of different descriptions 
locked into it from the Allan basin. 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. — The Canadian 
freighter Turret Crown, bound clown, 
was in collision with the William H. 
Mack, also bound down, near Whitefish 
Point, during a dense fog Friday, May 
21. and got so badly damaged that she 
was beached to prevent her from foun- 
dering. 

Kingston, Ont. — The schooner Major 
Ferry, owned by James Sowards & Co., 
coal merchants, of Kingston, struck the 
railway bridge in the Murray Canal on 
Saturday, May 10, and was sunk. The 
schooner was light. The owner is mak- 
ing arrangements to have the vessel 
raised as soon as possible. 

Windsor, Ont. — Being a menace to 
navigation, it is likely that dynamite 
will be used to remove the tow barge 
Iron City, struck and sunk by the Steel 
Trust steamer Thomas F. Cole recently 
off the head of Haseu's Island, St. Clair 
River. Nothing but the spars of the 
vessel are showing. 

The Hepburn Line it is reported to 
have gone into the hands of a new com- 

V 

pany, headed by Aemilius Jarvis, of Tor- 
onto, Alfred Goodearle, formerly of 
Kingston, is manager. Mr. Goodearle 
was for years connected with the Folger 
Company, after which he was employed 
in the Toronto and Hamilton line. 

Point Edward, Ont. — The Dominion 
Government wireless station on the 
lake shore at Point Edward, which has 
been in course of construction for sev- 
95 



eral months past, has been opened for 
business. The station is controlled by 
the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. of 
Canada, with head offices at Montreal. 

Collingwood, Ont. — The Dominion De- 
partment of Public Works are advertis- 
ing for tenders for dredging in this har- 
bor. These will be received up to four 
o'clock on Thursday afternoon, June 
5th. The specifications require that the 
contractors must be ready to take up 
the work within thirty days of the ac- 
ceptance of their tender. 

Port Arthur, Ont. — The new ice- 
breaking tug, J. D. Home, was launched 
at the western drydock on May 10th. 
The christening ceremony was perform- 
ed by Miss Muriel Jackson. The new 
craft' is 125 ft. long, 28 ft. bear and 16 
ft. deep. She is fitted with triple ex- 
pansion engines, and is the property of 
the Great Lakes Dredging Co. 

Toronto, Ont. — The proposal of the 
Navy Department of the Dominion 
Government to make it compulsory for 
excursion and freight steamers on the 
lakes to be equipped with a wireless 
apparatus in connection with the sev- 
eral stations to be erected by the Gov- 
ernment, is not meeting with the ap- 
proval of the Canadian steamboat in- 
terests. 

Kingston, Ont. — Navigation on the 
Erie Canal between Lake Erie and Hud- 
son River will be opened June 1st. It 
is expected many eastbound boats will 
be clearing from Buffalo as early as 
May 26th to be in readiness. The delay 
in opening the canal is due to the fail- 
ure to complete the junction lock at 
Vischer's Ferry. The canal is usually 
open by May 15. 

Fort William, Ont. — Work involving 
large expenditures will be carried on in 
Fort William in 1913. Water front de- 
velopment, costing $20,000,000, will in- 
clude besides the construction of addi- 
tional slips, dredging, building of 
breakwaters, the provision of additional 
elevator capacity, additional freight 
and coal sheds for the Canadian Pacific 
and Grand Trunk Railways. 

Port Colborne, Ont. — The steamer 
Seguin, downbound, loaded, and the 
steamer Masaba, upbound, light, were 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



in collision in the Welland Canal, near 
here, May 13, and both boats were seri- 
ously damaged. The Masaba has a large 
hole in her bow, penetrating the for- 
ward compartment, and repairs to four 
plates will be required. The upper 
works of the Seguin were badly cut up. 

Toronto, Out. — Another long-felt need 
of the Toronto Harbor has been re- 
medied by the Harbor Commission in 
the establishment of a municipal dock 
for tramp vessels only. A dock at the 
foot of Yonge Street has been taken 
over for this purpose, and the location 
is a very convenient one. The Arabian, 
from Wallaceburg, with 500 tons of 
sugar, was the first boat to make use of 
the dock. 

Sarnia, Ont.— The Port Huron & 
Sarnia Ferry Co. has sent word to the 
Postmaster that it will terminate its 
eontract for the carrying of local mail 
to the Canadian city as soon as possible. 
The Government demands that the mail 
be carried twice each day the year 
round. Because of its rush of business 
the Ferry Co. now declares that it has 
no time to bother with the mail, ami 
seeks to give up the contract. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The tow barge Iron 
City, struck and sunk by the Steel Trust 
steamer Thomas F. Cole, off the head of 
Harsen's Island, St. Clair Eiver, will 
probably be dynamited by the United 
States Government, as in her present 
position, with nothing but her spars 
showing, she is a serious menace to navi- 
gation. The Iron City extends into two- 
thirds of the width of the channel, and 
is diagonal to the shore line of the 
island. 

Amherstburg, Ont. — The continuous 
ringing of the automatic fog bells 
placed this year on the Limekiln Cross- 
ing lightships was so disturbing to res- 
idents of Amherstburg that they rose in 
angry rebellion and declared the bells ,a 
nuisance. This is the first season for 
the new signals, they being placed on 
the lightships by the Canadian Govern- 
ment to eliminate the necessity of ring- 
ing them by hand. 

Instead of being connected only when 
there was fog, the bells rang whether 
the weather was foggy or not. So 
strenuous were the complaints that the 
Department of Marine and Fisheries 
has decided to remove the noise-makers. 
At night, according to complaints regis- 
tered, the bells could be heard from one 
end of the town to the other, and sound- 
ed like the tolling of several large 
church bells 

Cleveland, Ohio. — Orders have been 
issued for changes in the names of 
thirteen of the seventeen Gilchrist 
steamers. The changes are as follows : — 



S. B. Woods to Artus; L. Woodruff to 
Argus: G. H. Russell to Canopus; F. W. 
Gilchrist to Cepheus; H. S. Sill to 
Cetus; J. L. Weeks to Corvus; J. C. 
Gilchrist to Cygnus: R. E. Schuck to 
Hydrus; F. J. Heeker to Perseus; R. L. 
Ireland to Cyrus; P. G. Walker to 
Taurus: Lake Shore to Indus; Gilchrist 
to Lupus. 

Sarnia, Ont— The old car ferry, Ste. 
Marie, which formerly plied between 
Mackinac and St. Ignace, passed up the 
river on May 15 in tow of the tug Sarnia 
City. The big boat will be taken to 
Port Arthur, where she will be stripped 
of her enormous upper works, and will 
be converted into a lighter for one of 
the wrecking companies. The boat went 
south to Cleveland last year, and was 
stripped of her boilers and engines at 
that time. Whalen Bros, is the firm 
that will own her. 

Toronto, Ont. — With a view to reliev- 
ing the congestion at the Yonge Street 
docks, the Richelieu and Ontario Lines 
will utilize the lower end of pier No. 1, 
the freight dock of the Inland Lines 
this season, as the terminal for the 
steamers running on the Toronto-Ham- 
ilton route. The company have also dis- 
pensed with the system of collecting 
tickets as the passengers pass over the 
gang planks to the steamers plying be- 
tween Toronto and all points on the 
north and south shores. 

Montreal, Que. — Collision with an 
iceberg in a dense fog was the experi- 
ence of the Chiltern Range of the Fur- 
ness Line, while on her voyage from 
Hull to Montreal. Her bowplates were 
badly dented by the glancing blow she 
struck the berg, and standing away to 
the eastward after the collision, the 
steamer was surrounded by icebergs 
that could be heard, though not seen. 
The escape of the vessel from more seri- 
ous injury seems to have been nothing 
short of miraculous. 

Londonderry, Ireland. — The first 
launch by the new firm — the North of 
Ireland Shipbuilding Co. — took place on 
19th April, the vessel put in the water 
being one 250 ft. long, built for the Can- 
adian Lakes service. The new steamer, 
which has been constructed on the 
Ayre-Ballard system, will have propell- 
ing machinery supplied by Richardsons, 
Westgarth & Co., Middlesbrough", Eng- 
land. The next vessel to be launched 
will be one of similar dimensions for 
the same service, while a steamer of 
much greater size — 8,000 gross tonnage 
— is also under construction. 

Collingwood, Ont. — The James Car- 
ruthers, a big freighter on the stocks 
here, will be launched in about two 
weeks. 

96 



Ottawa, Ont. — The total number of 
vessels on the register books of the Do- 
minion, according to a report just issued 
by the Department of Marine and 
Fisheries, for the year ending Decem- 
ber 31 last, was 8,380, measuring 836,278 
tons, being an increase of 292 vessels 
and 65,832 tons, as compared with 1911. 
The number of steamers was 3,667, with 
a gross tonnage of 641,225. The value 
of vessels of all kinds is placed at 825,- 
083,340. It is estimated that 42,485 
men anc\ boys, inclusive of masters, 
were employed on ships registered in 
Canada during the year 1912. 

Niagara Falls, Ont. — The passenger 
steamer Frontier, in accordance with a 
commission of appraisement by the Ex- 
chequer Court of Canada, Toronto Ad- 
miralty District, was sold at auction in 
April for $7,000. A number of bids 
were made, but the above price was a 
very low one for a boat of such size. 
Her length is 186 feet and her beam 26 
feet, while her height from the bottom 
of the hold to the top of the second 
deck is 23 feet. Moreover, the sale 
price included her tackle, apparel and 
furniture. The identity of the pur- 
chaser was not disclosed, and the use to 
which the boat will be put is apparently 
not yet decided. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The big steel freighter 
Howard M. Hanna, Jun.. owned by the 
Richardson Transportation Line of 
Cleveland, met with a bad accident near 
the mouth of the river on April 1. The 
boat, which is one of the largest on the 
lakes, was loaded with ten thousand 
tons of coal. The current at this point 
is very swift, and under the heavy 
strain, a ring in the steering apparatus 
broke, with the result that the boat 
headed straight for the Canadian shore, 
and did not stop until she had pushed 
her nose far into the dock of the Do- 
minion Steel Co. Tin aamage to the 
dock will amount to about a thousand 
dollars, while the damage to the boat 
was also considerable. 

Welland, Ont. — The first accident on 
ithe Welland Canal for this season oc- 
curred about six o'clock on April 29, 
when the steamer A. E. Ames, bound 
down from Port Arthur to Montreal 
with flaxseed, struck and carried away 
one of the gates at Lock 5. The gates 
were being opened to let the steamer 
through, when a fuse in the electrical 
machinery which is used to open the 
gates blew out, and the gate came to a 
sudden stop. The Ames was going 
slowly at the time, but before she could 
be stopped had struck and dislodged 
the gate. Repairs were at once started, 
and locking was resumed about three 
o'clock in the afternoon. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



TO ENCOURAGE SHIPBUILDING IN 
CANADA. 

T"\ URING a recent afternoon sitting 
of the House of Commons at Ot- 
tawa, an interesting discussion arose 
over the item of one million dollars for 
maintenance and repairs to Government 
steamers and ice breakers. Hon. Mr. 
Lemieux asked if the ships to be pro- 
cured would be built in Canada. 

The Hon. Mr. Hazen stated that ex- 
perience had shown that contracts let in 
Canada had not been delivered on time, 
whereas when contracts were let to 
firms of established reputation in Brit- 
ain, such conditions did not occur. Ten- 
ders from the other side of the water 
were much lower. It would, however, 
be quite fair, said the Minister, to ask 
that tenders awarded to British firms 
should be carried out in Canada, and 
that firms should establish yards in 
Canada where the ships would be built. 
Ice-breakers to be Built Here. 

Referring to ice breaking on the St. 
Lawrence, the Minister of Marine spoke 
of the effective work carried out by the 
Montcalm and Lady Grey. In the vote 
before the House, he said, the Marine 
Department was asking for $250,000 to 
procure a modern and powerful ice- 
breaker for the St. Lawrence River. 
This was most necessary in order to 
open navigation to Montreal earlier in 
the spring. 

The Hon. Mr. Lemieux asked if this 
boat would be built in Canada, and Mr. 
Hazen replied that he believed such was 
the intention. 

Mr. Lemieux was glad to hear of this 
addition to the flotilla of ice-breakers. 
At first there had been a prejudice 
against these boats at Quebec on account 
of the work done at Cap La Roche, but 
good results had followed in the pre- 
vention of floods as far as Three Rivers 
and Lake St. Peter. The member for 
Rouville again touched on the question 
of shipbuilding in Canada, and asked 
the Minister to give it encouragement 
even if, at first, prices were somewhat 
higher. He referred to Vickers, Lim- 
ited, at Montreal, and expressed his be- 
lief that Maisonneuve would yet become 
a great shipbuilding area. 

% 

SHIPPING AGREEMENT. 

■p EFERRING to the Atlantic rate 
war which had been in progress 
between the Canadian Pacific Railways 
and the companies constituting the At- 
lantic "pool," the Standard^ announces 
that, as result of Sir Thos. Shaugh- 
nessy's visit to London, a provisional 
agreement has been arrived at in regard 
to emigrant business from Trieste. 

"The terms of the arrangement have 
not yet been made public," it says, 
"but we believe we are correct in stat- 



ing that the Canadian Pacific Railway 
Co. and the Austro-American Line, 
which represents the Atlantic "pool," 
will in future despatch alternate boats 
from Trieste, while the profits derived 
from this source are to be placed in the 
pool, which, in its turn, will divide its 
surplus balances with the C. P. R." 

® 

LIVINGSTONE CHANNEL 
NAVIGATION. 

T7 - ESSEL masters who navigate the 
Livingstone Channel are complain- 
ing that most of their difficulty in en- 
tering the new cut is in making the 
sharp turn required just before the 
channel is reached. This becomes neces- 
sary by a projection of rock-bottom, 
averaging 15 feet in depth, which must 
be passed in making the swing from the 
main channel. One captain says he 
found that the turn just above Living- 
stone Channel is much more to be 
reckoned with than are the dangerous 
cross-currents after leaving the cut. 
Boats operating down the new channel 
find that by steaming ahead at a fairly 
good speed and hugging the west bank, 
the passage can be made with ease. It 
requires skilful navigating, however, to 
pass the shallow projection off the en- 
trance. 

© 

TORONTO HARBOR IMPROVEMENT 
TENDERS. 

HE Dominion Government is asking 
tenders on its share of the Toron- 
to Harbor Development Scheme, which 
is estimated to cost $6,123,284. The 
whole work will not be divided up into 
a series of contracts, but the contractors 
who submit estimates must be prepared 
to take on the whole work, which must 
be commenced this summer. 

Government's Share. 

The work allotted to the Dominion 
Government is the construction of the 
ship channel and harbor extension in 
the industrial district; the necessary 
shore protection at the east end of the 
inner harbor; the construction of the 
breakwater from eastern harbor en- 
trance to the eastern city limit, and the 
construction of the western break- 
water from the harbor entrance to the 
Humber River. The Government has 
also undertaken the construction of the 
swing bridges across the eastern and 
western gaps. At present Toronto Har- 
bor Engineer Cousins is busily engaged 
designing these, and when they are com- 
pleted, the authorities will ask for esti- 
mates on their construction. 

Dredging to Commence. 

Work will also commence this season 
on the extensive dredging operations. 
The date for opening the tenders fo: 



this work is set for May 28, and much 
competition is anticipated. The sand 
will be used for reclamation purposes 
all across the entire front of the city, 
including the filling in of 1,000 acres in 
the industrial district and the creation 
of 894 acres of new park lands. The 
work is estimated to cost $5,000,000. 
The Public Wharf. 

The public wharf operated by the 
Harbor Commission is already proving 
a boon to shipping; and Secretary Alex. 
Lewis declares that it has already justi- 
fied itself. Two vessels have arrived at 
the harbor and could not find suitable 
wharfage facilities at the docks con- 
trolled by private companies, but an ap- 
plication to the Harbor Commission 
soon procured room for their eai'goes 
on the public dock. The commission is 
charging a reasonable rate. Much busi- 
ness will be transacted at this wharf 
during the season. 

® 

TWO-CENT GRAIN RATE. 
/- p HE grain rate from Duluth-Su- 
perior harbor to Buffalo was 
settled at two cents on May 23, and the 
indication is that boats now on the mar- 
ket for early loading will have to accept 
this figure. The demand for tonnage is 
not active, and ore men are well loaded 
up ahead. The ore is going forward in 
good style. A Cleveland steamer which 
was sent for contract ore was chartered 
recently for wheat, from Fort William 
to Buffalo, at two cents, with a despatch 
guarantee. 

To prevent a loss from spoiling of 
small grain stored in elevators and 
warehouses, the total of which runs an- 
nually into the millions, the Minnesota 
State Board of Grain Appeals has de- 
cided to make practical tests to ascer- 
tain in what percentages of moisture 
grain may carry and still be safe for 
warehousing. 

@ 

ECHO OF "ROYAL GEORGE" 
STRANDING. 

Q APTAIN HARRISON, whose certi- 
ficate was suspended after the 
Royal George stranded in the St. Law- 
rence River last fall, was heartily con- 
gratulated by the Mercantile Marine 
Service Association on having had his 
certificate returned. 

Captain Harrison said that the Eng- 
lish Board of Trade had shown they 
were ready to see the injustice by 
Colonial Courts rectified. He thought 
he could claim the command of the 
Royal George again, and have his salary 
and expenses. He was still without em- 
ployment through the Canadian Govern- 
ment's action. The certificate was sus- 
pended by the Dominion Wreck Com- 
missioner, who inquired into the ac- 
cident. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



CHANGES IN AIDS TO 
NAVIGAliON. 

O EVEBAL changes in aids to navi- 
gation which have been made re- 
cently, or are to be made in the near 
future, were recently announced by the 
United States Bureau of Lighthouses. 
The intensity, illuminant and charac- 
teristics of the light at Thunder Bay 
Island light station will be changed 
about May 20th. when the intensity will 
be increased from 5,000 to 50,000 candle 
power by the installation of incandes- 
cent oil vapor as illuminant. The char- 
acteristic will be changed to show a 
flash of 4 seconds alternating with an 
eclipse of 26 seconds. 

About June 5th the light station on 
south shore of Lake Superior, will be 
increased from 18.000 to about 410,000 
candle power. The characteristic will 
be changed to show a flash of 4.7 sec- 
onds, alternating with eclipse of 40.3 
seconds. Superior entry south break- 
water light station will be established 
about June 1st at Superior Bay en- 
trance. A light will be shown 70 ft. 
above water, and will be an occulting 
white of 4,500 candle power, showing 
illumination of three seconds alternat- 
ing with eclipse of five seconds. 

The color of St. Clair Flats Canal 
lower lighthouse has been changed from 
red to white, increasing its intensity 
from 130 to 520 candle power. 

@ 

BETHLEHEM PURCHASE OF FORE 
RIVER SHIPYARD. 

A NNOUNCEMENT is made of the 
purchase of the Fore River Ship- 
V.uilding Co., Quincy, Mass., by the 
Bethlehem Steel Corporation, putting 
the latter in the position of being able 
tc compete in the construction of war- 
ships as well as the other types of ves- 
sels it now builds. The yard at Quincy 
will, therefore, furnish an outlet for a 
certain amount of the Bethelehem Steel 
Co.'s output of armor plate, structural 
shapes, forgings, ordnance, etc. 

The terms of the purchase are indi- 
cated in a letter sent by the directors' 
and a stockholders' committee to the 
holders of Fore River Co. shares. It 
says that the Bethlehem Steel Corpora- 
tion takes the plant and other assets of 
the shipbuilding company, including 
good will, and assumes its contracts and 
liabilities. In return, the Bethelehem 
company "pays &600,000 in fire lien 
and refunding 5 per cent, mortgage 
bonds due in 1942, of the Bethlehem 
Steel Co. The committee is to purchase 
and arrange the sale of $750,000 of first 
mortgage 20-year 5 per cent, bonds, a 
lien on the present property, as issued 
by a new Massachusetts corporation, 
said bonds being guaranteed principal 
and interest by the Bethlehem Steel Co. 



The Fore River Shipbuilding Co. has 
outstanding $2,400,000 of preferred and 
the same amount of common stock. It 
has no bonded debt, and is reported to 
have kept free of bank loans. The out- 
look for dividends, as is well known, is 
remote and the stockholders have, 
therefore, been willing to sell at con- 
siderably below par. It is stated that 
Admiral Bowles will remain in charge 
of the property. A new dry dock is re- 
ported to be projected. 

© 

THE CUNARD LINER "AQUI- 
TANIA." 

HE accompanying details of the 
Cunard Liner Aquitania, recently 
launched on the Clyde, may be accepted 
as indicating the many outstanding fea- 
tures of this latest triumph of naval 
architecture and marine engineering. 
For the data, we are indebted to "Syren 
and Shipbuilding," London. 

Constructional Features. 
The Aquitania has been launched, and 
the world at last knows the precise 
dimensions of the giant Cunarder. 
Those, given out officially, are as fol- 
lows: length, 901 ft.; breadth, 97 ft.; 
depth to boat deck, 92 ft. 6in. ; with a 
gross tonnage of 47.000 tons. There 
will be accommodation for 3,250 passen- 
gers, while the crew will number nearly 
1,000. 

In the printed description issued by 
the Cunard Company there is no mention 
of any new feature as regards the pas- 
senger accommodation. The vessel 
Avill have verandah cafes, an a la carte 
restaurant and grill room, a gymnasium, 
and a swimming bath, but these, of 
course, are institutions which no self- 
respecting Atlantic liner can afford to 
be without nowadays. The details as 
to the sub-division, too, convey nothing 
in the way of news, for it has been 
known for some considerable time past 
that the Acquitania was to have an 
inner skin. The space between the 
inner and outer skins averages about 15 
ft., and at short intervals there are 
cross bulkheads which divide it up into 
small compartments. Thus, while we 
dare not say that the vessel is unsink- 
able, she is so near to it as to render 
the possibility of a catastrophe prac- 
tically a negligible quantity. In addi- 
tion to the safeguards already mention- 
ed, she has 16 cross bulkheads extending 
from side to side, while the system of 
watertight decks adopted in the Lusi- 
tania and the Mauritania has been fur- 
ther developed in the case of their 
younger, but bigger, sister. With re- 
gard to boat accommodation, it is stated 
that the Cunard Company, 15 months 
ago ? submitted plans to the Board of 
Trade for an installation of lifeboats to 
accommodate evevv passenger on board, 
98 



and that two motor lifeboats wiil also 
be provided. 

A Meritorious Achievement. 

To congratulate the Cunard Company 
and John Brown & Co., the builders, on 
the magnificent ship which the enter- 
prise of the one undertaking and the 
resources of the other have conjointly 
brought into being, would be a work of 
supererogation. There are some works 
which are above commendation, and the 
Aquitania is to be numbered amongst 
them. 

Her turbines arranged in three engine- 
rooms, will work on the triple com- 
pound system. The port wing-shaft 
will be rotated by a high-pressure tur- 
bine exhausting into an intermediate 
pressure turbine on the starboard wing- 
shaft, whence the steam will pass to 
the low-pressure turbines on the inner 
shafts. In the event of an accident, 
it will be possible to cut out the high- 
pressure turbine, the steam then pass- 
ing direct from the boilers to the in- 
termediate-pressure turbine. Should it 
become necessary to cut out the inter- 
mediate-pressure turbine, the steam 
would pass from the boilers to the high- 
pressure turbine on the port wing-shaft, 
and thence to the low-pressure turbine 
on the port inner shaft, while the star- 
board low-pressure turbine would be 
driven by boiler steam passing direct 
through the lead provided for the run- 
ning of the low-pressure turbines when 
manoeuvring. In the event of the low- 
pressure turbine on the starboard inner 
shaft being put out of action, the high- 
pressure, intermediate-pressure and 
port low-pressure turbines could be 
operated, a blank flange being fitted 
in the connection between the in- 
termediate-pressure turbine and the 
starboard, low-pressure turbine. There 
will be twenty-one double-ended 
boilers, each with eight furnaces, work- 
ing at a pressure of 195 lbs. They will 
be arranged in four boiler-rooms, with 
cross-bunkers at the forward end of 
Xo. 1, and between Nos. 1 and 2 and 
Nos, 2 and 3. 

The launching ceremony was a bril- 
liant function, amongst those present 
being: Lord Aberconway, chairman of 
Messrs. John Brown & Co., Ltd.; the 
Earl and Countess of Derby; Mr. Syd- 
ney Buxton; Lord and Lady Inverclyde; 
the Earl of Stair ;the Duke of Richmond 
and Gordon; Baron Von Horst ; Sir 
Thomas Mason; Lord Provost Steven- 
son; Vice- Admiral Bearcroft; and Air. 
A. A. Booth. The vessel was released 
by t li e Countess of Derby, and only 
91 2-5 seconds elapsed before the "Teat 
structure was completely water-borne. 

Proposing the toast of "Success to 
the Acquitania and the Cunard Com- 
pany" at (lie subsequent luncheon, Lord 
Aberconway said that although the new 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



of the Lusitania, she was undoubtedly 
the most remarkable vessel in jthe 
British mercantile marine, and he de- 
clared, without fear of contradiction, 
that the Cunard Company held by far 
the leading position in the North At- 
lantic trade. They were carrying- 
Scandinavians from 'the North Sea, 
Hungarians from the Adriatic, and 
Italians from Naples; but most of all 
they must be congratulated upon their 
success in establishing good relations 
with the other great lines in the North 
Atlantic trade. 

® 

STEAM CAR FERRY FOR N. T. R. 

T N a previous issue of Marine En- 
gineering of Canada reference was 
made to the contract for building a 
steam car ferry, which has been let by 
the National Transcontinental Railway 
Commission to Cammell, Laird & Co., 
Birkenhead, England. We are now able 
to give some detail particulars of the 
vessel, which will be used for the trans- 
portation of trains across the St. Law- 
rence, near Quebec City, pending the 
completion of the Quebec Bridge. 

The principal dimensions, etc., will 
be as follows : — Length on water line, 
304 ft.; length over fenders, 326 ft.; 
breadth extreme, 66 ft. 9y 2 ins. ; depth 
moulded, 23 ft. ; mean draught with 
train load of 1,285 tons (gross), 15 ft.; 
speed, with train load of 550 tons 
(gross), 15 miles per hour. The ferry 
will have twin screws, with a third ice- 
breaking propeller fitted at the forward 
end, so as to enable the service to be 
undertaken at all seasons of the year. 

The trains will be supported on three 
lengths of track carried on a tidal deck; 
the length of each track being about 
272 ft. " The tidal deck will be support- 
ed on columns, and manipulated by 
means of screw shafting, so that it may 
be raised or lowered at the rate of 1 ft. 
a minute when fully loaded, the total 
range being 18 ft. At each end of the 
tidal deck, an adjustable hinged gang- 
way, 28 ft. long, is to be fitted, suitable 
for the conveyance of the trains to and 
from the land tracks. The tidal deck 
will be raised or lowered by vertical 
screws hanging in suspension and work- 
ing on ball bearings. 

Above the highest position of tbe 
cars on the tidal deck there will be a 
promenade 4 ft. wide, arranged all 
round the vessel. Accommodation will 
be provided on the platform deck below 
the upper deck forward on port side for 
captain, mate, chief engineer, second 
engineer, 4 deck hands and 6 firemen, 
with galley, mess room and cook's room 
on starboard side. 

The vessel will be built under special 
survey, in accordance with the require- 
ments of Lloyd's Register, and be class- 



ed 100 Al, with special strengthening 
for crossing the St. Lawrence in winter 
and for breaking' ice at the landing 
berth. Heating, ventilating, hot and 
cold water service, and electric lighting 
of the most modern and approved kind 
will form part of the general equipment. 

The main propelling machinery will 
consist of two sets of triple expansion 
surface condensing engines, exhausting 
into one condenser, and eight single 
ended cylindrical boilers of the return 
tube type worked under natural 
draught. The main engine will have 
cylinders of the following sizes: — Dia- 
meter of high pressure cylinder, 23 ins.; 
diameter of intermediate cylinder, 35 
ins.; diameter of low pressure cylinder, 
55 ins. ; stroke, 33 ins. The machinery 
for the forward ice propeller will be one 
set of direct acting, inverted, compound 
surface condensing engines of the fol- 
lowing dimensions : Diameter of high 
pressure cylinder, 15 ins. ; diameter of 
low pressure cylinder, 32 ins.; length 
of stroke, 21 ins. The work 
ing pressure will be 165 lbs. per sq, inch. 

Delivery of the vessel is to be made 
at Quebec Harbor on or before May 15, 
1914. 

© 

ATLANTIC ICE PATROL. 

A MONG the lines contributing to- 
wards the support of the ice scout- 
ship Scotia, the following may be ac- 
cepted as the most prominent: — Allan, 
American, Anchor, Atlantic Transport, 
Austro-American, Compagnie Generale 
Trans-Atlantique, Canadian Northern 
Railway, Canadian Pacific, Cunard, Do- 
minion, Donaldson. Hamburg-American, 
Holland-American, Leyland, Norddeuts- 
cher Lloyd, Red Star, Russian-Ameri- 
can, Scandinavian-American, and White 
Star. There are perhaps two or three 
more, the names of which have not tran- 
spired. 

@ 

THE MOTOR SHIP "FORDONIAN." 

1* HE new motor cargo ship For- 
donian, built for service on the 
Canadian Lakes, ran trials on the Firth 
of Clyde some time ago, and will arrive 
in Toronto shortly. The vessel was 
launched by the Clyde Shipbuilding and 
Engineering Co., Port Glasgow, last 
September, and has been laid up at 
Greenock during the winter. 

@ 

Port Stanley, Ont. — Work will soon 
be commenced by the Government on 
improvements to Port Stanley Harbor. 
The original plans are for a breakwater 
along the east side, 100 feet long. The 
harbor is to be deepened sufficient to 
admit boats with a draught 18 ft. 7 ins. 
Major H. J. Lamb, Windsor, is the Gov- 
ernment representative in Western On- 
tario. 

99 



MONTREAL'S FLOATING DRY 
DOCK. 

TXT ILL the big floating dry dock, the 
"Duke of Connaught, " prove a 
white elephant in the port of Montreal? 
Shipping men are not too positive that 
such a fate will not overtake it, and 
some are quite certain that under pre- 
vailing conditions it will never be a 
very profitable enterprise. It is a mag- 
nificent piece of machinery and equip- 
ment, but wage scales, scarcity of labor 
and climatic conditions are said to be 
against its success. 

An Example. 

The Elder-Dempster liner Benquela, 
en route to Montreal, requires scraping 
and painting, an operation that makes 
dry docking of the ship necessary. The 
dry dock people wanted $700 to berth 
the ship for the first day, with a reduc- 
tion daily for each succeeding day the 
vessel is detained. They, however, con- 
sented to reconsider the price rate, but 
the owners of the ship said the rate 
was too high, so she will dock at Natal, 
South Africa. 

High Wages. 

The local company reckoned on 
painters' wages of 40 cents an hour and 
a four day undertaking. In South 
Africa the work will be done in one day, 
and at a cost of about 15 cents an hour, 
The scarcity of labor- in Montreal and 
its high price proved too much for the 
ship owners. In Natal labor will be 
abundant, and the vessel will be ready 
for sea within 24 hours after going into 
dock, and that, too, at a minimum cost. 

The Local Situation. 

Such is the situation that the local 
company has to face. Labor is more 
abundant on the other side of the 
ocean; wages are lower, and the work 
can be rushed through. That means 
much, too, for an ocean liner, for every 
day she is off her run costs a pretty 
penny. Then, too, climatic conditions 
are opposed to the big drydock.If a ship 
suffers injury late in the season, the 
owners are liable to patch her up suffi- 
ciently to cross the Atlantic for repairs 
during the winter months. If caught 
unfinished on this side, she has to re- 
main until the following spring. A 
sample of the fear of being held up all 
winter was the rushing to England of 
the stranded C. N. R. ship Royal George 
last fall after temporary repairs at 
Quebec and Halifax. 

"I fear," said one shipping man re- 
cently, "that the local dry dock will be 
used only in extreme cases. It costs too 
much to dock in Montreal. The owners 
of the dry dock have to have a profit, 
but wages are so high and labor so 
scarce that it makes an enormous bill 
for the vessel owners." 



ASSOCIATION AND PERSONAL 

A Monthly Record of Current Association News and of Individuals 
who Have Been More or Less Prominent in the Marine Sphere 



Edward Williams and Wm. Bright fell 

into the hold of the steamer Corunna at 
Toronto, two weeks ago, and were ser- 
iously hurt. 

Andrew McMahon, aged 74- one of 
Kingston's oldest residents dropped 
dead, on May 22, from heart failure. 
He was prominent in marine circles and 
made many charts used on the Great 
Lakes. He was known to mariners all 
over Canada and the States. 

Peter J. Shaw, master of the big 
freighter, W. D. Matthews, was on 
April 28 presented with a silk "top 
hat," by the Fort William Board of 
Trade in commemoration of the opening 
of up-coming navigation, when the Mat- 
thews steamed into the harbor. 

Captain Olsen won the bonus of $100 
for the first steamship to arrive in Mont- 
real for the season from an ocean port. 
He steamed into port on Saturday, April 
19th, in command of the Dominion Coal 
Co.'s steamer "Wacouta, " after being 
compelled to anchor in the middle of 
Lake St. Peter because of a snowstorm. 

Major H. J. Lamb in charge of the 
Government Public Works for Western 
Ontario, states that everything that 
the deputation from London, St. Thomas, 
Port Stanley and other municipalities 
asked for two years ago in the way of 
harbor improvement at Port Stanley, will 
be carried out. The length of the 
breakwater to be built will be 1,000 feet. 

Inspector Hurst, of Collingwood, has 
received official word from the Govern- 
ment to take the soundings of the 
Thornbury harbor, and make his report 
in order that a start may be made to 
spend the $24,000 voted by the Govern- 
ment for the improvement of the water- 
front. A large pile-driver is being sent 
and it is assumed that the work will be 
chiefly along this line. 



LICENSED PILOTS. 

River St. Lawrence.— Captain Walter 
Collins, 43 Main Street, Kingston, Ont., 
Captain M. McDonald, Eiver Hotel, 
Kingston, Ont. ; Captain Charles J. Mar- 
tin, 13 Balaclava Street, Kingston, Ont. ; 
Captain T. J. Murphy, 111 William St., 
Kingston, Ont. 

River St. Lawrence, Bay of Quinte, 
Murray Canal. — Captain James Murray, 
106 Clergy St., Kingston, Ont.; Captain 
James H. Martin, 259 Johnston Street, 
Kingston, Ont. ; John Corkery, 17 Rideau 
Street, Kingston, Ont.; Captain Daniel 
H. Mills, 272 University Avenue, Kings- 
ton, Ont. 



ASSOCIATIONS 

DOMINION MARINE ASSOCIATION. 
President — James Playfair, Midland ; Coun- 
sel — P. King, Kingston, Ont. 

GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE 
RIVER RATE COMMITTEE. 
Chairman — W. P. Wasley, Gravenhurst, Ont. 
Secretary — Jas. Morrison, Montreal. 

INTERNATIONAL WATER LINES 
PASSENGER ASSOCIATION. 
President — A. A. Heard, Albany. N.T. 
Secretary — M. R. Nelson, New York 

THE SHIPPING FEDERATION OF CANADA 
President — A. A. Allan, Montreal; Manager 
and Secretary— T. Robb, 526 Board of Trade, 
Montreal. 

SHIP MASTERS' ASSOCIATION OF 
CANADA. 

Grand Master — Capt. J. H. McMaugh, Tor- 
onto, Ont.; Grand Secretary-Treasurer — Capt. 
H. O. Jackson, 376 Huron St., Toronto. 



GRAND COUNCIL, N.A.M.E. GRAND 
OFFICERS. 

James T. McKee, Box 08 Fairville, N.B. 
Grand President. 

Tbos. Theriault, Levis, P.Q., Grand Vice- 
President. 

Nell J. Morrison, P.O. Box 238, St. John, N.B., 
Grand Secretary-Treasurer. 

Jno. A. Murphy, Midland, Ont., Grand Con- 
ductor. 

George Bourret, Sorel, P. Q., Grand Door- 
keeper. 

Richard McLaren, Owen Sound, Ont. 
L. B. Cronk, Windsor, Ont. 

Grand Auditors. 



Captain Archibald Reid, the Montreal 
Port Warden, has returned from a tour 
in the United States, and reports to the 
Board of Trade that the rules of the 
port of Montreal are not more stringent 
than those of certain ports in the Unit- 
ed States. One of his remarks was that 
where colored labor was available the 
charges for work were less than in 
Montreal, and that in ports open all the 
year round the charges would be slightly 
in their favor, because continuous em- 
ployment could be given. 

H. I. Mathers, Norwegian Consul at 
Halifax, has received a communication 
from the Consul General at Montreal, in- 
forming him that His Majesty King 
Haakon of Norway has been graciously 
pleased to confer the Royal Norwegian 
silver medal for noble deeds on Capt. J. 
T. Martell, W. A. Martell, Geo. Harris, 
John Wadden, Patrick Wadden, Robert 
Parsons, Jos Trim, George Hyde and A. 
M. Spencer, they being the crew of the 
lifeboat belonging to the life saving 
station at Scatarie Island. He has also 
awarded a silver cup, w?+^ suitable in- 
scription, to Benjamin Pope, John Pope, 
and Wm. Martell, in recognition of their 
having participated in the rescue of the 
crew of the Norwegian barque Record, 
of Tydestr, which was totally wrecked 
on Mainadieu bar on Sept. 12, 1911. 



OCEANIC STEAM NAVIGATION CO. 
DIVIDEND. 

r~\ WING to the loss of the steamer 
^ Titanic, the laying up of the 
steamer Olympic for repairs, and be- 
cause of labor disturbances, the annual 
iliviilend of the Oceanic Steam Naviga- 



Directory of Subordinate Councils for 1913. 



Name. 



No. 



President. 



Address. 



Secretary. 



Address. 



8 
9 

11 

12 
10 

13 

14 

15 

10 



A. J. Fisher, 

E. Berry, 

W. T. Rennie, 
A. E. Kennedy, 
A. F. Humelin, 
Alex. McNlvern, 
Andrew T. Roy, 
Ilelaire Mereier, 
Geo. Gendron, 
Alex. McDonald. 
Jos. Silverthorne, 
W. Robertson, 
D. J. Murray, 
Tbos. O'Reilly, 

F. McGuigan, 
Art lit] r Abbey 



707 Bathurst St. 
50 Douglas Ave., 

Collingwood, 

3115 Johnston Street. 

3210 Le Tang Street, 

P. O. Box 234. 

1212 Burrard St., 

3 St. Joseph St. 

Snrel. I'.Q.. 

1030 4th Ave. East, 

28 Crawford Ave, 

Midland, 

Victoria Rd.. Dartmouth, 

153 Queen St. 
38 Queen St. 
Port William. Ont. 



E. A. Prince, 
G. T. G. Blewett, 
Robert MeQuade, 
James Gillie, 
O. L. Marchand, 
Peter Gordon, 
E. Read, 
S. G. Guenard. 
Al. Charhonnean. 
Richard McLaren, 
Neil Maltland, 
Jno. A. Murphy, 
Chas. E. Pearce, 
Geo. S. Biggar. 
Lem Winchester. 
John A. Smith. 



59 Ferrier Ave., Toronto. 

65 Harrison St., St. John, N.B. 

P.O. Box 97, Collingwood, 

101 Clergy St., Kingston, Ont. 

St. Vincent de Paul, P.Q. 

808 Blanchard St.. Victoria, B.C. 

859 Thurlow St 

Bienville. Levis, P.Q. 

P.O. Box 132. Sorel. P.Q. 

447 13th St., Owen Sound. 

221 London St. W., Windsor, Ont. 

Midland, Ont. 

Portland Street. Dartmouth. N.S. 

43 Grosvenor Ave., Sault Ste. Marie. 
302 Fltzroy St.. Charlottet'n, P.E.I. 

Fort William. Ont. 



100 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



21 



Hon Co., owners of the White Star Line, 
is only one-half that paid last year. 
The dividend for 1911 was 60 per cent. 
The company paid a dividend of 30 per 
cent, in March, but owing to the loss of 
the Titanic and other troubles, no final 
dividend was recommended. A sum of 
$540,790 written off on account of the 
sinking of the Titanic is described as 
"the proportion of loss on the first cost 
of the Titanic. The report of the direc- 
tors expresses regret at the retirement of 
J. Bruce Ismay as managing director of 
the White Star Line. 



ENGINEERS 

BOILERMAKERS 

BLACKSMITHS 




Mo r/ne 
Repair a 
Our Specialty 



W. J. C. White 
!2 Prince St. MONTREAL 

Phone M. 2435. 



THE DIXON MFG. CO. 

Mfrs. of 

High-Class Marine Gasoline Engines and 
Marine Motors, Experimental Machinery, 
Gray Iron, Brass and Bronze Castings. 
Repair work a specialty. 
Address: COLLINGWOOD, ONT. 
Tel. No. 164. 



DAVIS DRY DOCK COMPANY 

Builders of Wood and Steel Passenger 
Steamers, Tug, Steam and Gasolene 
Engines of all Descriptions. New 
catalogues February 1st. 

KINGSTON, ONTARIO 



Office 'phone 528. Frivele 'phoees 437 and 49 

Donnelly Salvage and 
Wrecking Co., Ltd. 

Kingston, Ont. 

Tugs, Lighters, Divers, Steam Pumps, 
etc., supplied on shortest notice. 

700 Ton Lighter with McMyler clam 
shell Derrick. 

Tug "Saginaw" has two 100-ton Pull- 
ing Machines with 4,000 feet of 1$ inch 
Steel Cable, and two 3-ton anchors, 
always ready for work. 

JOHN DONNELLY, Pres. and Gen. Mgr. 



GEORGIAN BAY SHIPBUILDING 
& WRECKING COMPANY 

MIDLAND, ONTARIO. 

Yachts, Tugs, Dump Scows 
and Repair Work a Speoialty. 
All Kinds of Wrecking and 
Diving. 



BELL TELEPHONE : 
Office No. 163 Residence No. 149 

P. O. Box 83. 
D. G. D0BS0N, - General Manager 



J. J. TURNER & SONS 

Peterborough, Ont., and Regina, Sask. 



The largest manufacturers and dealers 
in Canada of 



Sails. 
Tents, 
Flags, 
Life Belts, 
Life Buoys. 
Waterproof 

ing, 
Coal Bags. 



Cloth- 



Horse Blankets, 
Lap Rugs, 
Canoes and Row 

Boats, 
Vessel, Yacht, Boat, 

and Canoe Sails 

made by Expert 

Sail Makers. 



Tents to Order and Camping Outfits to rent. 

Write for Catalogue. 



j\R LOO, 




The SECRET I 
of PRODUCING 

High Pressure Packing that will give reliable and 
efficient service without injury to piston rods lies in | 
the thoroughness of its lubrication as well as in the Garlock High Pressure Eing. 

quality of material used. Every fibre of Garlock High Pressure Packing is thoroughly 
lubricated, and the design, material and workmanship are unexcelled. 

Write for Garlock catalogue showing 
''Packings for Every Purpose." 

The Garlock Packing Company 

Head Office and Factory : 

HAMILTON ONTARIO 

Branches -MONTREAL TORONTO WINNIPEG 

"Pioneers in the Packing Business." 




Garlock High Pressure Spiral 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



THE PROVISION OF LIFE-BOATS. 

*p HE British Board of Trade recently 
issued the revised draft rules for 
life-saving appliances at sea, of which 
the first draft appeared last autumn. 
Some changes have been made, presum- 
ably in accordance with recommenda- 
tions by the Boats and Davits Commit- 
tee. The following table shows the re- 
quirements now made as to the pro- 
vision of davits, the number being regu- 
lated by the length of the vessel: — 









Minimum 






Minimum 


Number of 






Number 


Open Boats 


Length of Ve§sel 


of Sets of 


to be 


in Feet. 




Davits. 


Attached to 








Davits. 


Under 160 .... 




2 


2 


160 and under 


190 


3 


3 


190 


220 


4' 


4 


220 


245 


5 


4 


245 


270. . 


6 


5 


270 


300 


. . . 7 


5 


300 


330 


8 


6 


330 


360 


9 


7 


360 


390 


10 


7 


390 


450 


12 


9 


450 


510 


14 


10 


510 


590 


16 


12 


590 


670 


18 


13 


670 


750 


20 


14 


750 


8-10 


22 


15 


840 


940 


24 


17 


940 


1040, . 


26 


18 


The above 


rules 


are to apply to home 



trade boats of Class L, and with some 
exceptions to Class V., and to foreign- 
going passenger steamships. The Board 
of Trade reserve the power to insist 
upon the introduction of some better 
methods of handling boats than is pro- 
vided by davits in cases where the 
height at which the boats are carried is 
great, or in other such circumstances as 
they may think fit. The number of life- 
boats, or approved substitutes therefor, 
to be carried must provide accommoda- 
tion for every passenger. The life- 
boats in davits must be of the open type, 
pointed at both ends, and provided with 
air-chambers. Decked boats may be 
stowed underneath the boats in davits, 
in sets of three, and where more than 
four life-boats are carried, one or two 
square-ended boats may be substituted 
for the regular pattern. Motor life- 
boats may be fitted, but their use is not 
encouraged by the Board of Trade, the 
regulation merely providing that if the 
total number of life-boats is between 
four and ten, one may be a motor life- 
boat; but this substitution is purely op- 
tional on the part of the shipowner, 
who is offered no inducement whatever 
to supply a boat of this type. 

The cubic capacity of the open boats 
is taken to be the product of the length, 
breadth, and depth by 0.6, subject to the 
provision that the depth taken for cal- 
culation shall never exceed 45 per cent, 
of the breadth; 10 cubic feet will in 
general be required per passenger, but 
each boat will be subjected to an actual 
test before being certificated. 

The regulations provide that where it 
is not practicable or reasonable to fit the 
davits prescribed, the number may be 
reduced at the discretion of the Board 



of Trade, and a similar discretion may 
be exercised with reference to the pro- 
vision of life-rafts and buoyant seats; 
but this clause is probably put in merely 
for "window-dressing" purposes, to 
satisfj' the public that nothing unreason- 
able will be demanded. It is, however, 
most unlikely that the officials concerned 
will take any more responsibility than 
they can help, so that every clause of 
this kind is in practice likely to prove a 
dead letter. 

Some concession is made with respect 
to boats engaged in daylight voyages in 
home waters and cross-Channel passages 
during the period between March 20 and 
September 30. In this case, the provi- 
sion demanded in boats and rafts is to 
be sufficient for 80 per cent, of the 
maximum number of the passengers 
carried. For passenger vessels making 
short runs in home waters specially 
scheduled by the Board of Trade, or en- 
gaged in excursion traffic between June 
1 and August 31, a reduced number of 
davits is demanded, and a reduction 
made in the life-boat capacity required. 
Thus, ships under 180 ft. in length need 
not have more than two sets of davits, 
and a vessel 360 ft. long need not carry 
more than eight sets of davits. The cor- 
responding life-boat capacity is 300 
cubic ft. for vessels of between 100 ft. 
and 120 ft. in length, and 2,400 cubic ft. 
in vessels of between 330 ft. and 360 ft. 
in length. 

For boats making, during the summer, 
short excursion trips to sea, a further 
reduction is made in the number of 
davits required, and the total accom- 
modation of boats, rafts, and the like, 
need not suffice for more than 70 per 
cent, of the passengers. If the excur- 
sion is confined to partially smooth 
water, this figure is further reduced to 
60 per cent., and if wholly in smooth 
waters to 40 per cent. — Engineering. 

® 

CANADA NINTH IN WORLD 
SHIPPING. 

TN the number of vessels and volume of 
tonnage, Canada's shipping last year 
showed a substantial increase. The to- 
tal number on the register books was 
8,380, measuring 836,278 tons; an in- 
crease of 292 vessels and 65,832 tons, 
compared with 1911. The number of 
steamers was 3,667, with a gross ton- 
nage of 641,225. Assuming the average 
to be $30 per ton, the value of the net 
registered tonnage of Canada at the end 
of 1912 was $25,088,340. The number 
of new vessels built and registered dur- 
ing the year was 420, the tonnage 34,- 
886, and the value $1,569,870. During 
the year 241 vessels were removed from 
the register books. It is estimated that 
42,490 men and boys were employed on 
ships registered in Canada during 1912. 
102 



Canada occupies now the ninth posi- 
tion in the shipping of all countries, 
Great Britain and her colonies being 
first with 12,580,488 tons, Germany sec- 
ond with 3,034,144, and the United 
States third with 2,617,791. In new 
shipping last year, Ontario led with 
11,170 tons, British Columbia being sec- 
ond with 10,647, Nova Scotia third with 
5,853, and Quebec fourth with 5,744. 
Wrecks numbered 19, strandings 10, and 
total losses 19. 

® 

MONTREAL HARBOR AUTHORITY. 

THE decision of the Montreal Com- 
missioners to place the shipping in 
the port under two virtually distinct 
heads is exciting a good deal of com- 
ment — and that, too, of an unfavorable 
nature — among navigation companies. 
Just how it will work out no one can 
tell accurately, but there are not a few 
who know the port intimately who 
prophesy disaster and dire confusion. 
In fact, some of them do not hesitate to 
affirm that, if the scheme proves un- 
workable, they will carry the matter 
over the heads of the Harbor Commis- 
sioners to the Hon. J. D. Hazen, Min- 
ister of Marine and Fisheries, at Ot- 
tawa. 

Unity, they say, is one essential of 
a great port like Montreal, and such 
cannot be if there are two harbor- 
masters working practically indepen- 
dent of each other. The division of the 
harbor at Victoria pier, can result in 
only one thing, they affirm — the injury 
of the harbor. There should be one 
harbormaster, a man of wide experience 
and known ability who would reign 
supreme, without interference, from 
one end of the port to the other. In 
reply to the Harbor Commissioners' 
statement that the port is too big for 
one man to handle, it is answered that 
Liverpool has seven miles of docks, and 
these are in charge of one supreme 
authority and the scheme works well. 

Whatever the outcome may be, ship- 
ping men are far from pleased with the 
prospects that arise from a divided port. 

® 

COUNCIL NO. 4, KINGSTON, 
N.A.M.E. . 

President — A. E. Kennedy. 
1st Vice-President — H. McClymont. 
2nd Vice-President — J. Mahoney. 
Treasurer — F. F. MeEwen. 
Secretary — James Gillie. 
Conductor — J. Lentez. 
Doorkeeper — Frank Sullivan. 
Auditors — T. Bishop and H. Mc- 
Clymont. 

Councilmen — T. Bishop, James Gil- 
lie, J. F. McEwen, O. J. Hickey, Geo. 
Boyd. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



23 



insurance <F 





MORRIS, 
BULKELEY 
& HALLIDAY 



MARINE ENGINEERS 
and NAVAL ARCHITECTS 

Specialists In 

Steel and Wood Vessels 



17 Promis Bldg. 
VICTORIA. B.C. and 



514 Holden Bldg. 
VANCOUVER, B.C. 




With Exceptional Facilities for 
Placing 

Fire and Marine Insurance 

In all Underwriting Markets 



Agencies : TORONTO, MONTREAL, 
WINNIPEG. VANCOUVER, 
PORT ARTHUR. 



Cablegram: Curr, Port Arthur. 

Telephone 1553 North. 
ROBERT CURR 
Surveyer to Lloyd's Register of Shipping. 
Plans and specifications furnished for all 
types of vessels. Careful attention given 
to superintending construction and repairs. 
Instructions on theoretical and practical 
shipbuilding by correspondence. 
The Observatory. 28 South Water St., 
Port Arthur, Ont. 



T. B. F. BENSON 

(Assoc. Inst. N. A.) 
NAVAL ARCHITECT. 

All types of vessels designed and construc- 
tion superintended. 

Estimates promptly furnished. 
205 Yonge Street, Toronto. 
Phone Main 5379. 



BREWER & McBRYDE 

NAVAL ARCHITECTS - MARINE BROKERS 

142 Hastings St., Vancouver, B.C. 

15 years' practical experience designing all 
types of vessels. 



THOS. G. BISHOP 

ENGINEER AND MACHINIST 

Marine and General Repairs, Gas and 
Gasoline Engine Repairs a Specialty 

PHONE 38 
FOOT OF PRINCESS ST.. KINGSTON. ONT. 



THIS SPACE 
$15. A YEAR 



MARINE ENGINEERING 

OF CANADA 

is edited and published with a view to providing for all sections of marine 
men, an attractive and newsy record of Shipbuilding, Engineering, Harbour, 
Port and Dock Progress and Development throughout the Dominion of 
Canada and over the World. 

One Dollar per year is our regular subscription rate 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 

143 UNIVERSITY AVE., TORONTO 

Date 1913 

Gentlemen, — 

Please find enclosed herewith $1.00, being subscription to Marine Engineering of Canada. 

NAME 

RANK OR POSITION 

ADDRESS IN FULL 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



24 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 




THIS SPACE $45 
PER YEAR 
$25 FOR 6 MONTHS 



STEAM and POWER PUMPS, CON- 
DENSERS, TRAVELLING CRANES 




The SMART-TURNER MACHINE CO., Limited 
Hamilton Canada 



TUBRIC4TING 

M Canadian Oil Companies, * 



Limited 



£f TORONTO MONTREAL ST. JOHN ^ 
HALIFAX WINNIPEG ^ 
2 REGINA CALGARY 

W± NELSON ■ ■ dp 




Over 30 Years' 
Experience 
Building 

ENGINES 

AND 

Propeller 
Wheels 

H.G.TROUTCO. 

King Iron Works 

226 OHIO ST. 
BUFFALO, N. Y. 



The Otis Feed Water 
Heater and Purifier 

will positively heat feed water to the boil- 
ing point without causing back pressure. 
It will separate oil from the exhaust aud 
prevent a large proportion of ordinary im- 
purities from entering the b.oiler. 

Cleaned quickly and thoroughly in a few 
minutes. Will not foul up with scale, scum 
or sediment. 

It is sold under a liberal guarantee of 
satisfaction or money back. If your engi- 
neer is having boiler troubles consult us 
for the remedy. 

Stewart Heater Co. 




35 Norfolk Ave. 



Buffalo, N.Y. 



EVERYTHING FOR 

Engineers and 
Draughtsmen 

Faber's No. 368, Slide Rule, 
specially graduated for Elec- 
trical Computations. 

WRITE FOR CATALOGUE. 

THE ART METROPOLE 




241 YONGE STREET, 



TORONTO 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Eft Bobbie's Patent 
1 Liquid Compass 



V 




With Reduced Diameter 
Card. 



Furnished complete with 
Binnacle or Compass only. 



Dobbie's Patent Sounder, and Recording 
Winch. 

Prices on application. 

Marine Hardware and Supplies. 
OUR NEW CATALOGUE NOW READY 

JOHN LECKIE LIMITED 



77 Wellington St. W. 



Toronto 




THE 



Write for 
Complete 
Catalog and 
prices 

Dake 
Engine 
Co. 

Grand 
Haven 
Mich. 



DAKE 



Steam Steerers for Tugs 
and Steamers. Single or 
double wheel. 

ooooooo 

Centrifugal Pumps direct 
connected to DAKE engines, 
all on one base. 




MANGANESE BRONZE 




PROP£t-LER 
WHIRLS 



Tensile 
Strength 
75,000 lbs. 




Write to-day for our descriptive booklet. 

Lumen Bearing Company 



Brass Founders, 



TORONTO 




Ship and Yacht 



Fittings of Every 
Description 

Pumps, Portlights, 
Sanitary Appliances, 
Folding Lavatories, 
Baths, Ventilators, 
Bells, Hinges, etc., 
Send for Catalogue. 



AGENTS WANTED IN CANADA 





J. DOWNTON & CO. 

69-71 West India Dock Road 
LONDON, ENG. 

Cables : "John Downton, Phone London." 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 





Collingwood Shipbuilding Co., Limited 

Collingwood, Ont., Canada 






, .f&i:. g If 

- ^^^H^J^ lt : ^^^^^^ 






* t ~— — i it tv - * 




ONTARIO AND QUEBEC NAVIGATION COMPANY'S STEAMSHIP " GERONIA." 

Built by Collingwood Shipbuilding Co. Dimensions: 220 ft. long, 42 ft. beam, 12 ft. deep, twin screws driven 
by quadruple expansion engines by 2000 H.P. Scotch boilers fitted with Howden draft. 

1 Steel and Wooden Ships, Engines, Boilers, 1 
I Castings and Forgings 1 

1 PLANT FITTED WITH MODERN APPLIANCES FOR QUICK WORK 


1 Dry Docks and Shops Equipped to Operate 1 
1 Day or Night on Repairs 1 



TTie advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



CIRCULATES IN EVERY PROVINCE OF CANADA AND ABROAD 

Marine Engineering 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and development of Merchant and Naval Marine Engineering, 
Shipbuilding, the building of Harbors and Docks, and containing a record of the latest and 
best practice throughout the Sea-going World. Published by 
The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 

MONTREAL, Eastern Townships Bank Bldg. TORONTO, .43149 University Ave. WINNIPEG, 34 Royal Bank Bldg. LONDON, ENG., 88 Fleet St. 



Vol. III. 



Publication Office, Toronto— June, 1913 



No. 6 



POLSON IRON WORKS, LIMITED 

TORONTO - - CANADA 

Steel Shipbuilders 
Engineers and Boilermakers 










. . . 1 

.'»«•* 




Li ■- . 


1 ,1 






1 





Manufacturers of 

Steel Vessels, Tugs, Barges, Dredges and Scows 
Marine Engines and Boilers all sizes and kinds 

i Works and Office : Esplanade Street East. Piers Nos. 35, 36, 37 and 38 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



THE TWO SISTER SHIPS 



Of the 



W 
> 
tn 
O 
OS 
OS 

o 
o 

I 

< 

Q 

OS 

o 
o 
w 

OS 

- 

OS 

o 



S.S. " IMPERATOR 




50,000 Tons. 



C/3 
13 
W 

g 

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a 

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w 
55 

H 
O 

O 
W 

5 
o 



W 

Q 
Q 

C/3 



THE TWO LARGEST LINERS IN THE WORLD 

Are Being Coated EXCLUSIVELY 

with BRIGGS' Bituminous 

EN'AMELS AND SOLUTIONS 

WM. BRIGGS & SONS, Ltd., Dundee & London. 

Agents for Canada : 
MACDONALD & SONS, 176 King St. East, TORONTO. 



Dipper Dredges 

Clam Dredges 

Steel Scows 

Drill Boats 




Equipment of this nature together with Hoisting 
Engines of all kinds are specialties with us. 

Let us figure on your requirements. 

We have the experience necessary to build any- 
thing you need in this line and you will find our 
prices right. 

Send for descriptive matter now. 

M. BEATTY & SONS, Limited 
WELLAND ONTARIO 




This is one of our Compound Jet Condensing 
Engines with Pumps and Thrust attached. 



The Doty Marine Engine & Boiler Co., 



LIMITED 
Builders of 



High Grade Marine Engines & Boilers 



Compound Jet Condensing Engines 

Compound Surface Condensing Engines 
Triple Expansion Engines 

Non-Condensing Stern Wheel Engines 

Tandem Compound Stern Wheel Engines 



Marine Boilers of various types including Scotch, Locomotive, 
Fitzgibbon, Fire-box Return Tubular and Safety Water Tube. 



Estimates furnished for complete Marine outfits. 

The Doty Marine Engine & Boiler Co., 

LIMITED 

GODERICH, CANADA 



Tht advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OE CANADA 




SHIP CHANDLERY 






OLD COUNTRY FIRMS 



FOR WHOM WE ARE 



SOLE CANADIAN AGENTS 



CLARKE, CHAPMAN & CO., LIMITED. 

Windlasses, Winches, Hoisting Gears, 
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MURRAY, McVINNIE & CO., LTD. 

Cooking Ranges, Kitchen Utensils, Ship 
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JOHN HASTIE & CO., LTD. 

Steam, Hand, Electric Steering Gears. 

ANSELL, JONES & CO. 

Reid-McParland 's Patent Steel Self- 
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DARLINGTON FORGE CO. 

Steel Castings and Forgings. 

WOODITE COMPANY. 

Woodite Gauge Glass Washers. 



HOME RUBBER CO. (New Jersey, U.S.A.) 

N.B.O. Sheet Packing, Mechanical Rub- 
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SHANKS & CO., LIMITED. 

Sanitary Appliances, Folding Lavatories, 
Plumbers' Fittings, Baths, W.C.'s, Etc. 

GIBSON & JONES. 

Patent Gem Flue Cleaners. 

DOBBIE-McINNES, LIMITED. 

Nautical-Navigation Instruments. 

R. B. Lindsay & CO. 

Lindsay Glasgow Patent High Pressure 
Piston Packing. 

HOSKIN & SON, LTD. 

Metallic Ships' Berths. 



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C. WILSON & CO. 



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MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 





Marine Engineers' Supplies 
And Brass Deck Work of 
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Highest Quality Guaranteed 




Electric Deck Light, 
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Launch of the Northern Navigation Co. Steamship "Noronic 

Another tribute to the progress, development and achievement of Canadian shipbuilding 
and marine engineering enterprise falls to be recorded. Isml month we featured the launch 
of our largest home built and owned lakes freighter, while in the present instance our lar- 
gest home built and owned lakes passenger vessel is the theme. 



ON Monday afternoon, June 2, there 
was launched from the yard of the 
Western Drydock and Shipbuilding Co., 
Port Arthur, Ont., the single screw pas- 
senger steamship Noronic, which has 



party of ladies and gentlemen, among 
whom were the following: — 

J. R. Binning, Montreal ; M r. and 
Mrs. Grant Morgan, Toronto; Mr. and 
Mrs. Edmund Bristol, Toronto; Hon. J. 



hert, Montreal; J. P. Stedman, Hamil- 
ton; II. R. Charlton, Montreal; Mrs. J. 
A. Gemmill, Ottawa; Mrs. James Bell, 
Montreal; Mr. Stuart Bell, Montreal; 
Mr. and Mrs. D. L. White, Midland; 




THE NORTHERN NAVIGATION CO. STEAMSHIP "NORONIC" ON THE W AYS PREVIOUS TO LAUNCHING. 



heen built to the order of the Northern 
Navigation Co., and will rank as their 
flagship. The christening ceremony was 
performed by Mrs. Edmund Bristol, To- 
ronto, and was witnessed by a large 



P. Casgrain, Montreal; F. A. Magee, 
Hamilton ; Mr. and Mrs. George Stark, 
Montreal; Frank Carroll, Quebec; W. G. 
Ross, Montreal; T. P. Phelan, Toronto; 
Sir George Garneau, Quebec; Paul Gali- 



Mrs. W. H. Featherstonhaugh, Midland; 
Mr. and Mrs. Jas. Prindiville, Chicago; 
Mrs. David McKean, Midland; R. I. 
Powers, Sarnia; Mayor Oliver, Port 
Arthur; President King, Port Arthur 




THE NORTHERN NAVIGATION CO . STEAMSHIP "NORONIC" TAKING THE WATER. 

103 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Board of Trade; President Wilson, 
Fort William Board of Trade; and Mr. 
James Carruthers, President of the Pi. & 
0. Navigation Co. 

Previous to the launch a luncheon was 
served on board the Northern Naviga- 
tion Co. steamship Hamonic, at which, 
in addition to the already mentioned 
guests, prominent marine and shipping 
men were present. The shipbuilders 
were represented by the president, Mr. 
James Whalen, and by the general man- 
ager, Mr. L. K. Wallace. Speeches were 
made by different officials and the 
Mayors of Port Arthur and Fort Wil- 
liam, fitting to the occasion, and all 
were complimentary to the excellence of 
the work done by the Western Dry Dock 
Company, and to the aggressiveness of 
the Northern Navigation Company. 

Vessel Features. 

The hull of the vessel has been built 
of steel to Lloyd's requirements, on the 
Isherwood construction system, and the 
leading dimensions of the ship are 385 
ft .length over all; 362 ft. between per- 
pendiculars, 52 ft. beam, and 28 ft. 9 in. 
moulded depth. There are 5 steel 
decks — main, spar, promenade, observa- 
tion and boat. The freight hold is di- 
vided into four watertight compart- 
ments, and there are eight watertight 
bulkheads, as well as a double bottom. 
On the observation deck are the dining 
and observation rooms, running the 
whole length of the deck. Two hundred 
and eight.y-six passengers will be able 
to sit down to meals at one time. On 
the boat deck are located the officers' 



quarters and pilot-house, suites of pri- 
vate cabins, officers' mess-room, writing- 
room for crew, firemen's mess, recrea- 
tion-room for colored help, etc. The 
woodwork throughout will be mahogany 
and oak of the best grain and finish, 
with hand decorated panels. 

Accommodation is provided for 
600 first-class, 240 second-class passen- 
gers, and about 200 crew. Fourteen 
lifeboats will be carried. All state- 
rooms are supplied with hot and cold 
running water, electric lights, call bells, 
etc. 

Machinery Equipment. 

The propelling machinery consists of 
one set of triple expansion vertical en- 
gines, having cylinders, 29y 2 , 41 V2 
and 58 inches diameter by 42 inches 
stroke. Steam is supplied by 5 Scotch 
boilers, 4 of these being 15 ft. 6 in. dia- 
meter by 11 ft. long, and one 12ft. 6 in. 
diameter by 11 ft. long. The working 
steam pressure is 200 pounds per square 
inch, and the furnaces are arranged for 
forced draft. The engines are expected 
to develop 5,000 I.H.P., and to propel 
the vessel at a speed of 20 miles per 
hour. 

Electric light, refrigerating, ship and 
freight handling machinery of the latest 
and most approved types have been in- 
stalled in the vessel, together with a 
wireless telegraphy installation. 

Work on the construction of the 
Xoronic commenced in January of this 
year, and she will be put into commis- 
sion at the opening of 1914 navigation 
on the Great Lakes. 



GREAT LAKES TRAFFIC. 

HE suggestion has been put forward 
A at Washington that negotiations 
should be entered into with Canada and 
Great Britain for the purpose of com- 
bined action with a view to the im- 
provement of the passage between the 
Great Lakes and the Atlantic seaboard. 
This was proposed as an amendment to 
the Reciprocity Bill, but withdrawn. It 
is again, however, before the Foreign 
Relations Committee of Congress in the 
form of the following resolution: — 
"Resolved that the President be re- 
quested to enter upon negotiations with 
Great Britain or the Dominion of Can- 
ada, so as to arrive at, if practicable, an 
international agreement for the concur- 
rent or co-operative improvement of 
navigation in waterways used, or which 
can be used, as common for the com- 
merce of Canada and the United 
States. ' ' 

The opinion is that, if such an ar- 
rangement could be effected, the cost to 
the different parties concerned would be 
considerably reduced, and that ocean- 
going vessels of fairly large size would 
soon be able to dock at Duluth, Fort 
William, and other ports in the interior 
of the North American Continent. As, 
however, Canada has at present several 
big schemes in hand, notably the deepen- 
ing and widening of the Welland Canal, 
between Lakes Erie and Ontario, for 
which tenders are to be invited shortly, 
and the construction of a waterway 
from Georgian Bay on Lake Huron, to 
the St. Lawrence, it is not expected that 
the plans formulated by a number of 
United States legislators will meet with 
approval in the Dominion. 




TIIK NORTHERN NAVIGATION OO. STEAMSHIP "NORONIC" AFLOAT IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE LAUNCH. 

104 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



MONTREAL PILOTAGE REGULA- 
TIONS. 

AN Oider-in-Couneil has been adopt- 
ed amending' the pilotage regula- 
tions of the district of Montreal, so that 
in future no agent or firm having only 
one vessel, or a monthly service of one 
vessel only, shall be allowed to engage 
a special pilot for that service, but may 
be authorized to arrange with another 
agent or firm in the same position to se- 
cure the services of a special pilot to be 
employed jointly by both agencies. 

Failing such authorization, agents or 
firms so situated will be obliged to fall 
back on the services of a pilot taken 
according to rotation from the tour-de- 
role. It is hoped the new order will 
have the effect of enhancing the experi- 
ence and remuneration of pilots on the 
tour-de-role, which was the reason as- 
signed by the Pilotage Commission for 
making the recommendation which the 
Dominion Government has adopted. 

© 

CAPT. HOY'S APPEAL. 

HE appeal of Capt. Hoy, formerly 
master of the Bengore Head, 
against the sentence of the Dominion 
Wreck Commission Court, held at Que- 
bec on October 17, 1912, was heard in 
the Admiralty Court in London on May 
23, and the appeal was allowed. 

The evidence showed that when the 
Bengore Head stranded in the vicinity 
of Shoal Cove, near Flower Island, in 
the Straits of Belle Isle, on October 5, 
last year, Captain Hoy had been on duty 
for 30 hours, in consequence of foggy 
weather, and had actually been on the 
bridge for 20 hours. At 2 o'clock on 
the afternoon of the clay in question the 
fog had completely cleared, and the land 
was plainly visible, the straits being 
about ten miles wide. The Bengore Head 
was proceeding down on the starboard 
side of the channel on a course N. 86 E. 
by compass. He then called the second 
officer and told him to keep that course 
until he got abeam of Flower Island 
Lighthouse, and said: "When you get 
there, provided you keep three miles off, 
you can port to S. 81 E." The master 
added that he was going to lie down for 
a couple of hours, as he expected to be 
through the ice track on the following 
night, and would have to be on duty 
again. 

The second officer, who possessed a 
chief mate's certificate, had been in the 
ship nine or ten months, and had been 
on that trip three or four times. The 
master then turned in and fell asleep, 
and at 3.42 was awakened by feeling the 
vessel going aground. It was found she 



had taken the ground near Shoal Cove. 
The second officer's story was that" 
there was a barque proceeding up, and 
he had to deviate from his course for 
her, and that he had ported to S. 85 E. 
for some time, and then ported again to 
S. 81 E„ and began to see he was get- 
ting rather near the coast. If he had 
been on his proper course he would have 
been four and a half miles away. He 
next starboarded a little and took a 
bearing, afterwards going down to the 
chart-room to verify it. He got frighten- 
ed when he realized the position of the 
vessel, and, rushing up, ordered "star- 
board," but it was too late. The vessel 
remained ashore some hours, but by jet- 
tisoning some of her cargo she even- 
tually got off. 

Suspension Quashed. 

The court allowed the appeal, and re- 
versed the sentence of the local court 
which suspended Captain Hoy's certi- 
ficate for three months. The president 
of the Admiralty Court, Sir Samuel 
Evans, said he saw no reason to suppose 
that the master was inaccurate, negli- 
gent, or over-confident in taking the 
bearing, and that in the circumstances 
the master was quite justified in going 
below after giving proper instructions 
to the second officer. 

To find the master primarily respons- 
ible for the casualty under section 470 
of the Merchant Shipping Act, the court 
obviously must find that it was caused 
by his wrongful act or default. This 
was not borne out by the evidence. The 
master's anxiety to clear his character 
was shown by the fact that the notice 
of appeal was given within six days, and 
his Lordship thought he was justified in 
this action. The decision of the court 
below must be reversed and the certi- 
ficate restored as from the date of sus- 
pension. 

Relative Correspondence. 

The Guild has communicated with 
Lloyd's asking that the entries in their 
books regarding this suspension be 
erased, and the following letter has been 
received : — 

"Lloyd's, 

"2nd June, 1913. 

"The Secretary, 

"Imperial Merchant Service Guild. 

"Dear Sir, — Re Captain J. C. Hoy. — 
I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter of the 30th ult., with enclosures 
regarding the return of the above 
master's certificate, and I have much 
pleasure in informing you that due no- 
tice has already been made of the deci- 
sion in the High Court of Justice, and 
a copy of that decision has been posted 
in the records at Lloyd's. 

(Signed) 

"E. F. INGLEFIELD, Secretary," 
105 



The Guild also addressed a letter to 
Messrs. G. Heyn & Sons, managers of 
the Head Line of Belfast, owners of the 
"Bengore Head." Messrs. G. Ileyne & 
Sons in their reply to the Guild state 
that "they are equally gratified with 
the Guild at the finding of the Appeal 
Court, and have intimated to Captain 
Hoy that it is their intention to retain 
his services." 

@ 

ST. LAWRENCE SHIP CHANNEL. 

A NXIETY is being caused in ship- 
ping circles by the comparative 
shallowness of the ship channel this 
year. The table issued at the Harbor 
Commissioners' offices, Montreal, early 
this month, showed that the depth of 
water in the ship channel throughout 
the harbor, on May 31, was considerably 
less than it has been on the correspond- 
ing date for years past. 

It was further stated officially that 
the average depth of the channel was 
18 inches deeper for May last year than 
was the case during May, 1913, the dif- 
ference in the depths for the present 
month, so far, is still more disquieting. 
. The mean depth for the first week of 
June, 1912, was 3V 2 feet greater than 
for the first week of the current month. 
Natural causes, such as difference in 
rainfall, and the fall of snow during the 
preceding winter, is held to account par- 
tially for the diminished depth, but 
many Americans admit that Chicago, 
though refused the increased supply 
from the Great Lakes for which she 
asked, is taking more water than she is 
allowed to do by law. 

New York Shipping Illustrated says: 
"The Chicago Drainage Canal authori- 
ties are at present diverting more water 
than they are entitled to do, with a eon- 
sequent lowering of levels at various 
points." 

® 

ENLARGING SOREL SHIPYARDS. 

tit ORD comes from Ottawa that the 
Dominion Government is enlarg- 
ing the usefulness of the much-discussed 
Federal shipyard at Sorel, Que. Instead 
of doing small repairs and turning out 
an occasional vessel for the St. Law- 
rence and Lower Canada coast work, 
the Sorel yard is likely before long to 
be building ships for all Canada. A 
steamer is under construction in the 
yards for use on Lake Winnipeg. It 
will be built in sections, shipped to Port 
Arthur and thence to Selkirk, and put 
together there. No satisfactory tenders 
were received for the construction of 
the vessel. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 




inn 



KNOTS AND HOURS. 

TVT INE persons out of ten will say 
A that such and such a steamship is 
capable of steaming at "twenty-five 
knots per hour." A nautical man would 
simply say "twenty-five knots." Now, 
which is correct? The latter, of course. 
The mistake arises from the fact that 
the landsman thinks that a "knot" is 
just the numerical term for a ' ' sea mile, ' ' 
which is 6,082 feet, or about one and 
one-eighth land or statute miles. Now, 
a knot is not a distance at all; it is 
speed, and this "speed" combines dis- 
tance and time. For instance, if we 
wish to speak of the speed of a train 
we refer to it as so many miles per hour. 
There is no single word in the language 
to express speed limits, so we must use 
two words — miles and hour. 

The sailor has a language peculiar to 
himself, and he has invented a single 
word for a unit of speed. Thus a speed 
of one nautical mile per hour is called 
one "knot." Hence it is redundant to 
tack on "per hour" after the word knot 
when the word knot already includes 
"per hour." 

@ 

MONTREAL PORT INSPECTION. 

A VISIT of inspection was paid the 
port of Montreal, recently, by 
Hons. J. D. Hazen, Minister of Marine 
and Fisheries; Frank Cochrane, Minis- 
ter of Railways, and Louis Coderre, Sec- 
retary of State. The Ministers were re- 
ceived by the Harbor Commissioners 
and conducted by them on a visit to the 
grain elevators and other works which 
are in progress adjoining the high-level 
wharves, after which the party embark- 
ed on board the tug Sir Hugh Allan, be- 
ing accompanied also by Messrs. David 
Seath, secretary to the Harbor Commis- 
sion, and F. W. Cowie, chief engineer. 
A tour of the harbor was made, the 
Ministers receiving explanations of the 
works now in progress while on board. 

The floating ship dock, Duke of Con- 
naught, was inspected, and the trip con- 
cluded at the entrance to the Lachine 
Canal, where the party disembarked. 
The Ministers expressed themselves as 
being well satisfied with the progress 
which is being made. 

© 

C. P. R. STANDS ALONE. 

THAT no agreement exists between 
the C. P. R, and the Hamburg- 
American and allied lines is the gist of 
a denial made by Vice-President Bos- 
worth, of the C. P. R., whose attention 
was drawn to apparently inspired state- 
ments in New York journals. The state- 
ments referred to were to the effect that 
an agreement in principle has already 
been arrived at between the rival cor- 
porations, and that a general and final 
understanding may be expected in the 
immediate future. 



Description of the Hydraulic Suction Dredge "Port Nelson' 

The building of this vessel gives point to the determination of the Canadian Government 
to go ahead with the building of the Hudson Bay Railway, and settles, at the same time, the 
location of its terminal port. The Poison Iron Works Co. are to be congratulated on the 
success of their efforts to have the dredge completed against an exacting time limit. 



fp HE hydraulic dredge "Port Nel- 
■ son," built by the Poison Iron 
Works, Ltd., Toronto, to the order of 
the Canadian Department of Railways 
and Canals, for service on Hudson Bay, 
at the terminal, Port Nelson, of the 
Hudson Bay Railroad, was successfully 
launched on Saturday, May 31, Mrs. W. 
H. Hearst, wife of the Minister of 
Lands, Forests and Mines in Ontario, 
performing the christening ceremony. 
The contract for the vessel was placed 
at the beginning of April of this year, 
and delivery has been called for in four 
months from that date. 

Constructional Features. 
The leading dimensions of the dredge 
are as follows : — Length, 180 ft. ; beam, 
44 ft. ; depth at side, 11 ft. ; draft, 6 ft. ; 
while the material and scantlings con- 
form, at least, with Lloyd's require- 
ments. As will be noted from the ac- 
companying line drawing, the dredge is 
of the scow model, with spoon bow, and 
circular bilges of 18 inches radius. As 
the dredge will be towed around the 
Labrador Coast to her destination, the 
design and structure throughout have 
been arranged to enable her to take this 
trip with safety, the shell plates being i 
y% in. thick throughout, and the keel 
plates % inch thick. The sheer strake 
extends 3 ft. above the main deck, and is 
surmounted by heavy steel bulwark 
rails, which lend additional longitudinal 
strength. 

The deck stringers are % inch thick, 
and the deck itself is of *4 
inch chequered plate, and is di- 
vided into three parts by two 
longitudinal watertight bulkheads. The 



framing is exceptionally heavy, there 
being channel floors 10 inch by 25 
pounds, located 20 inches apart. The 
side, frames and deck beams are all of 
6 inch by 15 pounds shipbuilding sec- 
tion, while the longitudinal girders are 
of 15 inch by 35 pounds channel, and 
the longitudinal truss frames of 12 in. 
by 25 pound channels. The hull is di- 
vided into six watertight compartments 
by five transverse bulkheads. 

General Equipment. 

Two 26 ft. metal lifeboats and two 
life rafts will be carried. An electric 
light outfit for ship lighting and search- 
light service, together with a complete 
machine shop plant, consisting of air 
compressor, planer, lathe, drills, etc., so 
that the necessary appliances for effect- 
ing repairs required from time to time 
will be always available, also form part 
of the vessel's equipment. The dis- 
charge pipe is 24 inches in diameter. 

The main engine for driving the pump 
is of the marine triple expansion type, 
the cylinders being 14 in., 22 in., and 36 
in. in diameter by 21 inches stroke. 
There are two Scotch boilers, each 13 ft. 
diameter by 12 ft. long. In addition, 
there is an auxiliary boiler of the loco- 
motive marine type situated on deck, 
this boiler being 48 in. in diameter by 
14 ft. long. Alongside the latter is an 
8 in. wrecking pump. The circulating 
water for the surface condenser is sup- 
plied by an 8 in. centrifugal pump 
driven by a 6 in. x 7 in. vertical engine, 
while the air pump is of thevertical 
simplex beam type. The feed and bilge 
pumps embody the latest practice. 



For the purpose of raising and lower- 
ing the suction pipe there is provided 
on the main deck forward a 12 in. x 12 
in. two-cylinder double-acting engine. 
The boom for raising and lowering the 
suction pipe is located at the suction 
end of the dredge. It is built up of steel 
shapes and plates throughout, and is 64 
feet in length. Three capstans are pro- 
vided, operated by 6 in. x 8 in. 
double-acting engines. The double-act- 
ing horizontal cutter engine has two 
12 in. x 12 in. cylinders, and the cutter 
head is 5 ft. diameter. A spare cutter 
head, 4 ft. in diameter, will be carried. 
A general fire service pump, hand deck 
pump, and necessary hose to reach all 
over the ship, form other items of the 
general equipment. 

The galley, dining room, cabin, and 
crew's quarters will be fitted up and 
furnished to suit the particular service 
requirements, and 3,000 feet of piping 
and pontoons for the discharge from 
this dredge will be put aboard. The 
contract price of the vessel was 
$270,000. 



PROBE OCEAN RATE. 
'TpHE Government is going to investi- 
gate during the Parliamentary re- 
cess the question of ocean freight rates 
to and from Canada. The increase in 
the past few years has been steady and 
marked, and claims are put forward by 
commercial bodies that the rates are ex- 
orbitant and affecting materially Can- 
adian trade development. In the dis- 
cussion of the subject during the ses- 
sion, an investigation was promised, and 
arrangements for it will not be delayed. 







; lb.. ' I •/ 


. ..; ' , • 




. / ■ . 

• . . AJL_ r 


— ■SjJjJJ 










HYDRAULIC SUCTION DREDGE "PORT NELSON," ON THE WAYS PREVIOUS TO LAUNCHING. 

107 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



LIFE SAVING. 

'Tp HE art of life saving and resuscita- 
* tion is to be more widely taught 
this summer than ever before in the pro- 
vince of Quebec if the plans of the ex- 
ecutive of the Quebec Branch of the 
Royal Life Saving Society are carried 
out. Should those concerned be found 
willing, it is the intention to give week- 
end demonstrations at all the towns and 
villages from the end of the Island of 
Montreal on the north shore, down as 
far as Three Rivers. Letters are being 
sent out to the priests of the various 
parishes of Berthier, Lanoraie, and the 
other places down the river, with a view 
to interesting them in the plan, and if 
they would convey the suggestion to 
their parishioners, it is thought a lot of 
interest would be aroused. The R. L. 
S. S. will also be well represented at the 
various Lake Shore regattas this season, 
when it is the intention to give demon- 
strations. 

July 1st will probably mark the for- 
mation of a new branch of the R. L. 
S. S. at Halifax. Mr. Louis Rubenstein, 
the president of the Quebec branch, re- 
ceived a request to visit the City-by-the- 
Sea and start them off with an exhibi- 
tion similar to those that have been put 
on in various western cities. Mr. Nor- 
ris, the secretary, will probably also go 
down, and will be assisted by Messrs. 
Lyon and Vernot. They will leave Mont- 
real on June 27. 

® 

BRITAIN'S LARGEST CUSTOMERS. 

THE Board of Trade states the values 
of produce and manufactures ex- 
ported by the United Kingdom to the 
leading foreign countries and the self- 
governing Dominions as follows : — 

Germany £40,302,767 

Australia £34,840,701 

United States £30,065,806 

France £25,585,681 

Canada £23,531,311 

South Africa £21,420.912 

Holland £14,281,668 

Belgium £12,193,306 

New Zealand £10,390.334 

The Dominions buy very much more 
in proportion to their population, than 
do foreign countries. 

@ 

AN ENGINE BREAKDOWN. 

T N the March issue of "Vulcan" some 
interesting illustrations are given 
of an engine breakdown, brought about 
by the failure of a cast iron crank. The 
engine, originally of the simple beam 
condensing type, was built as far back 
af; 1856, being afterwards compounded 
by fixing a vertical high-pressure cylin- 
der to the opposite end of the crank 
shaft. The high-pressure cylinder was 



21in. diameter by 4ft. stroke, and the 
low-pressure 33in. diameter by 6ft. 
stroke. The engine ran at 36 revolu- 
tions per minute, and drove the load by 
means of gearing. It had worked under 
these conditions for many years, but a 
little while ago commenced to give 
trouble on the high-pressure side, owing, 
in all probability, to a change in 
alignment caused by yielding of the 
foundations, connections, etc., and even- 
tually the cast iron crank broke sud- 
denly through the crank pin eye, smash- 
ing the high-pressure cylinder and nu- 
merous other parts. The illustrations 
showed that the broken crank was 
weakened to a great extent by a cotter 
hole for receiving the crank pin cotter, 
and on examination after the breakdown 
the metal showed signs of fatigue and 
gradual fracture. 

© 

A SEATLESS BLOW-OFF VALVE. 

"D ROBABLY there is no valve in the 
plant that gives as much trouble 
as the blow-off, and when you consider 
the amount of grit and scale that has 
to pass over this valve seat every time 
the boiler is blown down, the only won- 
der is that it does not give more trouble 




A SEATLESS BLOW OFF VALVE. 

than is usually experienced. It takes 
but a short time for a blow-off to 
dribble away five or ten dollars' worth 
of hot water once it begins to leak; be- 
sides this, the continual expense of re- 
grinding or renewing valve seats has to 
be taken into consideration, to say no- 
thing of the time and labor spent in try- 
ing to put it in something like service- 
able condition. 

Engineers have become so used to 
blow-off trouble, however, that they na- 
turally look for it, and probably won't 
be happy without it in some cases. It 
is one of the necessary evils — so looked 
upon by engineers, because they can't 
see any way to remedy it. The thing 
that gives trouble is the valve seat, and 
the thing to be overcome is to eliminate 
the seat, and yet make a tight valve ; 
one that will stay tight, not the first 
day. or week or month, but for years. 
108 



The simplex seatless blow-off valve is 
claimed to have successfully fulfilled 
these two requirements; and, as will be 
seen by the illustration, it is a very 
simple arrangement. No special direc- 
tions are required for operating or 
cleaning, it being only necessary to op- 
erate the handwheel. In closing, shoul- 
der (S) on plunger (V) engages loose 
follower gland (F). and compresses 
packing (P) above and below port, 
making an absolutely tight valve. 

The Garlock Packing Co., Hamilton, 
Ont., are the Canadian distributors of 
this valve. 

© 

Resuscitation, by Dr. Chas. A. Lauffer. 
Medical Director, Westinghouse Electric 
& Mfg. Co., East Pittsburgh, Pa.— This 
book includes a reprint of a paper on 
this subject delivered by the author be- 
fore the Philadelphia Section of the Na- 
tional Electric Light Association. The 
author, after explaining a number of 
successful results which have been ob- 
tained from employing resuscitation 
methods on men who were supposedly 
dead, gives a clear description of the 
mechanism of respiration, illustrating 
same by a number of views of the var- 
ious parts of the anatomy. The Prone 
Pressure or Schafer method of resusci- 
tation which has been adopted by the 
National Electric Light Association, and 
a number of other Engineering Societies, 
is described in detail. The book brings 
out, in a clear, concise manner, the 
necessity of people in general being vers- 
ed in the principles of resuscitation, and 
clearly shows how they can be taught, 
so as to prove of valuable assistance to 
persons in the ordinary walks of life. 

® 

Port Stanley, Ont. — Improvements 
now being carried out by the Depart- 
ment of Public Works, Canada, at Port 
Stanley, include the construction of a 
breakwater 1,200 feet long to protect the 
entrance to the harbor from the south- 
east. This work has been in progress 
since last spring, and it is anticipated 
that with fair weather it will be complet- 
ed this fall. The work is of a permanent 
character, being close-faced crib work 
filled with stone ballast for substructure 
and concrete for superstructure, and the 
reconstruction of the westerly landing 
pier with a design of reinforced concrete. 
The dredging is practically completed, 
both at the entrance to and in the har- 
bor, and there is now sufficient depth 
to permit vessels to draw 19 feet at low 
water. 

® 

A good salesman is like a good cook, 
he can create an appetite when the buy- 
er isn't hungry. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



A NEW GOVERNMENT STEAMER 
LAUNCHED AT QUEBEC. 

N May 20 there was launched from 
the shipyard of Geo. T. Davie & 
Sons, Levis, Quebec, the handsomely 
modelled Canadian Government hopper 
barge No. 1, built for services in the 
River St. Lawrence. The vessel is the 
first of its kind to be constructed on 
Canadian soil, and is the pioneer of a' 
large fleet to be built in the near future 
for assisting in the increased dredging 
operations of the river. The dimensions 
of the vessel are as follows : — 

Length B.P., 180 ft.; beam, 32 ft.; 
depth, 14 ft. 6 in.; draught, 12 ft.; and 
gross tonnage, 850 tons. 

The vessel is classed 100A1 at Lloyd 's 
for river service, having been built. 



J .H.P., consists of one set of triple expan- 
sion engines, having 14% x 24 x 38 
inch diameter cylinders, x 22 inch 
stroke, steam being supplied by two 
horizontal multitubular boilers, 10 feet 
diameter by 10 feet long, working at a 
pressure of 180 lbs. per square inch. 
There are two feed pumps of Weir's 
vertical direct acting type, fitted in 
connection with Weir's air pump, feed 
heater, evaporator and filter. A Drys- 
dale centrifugal pump furnishes the cir- 
culating water to the condenser; two 
large Weir general service pumps, two 
separate acting bilge pumps, one sani- 
tary and one fresh water pump are 
placed in the engine room, and a patent 
ash ejector is fitted in the stokehold. 
The deck machinery consists of a cap- 



manner amid the cheering of a large 
crowd of interested spectators. 

The berth lately occupied by the hop- 
per barge will be used to build one of 
the six large scows, for which Geo. T. 
Davie & Sons received a contract re- 
cently. 

© 

WIRELESS STATION ON TORONTO 
ISLAND. 

A LEXANDER C. LEWIS, secretary 
of the Toronto Harbor Commis- 
sion, states that he had received word 
from the Minister of Marine and Fish- 
eries, Ottawa, to the effect that a wire- 
less station will be established at To- 
ronto for service in connection with 




CANADIAN GOVERNMENT HOPPER BARGE NO. 1, PREVIOUS TO LAUNCHING. 



under special survey, and equipped ac- 
cording to Canadian Government regu- 
lations. The discharging arrangements 
consist of a series of six double doors 
on each side of the vessel, operated 
simultaneously or separately, the doors 
being of extra heavy design, and so ar- 
ranged that when open they do not ex- 
tend below the bottom of the hull. Ac- 
commodation for officers and crew is 
provided on the lower deck forward, 
and consists of large rooms for the offi- 
cers, with a common mess room for all, 
and separate rooms for the seamen and 
firemen. Ample space has been pro- 
vided for store rooms, etc., and the 
baths and lavatory arrangements show 
that more than the usual consideration 
has been given to the comfort of all on 
board. 

The machinery, developing about 500 



stan at the after end, a winch for oper- 
ating the hopper doors, and a windlass 
on the forecastle deck for the anchors. 
There is also a steam steering gear con- 
trolled from the flying bridge, as also a 
complete installation of electric light 
throughout the ship. Steam heating, 
fresh water and sanitary service are 
also provided. 

In appearance the new vessel repre- 
sents the usual type of hopper barge, 
having a forecastle deck, main deck, 
bridges and gangway over the hopper 
with the machinery placed at the after 
end. The trial will, no doubt, prove the 
efficiency of the new barge, and from 
present appearances much credit is due 
the builders. The launching ceremony 
took place in the early hours of the 
morning, and was a complete success, 
the vessel taking the water in a graceful 
109 



steamers plying on Lake Ontario. This 
station will be on the Island beside the 
Lighthouse, the site recommended by 
the Toronto Harbor Commission, when 
it urged the Government last summer 
to enact legislation compelling all steam- 
ers to carry a wireless apparatus. 

The legislation has been passed, and 
becomes effective after January 1, 1914. 
It provides that all steamers, whether 
registered in Canada or not, licensed to 
carry fifty or more passengers, going on 
a voyage of more than 200 nautical 
miles, and leaving a Canadian port, 
must be capable of transmitting and re- 
ceiving messages over a distance of one 
hundred miles, and a fully qualified op- 
erator must be in charge. Vessels such 
as the Hamilton steamers, which are at 
no time out of sight of land, are exempt 
from the regulations. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



WORK WANTED FOR DRYDOCK. 

"POR years there has been an agita- 
tion to have a drydoek at Montreal, 
the principal reason being that the in- 
surance rates would be lowered because 
were an ocean liner, even one of the larg- 
est, injured, repairs could be made on 
this side of the Atlantic. The dock 
came, the insurance rates were lowered, 
but just how much the shipping men do 
not say. 

F-. Orr Lewis, president of the Cana- 
dian Vickers Co. declares that the big 
dock has not been given one cent 's worth 
of work by the Canadian shipping com- 
panies, or by the English and foreign 
companies using the St. Lawrence route. 

' ' There is plenty of work that we 
could do, ' ' he says. ' ' There are enough 
big ships to keep our plant going to 
satisfy and enable us to have our staffs 
of men on hand, but the trouble is that 
the shipping men wish to keep us here, 
at a' great loss to ourselves, just for 
emergency purposes, so that the insur- 
ance rates may be kept down, and lower- 
ed still more. " 

Drydoek Agitation. 

' ' The companies using the St. Lawr- 
ence route have been agitating for years 



shipbuilding companies to establish a 
dock at Montreal. Every possible effort 
was made to have this done, but all the 
companies invited to establish the dock 
refused to do so, except the Vickers 
Company. We established the dock here 
believing, as we had been told, that we 
would be given the work. None has yet 
been given us, and the question is 
whether we will get it in the future. 

' ' We want the Canadian shipping in- 
terests to give us encouragement, and to 
give us the business they promised. We 
have an expensive plant at Montreal, 
about two millions of dollars tied up, 
and even with the Government subsidy, 
we cannot fail to lose a great deal of 
money unless we get the work. The 
shipping' men on the St. Lawrence evi- 
dently believe that they have the whip 
hand, now that they have got us here, 
and that we will stay here to be ready 
for the work of doing big "jobs" such 
as is done in big wrecks." 

Might Take It Away. 

Mr. Lewis stated that the Canadian 
Vickers Co. could sell its dock to-mor- 
row, and to interests who would take it 
away from the St. Lawrence route. It 
is ridiculous to expect, he said, that the 
company will maintain a staff of men at 



shipping interests to give their work to 
the dock established in Montreal. Labor 
here, said he, is high, and the prices for 
work are therefore higher in compar- 
ison with other places. For the sake of 
a few dollars they send their ships 
across the ocean to other places where 
there is cheaper labor. 



NEW ICE-BREAKER. 

■pLANS are being prepared by the 
Marine Department for what is ex- 
pected to be the largest and most power- 
ful ice-breaking steamer in the Can- 
adian service. A vote for the purpose 
was made last session, and Mr. C. Du- 
guid, the naval architect, is now making 
the plans. The new ship will be not only 
an ice-breaker, built with a view to Can- 
adian conditions, but also be equipped 
with a modern wrecking outfit. 

The vessel's headquarters will be at 
Quebec, and she will be utilized on the 
St. Lawrence to facilitate the early open- 
ing of navigation, and the prolongation 
of the season. She will cost half a mil- 
lion dollars, and have a length of 275 
feet, a beam of 66 feet, and a depth of 
30 feet. The indicated horse power will 
be 10,000. The vessel will be built on 




"DUKE OF CONNAUGHT" DKYDOCK WITH R. & O. STEAMER "MONTREAL" ABOARIt 



for a drydoek at Montreal," Mr. Lewis 
continued, "and as a result of their agi- 
tation several of the Canadian Ministers 
of Marine have endeavored for the past 
six or seven years to induce English 



high wages idle most of the time just to 
help the shipping companies when there 
is an emergency job to be done. 

Mr. Lewis explained the reason for 
the unwillingness of the Canadian 
110 



the lines of the Ermack, the Russian 
ice-breaker. An interesting feature of 
the contract will be a stipulation, de- 
signed to assist home industry, that the 
ship must be built in Canada. 



PACIFIC 



Coast 



TWO NEW C.P.R. STEAMERS. 

'"pHAT the contracts for the two new 
5000-ton C.P.R. steamers, the pro- 
posed construction of which was an- 
nounced a short time ago, have been let 
to William Denny Bros., of Dumbarton, 
Scotland, is the announcement made by 
local officials of the C.P.R. The new 
Princesses will be employed in the coast 
service out of Vancouver and will be 
capable of carrying twice as many pas- 
sengers as the present boats. The orders 
for the immediate construction of these 
vessels were placed by Capt. J. W. 
Troupe, after consulting with Sir Thom- 
as Shaughnessy, prior to sailing from 
the Old Country for Canada. The ships 
are to be in operation by 1915, in order 
to handle a big share of the passenger 
trade that will result from the opening 
of the Panama Pacific Exposition at San 
Francisco. The vessels will be about 
400 feet long. 

New Vessels Docking. 

Prominent shipmasters, familiar with 
the navigation of the Inner Harbor, 
Victoria, expressed the opinion that it 
would be practically impossible to bring 
vessels of such length into the C.P.R. 
docks at James Bay, and as a conse- 
quence, there is widespread speculation 
as to what may be the plans of the com- 
pany in respect to the docking of the 
new ships. It is known that the Prin- 
cess Charlotte, which is shorter than the 
new Princesses now building, has long 
been regarded by shipping men as the 
limit in size for safe navigation in the 
Inner Harbor, and it is held to be prac- 
tically certain that the company will 
dock the new ships either at the Outer 
Harbor, or at new slips to be built at 
some point in the neighborhood of West 
Bay. It is interesting to recall in this 
connection, that, during the visit to 
Victoria last year of Louis Coste, Chief 
Engineer of the Public Works Depart- 
ment at Ottawa, when he made an ex- 
haustive inquiry into the problem of 
harbor development and selected the site 
of the breakwater, he expressed the 
opinion that West Bay could be utilized 
with great advantage to accommodate 
shipping. 



The matter of where the new Prin- 
cesses are to dock is held to be of the 
greatest importance, as in the event of 
new wharves being utilized by the C.P.R. 
this would imply the creation of a new 
commercial area in some part of the 
city not as yet developed along these 
lines. 

@ 

PORT IMPROVEMENTS AT 
VICTORIA. 

'TP HE coastwise and foreign trade of 

Victoria, B.C., says the Pacific 

Marine Review, has so materially ad- 
vanced during the past three years that 
the Dominion Government has taken de- 
cisive steps in the improvement of its 
harbor, which is destined to be one of 
the most important on the coast. In 
1909, 2,401 vessels employed in the 
coasting trade arrived at Victoria, and 
2,392 departed; in 1910, 2,636 vessels 
arrived, and 2,635 departed; in 1911, 
3,103 coasting vessels arrived, and 3,123 
departed, and in 1912, 3,457 arrived and 
3,487 departed. Vessels engaged in the 
foreign trade have also increased during 
the past few years. In 1909, 903 for- 
eign-going vessels arrived, and 575 de- 
parted ; in 1910, 777 vessels arrived, and 
513 departed; in 1911, 795 vessels ar- 
rived, and 415 departed, and in 1912, 
1,076 vessels arrived, and 478 departed. 

Outer Harbor Breakwater. 

The first appropriation for the break- 
water, which is to be built by the Do- 
minion Government in connection with 
the piers and improvements at the Outer 
Harbor, will amount to $1,500,000. The 
piers to be built in connection with the 
breakwater will cost, with their ware- 
houses, $1,800,000. There will be four 
warehouses of 1,000 feet in length on 
each pier, and the appliances for hand- 
ling freight will be of the most modern 
type. The area of the Outer Harbor 
when thus completed will be 300 acres, 
and the minimum depth at low tide will 
be thirty-five feet. 

The breakwater is to be 2,500 feet in 
length, and will serve as a protection 
to the entrance of the Inner Harbor, as 
well as to the piers to be built and the 

111 



Kithet piers already in use, thereby 
materially benefiting the great number 
of coasting vessels entering and depart- 
ing from the Inner Harbor. 

Drydock Location. 

The drydock contemplated by the Do- 
minion Government is to be located at 
Esquimalt Harbor, which is just ad- 
jacent to Victoria. A graving dock is 
already established at Esquimalt Har- 
bor, this dock being 450 feet in length 
level with keel blocks, and 480 feet at 
gate on outer curve. The new dock is 
to be 1,150 feet in length, 110 feet at 
the gates, and having 35 feet of water 
over the sill. Accommodation can thus 
be provided for any ship now afloat. It 
is estimated that this dock will cost in 
the neighborhood of $5,000,000. 

Shipbuilding, which is now being 
carried on with success at Esquimalt, 
will undoubtedly be stimulated by the 
construction of this drydock. The new 
steamer for the Canadian Pacific Railway 
Co., the "Princess Maquinna," a thor- 
oughly up-to-date coasting vessel, is now 
building by the British Columbia Marine 
Railway Co., Esquimalt. The C. P. R. 
have also just let a contract for the con- 
struction of two steamers of 5,000 tons 
for the British Columbia coasting ser- 
vice, which has so wonderfully develop- 
ed of late years. The Grand Trunk 
Pacific Railway Co. have also found it 
necessary to establish docks and steam- 
ship connections at Victoria. 

The opening of the Panama Canal 
should find Victoria in an enviable posi- 
tion for handling a large ocean and sea- 
going trade. The commencement of the 
bridging of the Seymour Narrows, con- 
necting Victoria by straight rail with 
all of Canada and North America, it is 
believed, will not be long delayed after 
the completion of the canal. Middle 
Canadian wheat must find a Pacific out- 
let, and while there is no reason to be- 
lieve that other ports on the Pacific 
Coast will not ship a certain portion 
of this, it is believed by shrewd ob- 
servers that Victoria will be in a posi- 
tion to handle a very large bulk. All 
wheat-laden cars emptied into British 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



bottoms at Victoria can be reloaded 
with lumber, the staple which the 
Prairie Provinces cannot grow and must 
have, and no car will be returned empty. 

® 

S.S. "GLACE BAY" INSURANCE. 

A CONTEMPORARY, says Syren & 
Shipping, has drawn attention to the 
case of the s.s. "Glace Bay," which 
is ashore in Trepassey Bay, Newfound- 
land, and refers to the difficulty in con- 
nection with the arrangement made by 
underwriters with Merritt's Salvage Co., 
of New York, to endeavor to get her off, 
because of the Newfoundland Govern- 
ment demanding a 35 per cent, duty on 
the materials necessary to be imported 
for the work. The Newfoundland auth- 
orities are quite within their rights, as 
they are acting on the tariff law. The 
Premier of the Colony may perhaps make 
an exception in this case, but it might 
create a dangerous precedent. If this 
exception is made, what position will the 
local salvage firms stand in? They 
would always be liable to see work go 
past tliem to New York, which would, 
of course, spoil their tariff system and 
practically close their trade. 

It appears to us that underwriters 
know full well the risks they take when 
they write their lines, and if they have 
to pay more for salvage services, they 
must make the best of it. In this case, 
it appears from the latest reports, that 
there is little chance of saving the 
steamer. So far as our recollection goes, 
there has only been one vessel which has 
got off when ashore at this spot in New- 
foundland, and that was the "Wilhelm- 
ina, " which was floated under very ex- 
ceptional circumstances. She had a 
cars'o of timber which proved her sal- 
vation. While she was ashore a strong 
southerly wind set in, and caused the tide 
to run higher than usual, which enabled 
the vessel, although her bottom was bad- 
ly damaged, literally to float off on her 
cargo. We understand that the "Glace 
Bay" has become a total wreck, and that 
salvage operations have, therefore been 
entirely abandoned. 

@ 

NEW STEAMSHIP SERVICE 
INAUGURATED. 

"p HE Border Line Transportation Co. 

lias recently been incorporated under 
the laws of the State of Washington to 
engage in a general business between 
Puget Sound and British Columbia 
points. At present the line owns and 
operates the American S.S. "Fulton" 
aad has under charter the British S.S. 
"Leona," giving a service every three 
days. It is the intention of this com- 
pany to purchase or build another suit- 
able American boat to be operated with 
the S.S. "Fulton." 



The Border Line Transportation Co. 
will be operated by Dodwell & Co., .Ltd., 
as agents, and the vessels will not only 
act as feeders and distributors for ocean 
vessels, but will also handle the output 
of the Powell River Co., Ltd., located 
at Powell River, B.C., which company 
is at the present time manufacturing 
150 tons of paper per day. 

® 

CANADIAN VICKERS, LTD. 

/^vUR illustration shows the Richelieu 
& Ontario Navigation Co., steamer 
"Montreal" aboard the floating dry- 
dock, ' ' Duke of Connaught ' ' at the plant 
of the Canadian Vickers, Ltd., Montreal. 
In view of the many conflicting state- 
ments concerning the utility and com- 
mercial aspect of such an equipment at 
the metropolis on the St. Lawrence, we 
believe the accompanying official in- 
formation concerning the docking of the 
S.S. "Montreal" will be quite timely. 

The "Montreal" was docked high and 
dry in the space of 4 hours from the time 
the vessel arrived at the dock entrance, 
and this time will undoubtedly shorten 
when the local laborers have become ex- 
perienced in tthe operation. The whole 
work of docking, cleaning, scraping and 
painting the ship was done in 2y 2 days 
from the arrival of the vessel at the 
dock entrance, and needless to say, all 
shipping men will agree that this com- 
pares extremely favorably with similar 
operations in any part of the world. It 
should also be noted that this first case 
of docking is, in itself, a striking ex- 
ample of the advantages which the port 
of Montreal now has there being no 
other dock within hundreds of miles 
capable of so dealing with this particu- 
lar ship. 

® 

ARMING THE "LUSITANIA." 

HE reason why the crack liner 
Lusitania has been so long delayed 
at Liverpool, cables the correspondent 
of the New York Tribune, was announc- 
ed to have been because her turbine 
engines were being completely replaced, 
but the Cunard officials now acknow- 
ledge that the greyhound is being equip- 
ped with high power naval guns in con- 
formity with England's new policy of 
arming passenger boats. When the 
great ship, the third selected by the 
Government for armament, next ap- 
pears in New York, about the end of 
August, she will be the first British 
merchantman for more than a century 
sailing up the lower bay with black 
guns bristling over her sides. 

The Lusitania, which will bo an in- 
valuable addition to England 's mer- 
chant fleet, because not only is she so 
fast, but of such great capacity for 
112 



carrying troops, was originally built 
with her decks adapted for armament, 
and the task of installing guns will be 
comparatively easy. 

Ann Mauretania, Too. 

It is very probable that, immediately 
the tourist season is ended, the Maure- 
ania will be called to Liverpool, over- 
ruled and equipped with guns. The 
British Government is hastening the 
Cask of creating an armed fleet under 
Che red ensign. The mail boat running 
Co South America now carries guns, and 
a few days ago the Aberdeen liner, 
Themistocles sailed from the Thames 
bound for Australia equipped also with 
the newest type of guns. 

@— . 

DOCKYARDS ON PRINCE EDWARD 
ISLAND. 

T T is reported that the Dominion Gov- 
ernment is taking immediate steps 
to construct a marine yard on the At- 
lantic seaboard, which in size and ca- 
pacity will enable it to turn out smaller 
class cruisers and other type of war 
vessels, transports, as well as all classes 
of vessels required in the Government 
service. The new shipyard will be con- 
structed and operated by the Govern- 
ment, and its location is to be at Char- 
lottetown, P.E.I. It will be the first de- 
finite step to carry out Premier Bor- 
den's policy of building up a great ship- 
building industry in Canada. 

The whole question of shipbuilding in 
the Dominion is now receiving the most 
careful consideration of the Govern- 
ment, and it is likely that a Royal Com- 
mission composed of experts will be ap- 
pointed to inquire closely into every- 
thing associated with and pertaining to 
the matter. 

It is hoped to have the yard com- 
pleted and ready to receive construction 
orders in less than four years. Situated 
on the Atlantic seaboard, practically in 
the path of all vessels plying between 
Great Britain and the Dominion, in a 
splendid natural harbor, and of easy ac- 
cess to the steel works of Nova Scotia, 
the new yard will undoubtedly prove a 
successful enterprise. 

— e — 

IMPERATOR'S MAIDEN TRIP. 

/ T S HE steamship Tmperator, biggest 
ship afloat, bathed her keel in the 
Hudson River, New York, for the first 
time on June 19. With pennants flut- 
tering from bow to stern, her bands 
playing lively airs, and river traffic bel- 
lowing a hoarse salute, the new giant of 
the seas was warped into her pier at 
Hoboken by a fleet of tugs. Thousands 
of persons saw her stately journey from 
quarantine to her dock. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



CAUSES OF OVERHEATING IN 
STEAM BOILERS. 

*p HE following 1 article is selected 
from the "Memorandum on Steam 
Boilers" prepared some time ago by 
Mr. William Buchan, one of H.M. In- 
spectors of Factories, and will be found 
of considerable practical interest to all 
engaged in steam power plant work, ir- 
respective of relation thereto: 

Scale and Sediment. 

Feed water often contains solid mat- 
ter in solution or suspension. As 
evaporation proceeds, solid matter in 
solution is deposited as a fine precipi- 
tate which under certain conditions 
forms a hard scale or crust. Sea water 
acts in the same way, leaving a deposit 
of salt. If the feed water is sedimen- 
tary, i.e., contains solids in suspension, 
there will be a deposit of mud within 
the boiler. It is most important to pre- 
vent any accumulation, and the remedies 
may be classified as follows: — ■ 

(1) — Substitution of a pure water 
supply. (2)- — Treatment at the boiler. 

(3) — Removal of all scale-forming 
constituents from the feed water before 
it enters the boiler. The first remedy, 
although effectual, is not always prac- 
ticable, and the second class covers 
such methods as (a) the systematic 
cleaning of the boiler and removal of 
scale; (b) blowing off regularly when 
the boiler is at work to carry away the 

2l/ 2 

deposit and keep the density below 

32, 

and (c) the addition of a suitable sol- 
vent which prevents the deposit forming 
a hard incrustation. Before using any 
boiler composition, it is expedient to 
have the water analysed, and to settle 
the routine under expert advice, as a 
composition suitable with one kind of 
feed water may be useless with another, 
and it should be remembered that the 
use of such composition does not re- 
move the necessity for systematic 
cleaning. 

A definite interval cannot be fixed for 
cleaning and scaling boilers as so much 
depends on circumstances. For each 
boiler this interval should be fixed by 
experience, and the best guide is prob- 
ably the thickness of deposit, which 
should not be allowed to exceed a six- 
teenth of an inch on the main heat-ab- 
sorbing surfaces ; particular attention 
should consequently be given to the re- 
moval of scale from parts exposed to 
high temperatures, for instance, fur- 
nace and firebox crowns and tubes of 
multitubular and water-tube boilers. 
These tubes can be kept clean by the 
use of brushes or tube scrapers of vari- 
ous types, and if the deposit is hard, 
turbine cleaners can be applied. The 



latter are operated by water, steam, or 
compressed air, supplied by a hose, and 
the rapid succession of blows by the 
vibrator or milled cutter knocks the 
scale from the tubes, leaving them prac- 
tically clean. As nearly all the ex- 
plosions of water-tube boilers occur at 
the tubes it is most important that they 
be kept clean. 

Overheating Through Grease. 

When exhaust steam is passed into 
the feed water to heat it, or the oily 
water of condensation from a condens- 
ing engine is used as feed water, grease 
will be present in the boiler, and as it 
becomes concentrated on the surface of 
the flues or tubes, will not only reduce 
the efficiency of the boiler, but be a 
positive source of danger, as it may lead 
to serious overheating and subsequent 
collapse of furnace crowns or tubes. A 
film of grease one-hundredth of an inch 
thick offers resistance to the passage of 
heat equal to a steel plate ten inches 
thick. In other words, grease offers a 
thousand times the resistance of steel to 
the passage of heat. 

If it were only realized that the ap- 
parently harmless film of oil offered as 
much resistance to the passage of heat 
as a thick deposit of hard scale, more 
care would be taken to eliminate it. 
When oil is present in the feed water, 
much of it exists in an emulsified condi- 
tion, i.e., in the form of minute sus- 
pended globules. The principal methods 
now in use for the removal of grease 
are : 

Filtration of feed water. Whether 
gravitation or pressure filters are used, 
the feed water passes through some 
filtering medium, such as canvas or 
sand. In land boilers this system is not 
advisable, as a rule, except as an auxili- 
ary to other methods, as the filters only 
remove the bulk of the oil, but not the 
finest particles of it. 

Separation of grease from the exhaust 
steam before the steam enters the con- 
denser or heater. A grease separator 
consists of a metal chamber with a 
number of baffle plates inside. Owing 
to the large volume of the separator, 
and the presence of the baffle plates, the 
velocity of the exhaust steam is reduced 
and consequently the bulk of the oil is 
thrown down. This method gives better 
results with non-condensing engines 
than with condensing engines, results 
being often unsatisfactory with the lat- 
ter, because of the great velocity of the 
steam as it passes through the separator. 

Chemical treatment of the greasy 
water and subsequent filtration. — The 
feed water is automatically treated 
with correct proportions of suitable re- 
agents which collect the minute globules 
in a form suitable for removal by filters 
of wood fibre or sand. 



Electrical treatment of the greasy 
water and subsequent filtration. — The 

water is allowed to collect in a vat; the 
passage of an electrical current through 
the water, by means of metal plates, 
causes the minute globules to coalesce, 
and in this form the oil can be efficiently 
removed by sand filters. 

If it is desired to heat the feed water 
by exhaust steam from which the grease 
has not been removed, the steam should 
bo conveyed in coils of pipes, and should 
not, upon any account, be brought into 
direct contact with the feed water. 
Where condensers are used, very satis- 
factory results can be obtained by 
combining a grease separator (placed 
between the engine and the condenser), 
with a good chemical or electrical me- 
thod and subsequent filtration. 

@ 

DESIGN AND ECONOMY OF DIESEL 
ENGINES. 

a PAPER on "The Design and Econ- 
**■ omy of Diesel Engines" was read 
at a recent meeting of the Association 
of Engineers-in-Charge by Capt. H. 
Kiall Sankey. The author compared the 
cost of running Diesel engines with 
other prime movers, and pointed out 
that the condensing steam engine can, 
for short periods, give as much as 50 
per cent, above the rated power, while 
non-condensing steam engines and the 
Diesel engine can give 10 per cent., but 
the gas engine can usually only do its 
rated power for short periods, and about 
85 per cent, continuously. Taking the 
case where an average load of 200 horse 
power, and a maximum of 300 horse 
power for short periods is required, and 
the total running hours 3,000 per year, 
the following total annual costs were 
given: — Non-condensing steam plant, 
$7,225; condensing steam plant. $5,280; 
oil engine, $5,275; gas engine suction 
producer, $5,030; gas engine pressure 
producer, $4,980; Diesel engine, $4,660; 
overtype superheated condensing plant, 
$4,395. In this connection, interest on 
capital was taken at 5 per cent., and 
stores, labor, maintenance, repairs, and 
depreciation and fuel cost were taken 
into account. The costs per ton were 
taken as: — Oil, $10.25; coal for pres- 
sure producers, $4.50; coal for suction 
producers, $6.80 ; coal for steam boilers, 
$4.50. Only 120 tons of fuel are re- 
quired for the Diesel engine, while 1022 
tons are required for the non-condens- 
ing steam plant. 

@ 

Canada Transportation Lines, Ltd., is 
the title of the merger of the various 
Canadian lake and steamship lines, 
which has been consummated through 
the instrumentality of the Richelieu and 
Ontario Navigation Co. 



113 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



The MacLean Publishing Company 

LIMITED 

(ESTABLISHED 1888.) 



JOHN BAYNE MACLEAN * 
H. T. HUNTER - - - 

PUBLISHERS 



President 
General Manager 



MarineEngineering 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress anrl develop- 
ment of .Merchant and Naval Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, 
the building of Harbors and Docks, and containing a record of 
the latest and best practice throughout the Sea-going World. 



H. V. TYRRELL, Toronto 
PETER BAIN, M.E., Toronto 



Business Manager 
Editor 



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Vol. Ill 



JUNE, 1913 



No. 6 



RECENT WRECK COMMISSION INQUIRIES. 

TXTE have pleasure in recording our appreciation of the 
results of the efforts put forth on behalf of Captains 
Harrison and Hoy, of the steamships Royal George and 
Bengore Head respectively, with a view to quashing the 
judgments passed upon them by Canadian Wreck Com- 
missions and which involved the suspension of their cer- 
tificates. Both officers have had the sympathy of ship- 
ping men all over the world, our contemporary, the 
"Canadian Railway and Marine World," in its effort to 
raise a side issue, notwithstanding. We cannot do bet- 
ter than quote its views expressed in a recent editorial, be- 
cause, for lack of point, and sublimity of ignorance, real 
or assumed, of what constitutes a misdemeanour under 
the circumstances, they cannot be surpassed. 

After quoting the expression of opinion given concern- 
ing the Royal George decision, in a recent number of 
"The Journal of Commerce," our Canadian contempor- 
ary goes on to remark that their author "is either lam- 
entably ignorant of the facts, and, therefore, incompetent 
to express an opinion, or else he is blinded by insular pre- 
judice or some other cause. Further comment, it says, is 
reserved until the full text of the Board of Trade de- 
cision is received, but in the meantime, it may, however, 
be pointed out that representatives of that body, who 
probably have never seen the St. Lawrence, and know 
nothing about it, are hardly likely to be accepted, at least 
in Canada, as any better authorities than Canadian offi- 
cials who thoroughly know the route." 

Why this bother about the route, when the question 
was one of justice to the men, having regard to the cir- 
cumstances? "Syren and Shipping" handles the matter 
without gloves, and shows the utter lack of appreciation 



of the evidence offered, by the Commission which purport- 
ed to hand out justice. We quote that journal as follows : 

"For the second time, within the space of a few weeks, 
has the verdict of a Canadian Court of Inquiry been 
upset — in the one instance by the Board of Trade them- 
selves, and in the other as a result of the victim's appeal 
to the Admiralty Division. Towards the end of April 
last, the Board returned the certificate of Capt. Harrison, 
late master of the Canadian Northern liner Royal George, 
thus administering a smart rebuke to the Court which 
had passed a sentence of twelve months' suspension on 
that mariner, while the Admiralty appeal was heard on 
May 24, and resulted in the restoration of the certificate of 
Capt. J. C. Hoy, of the Bengore Head. 

There was a strong element of similarity about the two 
cases. In that of the Royal George, the real culprit was 
the pilot, and his license was suspended for a term of 
three years, but the Court, in its wisdom, blamed Capt. 
Harrison for not being on the bridge at the time, the idea 
of that tribunal apparently being that a shipmaster should 
be able to do without sleep altogether. In the case of the 
Bengore Head, it was the second officer who was respon- 
sible for the casualty, and his certificate was suspended 
for a period of nine months. This court, however, held 
similar views to those of the other, and, on finding that 
Capt. Hoy was below at the time of the stranding, sus- 
pended his ticket for the space of three months. In each 
instance the sentence was utterly uncalled for. 

Capt. Harrison, although there was a pilot in charge 
of his vessel, had had only about six hours ' sleep in nearly 
three and a half days; while Capt. Hoy, when he went 
below, had given full and proper instructions to the 
officer on watch ; the subsequent trouble being due to the 
fact that the officer took it upon himself to alter the 
ship's course without informing the master. 

It is satisfactory to know that the Courts which inflict- 
ed these outrageous sentences have been duly snubbed, but 
surely the matter ought not to end there. In Capt. Hoy's 
case, the sentence of suspension had run its full course, 
long before the appeal was heard, and thus the reversal 
of the Canadian Court's decision is simply a figure of 
speech. It is but poor consolation to a man, when he has 
paid the penalty for a fault which he never committed, to 
be told months afterwards that he was wrongfully con- 
victed. Capt. Harrison, we believe, is even worse off. Of 
course, he lost his command, and, so far as we are aware, 
he has not been reinstated. 

Surely there is something radically wrong when inno- 
cent men who bave lost their employment through the 
stupidity of those appointed to sit in judgment upon them 
cannot obtain a penny in the way of compensation. Are 
they not as much entitled to be compensated as the drunk- 
en seaman who, after a debauch ashore, comes reeling 
back to his ship and lames himself in climbing aboard her? 
There is another point, too, which is worthy of considera- 
tion. It has been suggested by our daily contemporary, 
the Shipping Gazette, that when a bona fide appeal is en- 
tered against the sentence of a Court of Inquiry, the pun- 
ishment should stand suspended. The idea is a thoroughly 
good one, more especially in its application to the deci- 
sions at inquiries held abroad. It frequently happens 
that the result of such investigations constitutes an utter 
travesty of justice, and it is deplorable that the sentence 
should come into operation before the unhappy victim has 
a chance to take his case before a saner and more impartial 
tribunal. Even a common criminal lias a right to appeal 
nowadays before his term of punishment begins. Surely, 
(hen, the shipmaster or officer, whoso only offence if he 
has offended at all — is that he has failed to do his work 
properly, should enjoy at least an equal privilege." 



114 




MablneNews 




E/EE/SOURCE 




Vancouver, B.C.— A list of names of 
candidates for the proposed Harbor 
Commission of Vancouver has been for- 
warded to Ottawa. 

Port Coquitlam, B.C.— The Coquit- 
lam Shipbuilding' and Marine Railway 
Co. will build a marine railway slip, 
costing' $30,000. L. D. Shafner is 
manager. 

Port Coquitlam, B. C. — The Fraser 
River Navigation Co. will put on a 
freighter to make daily trips between 
this city and New Westminster, and 
will erect a wharf at Pitt River. 

Liverpool, N.S. — An electrical storm 
struck Coffin's Island lighthouse and 
practically destroyed it on June 19. 
The lighthouse was 65 feet high, with 
a white revolving light visible sixteen 
miles. 

Vancouver, B.C. — The Canadian Pa- 
cific's new liner Empress of Russia, 
Captain Beetham, sailed on June 19, on 
her first trip from Vancouver to the 
Orient. She takes out fifty-five saloon 
passengers and a number of Chinese. 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. — The steamer 
Van Hise, which went aground on May 
23 in the Straits, was released by the 
wrecker Favorite the following day. 
About 800 tons of her cargo of ore was 
jettisoned before her release was effect- 
ed. The Van Hise was bound for Chi- 
cago. 

Windsor, Ont. — The Detroit, Ojibway 
and Ecorse Ferry Co. started its ferry 
service between Ecorse and Sandwich 
on May 24. The 50-ft. launch, with a 
capacity of 60 passengers, was put on 
the run. A 100-ft. launch, now under 
construction, will be commissioned about 
July 1. 

Vancouver, B. C. — The Northern 
Dredging Co. Ltd., capital $250,000 has 
Ijeen incorporated at Victoria to do 
dredging work on the coast of the main- 
land, and Vancouver Island. They 
have one dredge of the dipper type, 
and are making arrangements for two 
others as soon as contracts are signed 
up. Their offices are in the North-West 
Trust Bldg. J. A. McDougall, is presi- 



dent and general manager, and W. B. 
Brien, vice-pres, and treas. 

Toronto, Ont. — The Richelieu and On- 
tario Navigation Co. have bought out 
the following five lines : — The Canadian 
Interlake Line, Limited, The Niagara 
Navigation Co., The Inland Lines, Ltd., 
The Ontario & Quebec Navigation Co., 
The Quebec Steamship Co. 

Charlottetown, P.E.I. — The schooner 
Polar Star, which left Pictou, N.S., for 
Charlottetown on Tuesday, June 10, 
with 100 tons of coal, foundered off 
Point Prim the same night. Captain 
Cormier of Souris ; Henri Bushey and 
Andrew MacDonald, of Charlottetown, 
members of the crew, were drowned. 

Victoria, B.C. — The Canadian Pacific 
Railway has announced that the con- 
tract for the two new Princess steam- 
ships has been awarded to Denny and 
Brothers, of Dumbarton, Scotland. The 
cost of these steamships will be in the 
neighborhood of $2,000,000. They will 
be completed by 1915. 

Ottawa, Ont. — The Government will 
ratify and confirm an agreement with 
the Western Dry Dock and Shipbuilding- 
Co., Ltd., respecting the construction of 
a dry dock at Port Arthur, Ont., paying 
the company a subsidy of 3 per cent, 
per annum for 20 years on the sum of 
$1,250,000 — the cost of constructing the 
dock. 

Montreal, Que.— A contract for the 
construction of a large freighter was 
closed by the American Shipbuilding 
Co., with Canadian interests in this city, 
last week. The boat will be built in 
Port Arthur, and will be 625 feet over 
all, and will have a capacity of 450,000 
bushels. She will be fitted with Scotch 
boilers and triple expansion engines. 

National Steamship Co. — The National 
Steamship Co., Ltd., of Toronto, has 
been incorporated under Dominion let- 
ters patent. The incorporators are 
Cawthra Mulock, financier; Gordon Fox- 
bar Perry, manufacturer; James Brown 
Foote, marine manager; Edmund Her- 
V ert Laschenger, financial agent, and 
Malcolm Stobel, broker, all of Toronto, 
and the company will have the gmeial 

115 



power of a steamship and transport 
organization, its operations to be carried 
on throughout the Dominion. The com- 
pany has a capital stock of two million 
dollars and its headquarters are at Tor- 
onto. 

Car Ferry Record. — The car ferry 
Bessemer, plying between Conneaut, 
Ohio and Port Stanley, on Saturday, 
May 31, made her fifty-sixth trip across 
Lake Erie in the month of May, break- 
ing her previous record of 52 trips. The 
boat brought to Canada 1,647 cars, or 
73,182 tons, of freight during the month. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The Thompson Tug Co. 
has purchased the steel tug Sport from 
the Cartier Holland Lumber Co., of 
Leamington, and the boat arrived in the 
river on June 20. She is about sixty 
feet in length and will be used for har- 
bor work. She was formerly used to 
tow logs and rafts. 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. — All boats 
bound either way through the American 
Canal have to pass through the north 
si'de of the draw of the C.P.R. bridge 
above the locks, on account of a con- 
tractor's outfit working at the south 
pier. The last portion of the old wood- 
en pier is being replaced with concrete. 

Port Arthur, Ont.— The floating of 
Noronic makes the third large ship 
launched from the Western Dry Dock 
and shipbuilding yard in six months, in- 
volving an expenditure of well over one 
million dollars, and shows the vast de- 
velopments that have taken place in 
Canadian shipping since the establish- 
ment of this plant at Port Arthur. 

Fort William, Ont.— Under the new 
regulations which will be put into effect 
at the city docks, all steamers at the 
wharf must be prepared to move when 
so required by the dock master, and 
vesselmen will not be permitted to leave 
freight on the dock for more than five 
hours. The loading or unloading of 
sand, gravel and cement will be per- 
mitted. Small craft, including gasoline 
boats, will dock at the lower end of the 
wharf, and the steamers at the upper 
end. R. McNab was appointed wharf 
master at a salary of $75 a month. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



New Welland Canal. — Tenders have 
been called for the first three miles of the 
new Welland Canal, starting from the 
Lake Ontario end. The tenders will be 
opened on July 17th, and it is expected 
to have work begun by August. The 
total cost of the new canal is estimated 
at $55,000,000. 

Wages Increase. — The Allan Line have 
granted an advance of five shillings a 
month to seamen and firemen employed 
on the Grampian and Hesperian, since 
those vessels have been engaged in carry- 
ing mails between Glasgow and the St. 
Lawrence. The advance is in accordance 
with the custom of mail service vessels, 
which pay higher rates than others. 

Port McNicoll, Ont.— The passenger 
steamer John Lee has been purchased 
from the Penetang Steamboat Co. by 
Port McNicoll parties, and will be oper- 
ated this season out of Port McNicoll 
and Midland, meeting the C. P. R. fast 
trains and giving a daily service be- 
tween Port McNicoll and Georgian Bay 
tourist resorts. 

Ottawa, Ont.— The Department of 
Marine and Fisheries is about to call 
tenders for the steamer Scout. The ves- 
sel is to be used in the lighthouse ser- 
vice between Montreal and the Welland 
Canal, and is to be 155 feet long, 30 
feet wide and 13 feet deep. It will be 
stipulated that the vessel must be built 
in Canada. 

Quebec. - The British steamer 
Wabana, Captain Reside, ran ashore be- 
low Matane, while on the passage from 
Sydney to Montreal, and was placed in 
the dock here. She has a bad dent, ex- 
tending nearly the entire length of her 
starboard side, and a shorter one on the 
port side. The Wabana would have to 
be in dry dock for about four weeks. 

Brockville, Ont.— The Donnelly Sal- 
vage and Wrecking Co. were successful 
in pumping out and pulling off the lake 
tug Florence, owned by the Quebec 
Transportation Co., which ran ashore 
capsized and filled with water at the 
head of the channel near Farran's 
Point. Inspection showed that she had 
not been injured, and she left for Mont- 
real. 

Toronto, Ont.— The freight steamer 
Doric, of the Richelieu and Ontario 
Navigation Co., Inland Lines division, 
damaged several of her bow plates on 
May 26, when she grazed a submerged 
rock near the entrance of Depot Har- 
bor, in the Georgian Bay. The boat's 
forepeak rapidly filled with water, but 
the captain succeeded with some diffi- 
culty in working her to Collingwood, 
where she was placed in dry dock. 



Vessels Chartered. — The Nova Scotia 
Steel & Coal Co. has secured a ten-years ' 
charter of the new steamers Wagama and 
Wascama, recently built on the Tyne. 
Each of these steamers carries 8,000 tons 
dead weight, and will be operated be- 
tween Wabana, Newfoundland, and 
North Sydney, and between North Syd- 
ney and Montreal, in the coal and ore 
trades . 

Montreal, Que. — An accident to the 
well known C.P.R. tug, Cruizer was re- 
ported recently. The Cruizer was driv- 
en by strong winds on to the rocks in St. 
Catherine's Bay, at the entrance of the 
Saguenay River, and her bows were 
badly damaged in consequence. The 
wrecking tug, Lord Strathcona, towed 
the Cruizer from St. Catherine's Bay to 
Quebec, where she will be repaired. 

Montreal, Que. — Not in years has the 
port of Montreal been so filled with ocean 
steamers as at the present time. The 
great rush of wheat from the upper lakes 
since the opening of navigation has fill- 
ed the harbor with a fleet of tramp ves- 
sels. Recently, at Windmill Point, there 
were eight big carriers loading or wait- 
ing for a chance to get off. In addition, 
there were two Standard Oil ships, to- 
gether with a bunch of coal carriers. 
Everywhere in the port there is great 
congestion of space. 

Montreal, Que. — With ten thousand 
barrels of oil in her tanks, the Standard 
Oil Company steamer 'No. 84, arrived 
here a few days ago. The ship is on her 
maiden trip, having been built last win- 
ter in Cleveland. She is the full canal 
size, in fact she had to do some wig- 
gling and twisting to squeeze through 
the locks. She is one of the finest tank 
steamers seen in the port in a long time, 
and is said to be the last word in such 
equipment in every respect. After coal- 
ing, she will run back for another load 
of the same class. Three or four more 
oil carriers are due here soon. 

St. Catharines, Ont. — A serious acci- 
dent on the Welland Canal occurred at 
Port Dalhousie about five o'clock Sun- 
day morning, June 15, when the four 
gates of Lock 1 were carried away, and 
navigation delayed. The steamer Neepa- 
wah, bound up for Port Colborne, had 
just passed through Lock 1 and was pro- 
ceeding towards the next lock when the 
wooden steamer Lloyd Porter, towing 
two barges, commanded by Captain 
Hefferman, and owned by Hepburn 
Bros., of Picton, approached the lower 
gates of Lock 1. She was traveling at 
a good speed, and the captain gave the 
signal to reverse, but the engineer mis- 
understood the signal, and instead of 
reversing, put on full speed ahead, send- 
ing the steamer crashing into the gates 
of Lock 1. 

116 



Vancouver, B.C.— The new C.P.R. 
Trans-Pacific liner Empress of Russia, 
Captain Beetham, R.N.R., tied up at 
Pier B., Saturday afternoon, June 7, be- 
ing the largest vessel ever berthed in 
the port of Vancouver. She clipped from 
twelve to thirteen hours off the Trans- 
Pacific record. The Empress carried sev- 
eral hundred passengers, who had been 
aboard since leaving Liverpool and who 
had taken advantage of her maiden voy- 
age around the world. 

Charles BE. Cramp, former head of the 
shipbuilding firm of William Cramp & 
Sons, of Philadelphia, died on June 6, 
at Philadelphia, after a lingering ill- 
ness. Mr. Cramp, who was 85 years old 
on May 9, had been in feeble health for 
some time, and about a month ago be- 
gan to grow weaker and sank gradually. 
He was born in Philadelphia, May 9, 
1828, being son of a shipbuilder, William 
Cramp, who founded on the Delaware 
river in 1830, the plant that has become 
one of the prominent shipbuilding com- 
panies in the world. 

Vancouver. — Captain Hansen, of the 
Danish steamer Kina, recently brought 
word that the owners, the East Asiatic 
Co., have ordered four motor-driven ves- 
sels for the Vancouver trade. It will be 
remembered that the East Asiatic Co. 
was the first concern to recognize the 
use of the Diesel motor for off-shore 
trade. The success of their first motor 
vessel, the Selandia, brought shipowners 
to a realization of the importance of the 
motor-driven craft. Captain Hansen 
has been requested to send home to 
Copenhagen particulars of dock accom- 
modation in Vancouver. The first vessel 
was recently launched, and will go to 
Vancouver via the Orient. 

Change of Rules. — Changes in rules of 
the road, in order to promote harmony 
between the United States and Canada 
in respect to lake navigation, were con- 
sidered in Ottawa on June 18, at a con- 
ference between Capt. King, of Toronto, 
chief examiner of masters and mates for 
Ontario; Capt. Coles, of Collingwood, 
examiner at that port, and officers of 
the Marine Department. The difference 
between American and Canadian rules 
has not infrequently been the cause of 
collisions or mishaps on the lakes, and 
consequently a change is proposed. The 
alterations, however, will be a purely 
technical character. 

Clyde Shipbuilding. — The shipbuild- 
ing output on the Clyde during the 
month of May totalled 56,000 tons, 
spread over 31 vessels, as compared with 
53,500 tons in the corresponding month 
of last year. The total for the five 
months of the year shows an increase of 
nearly 40,000 tons over that of the cor- 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



responding - period of 1912. The yards 
are still busy, but very few new con- 
tracts are being placed. This latter cir- 
cumstance is attributed partly to the 
increasing cost of production, and also 
to the difficulty of guaranteeing delivery 
in view of the strike which was theat- 
ened. 

Halifax, N.S. — A wire was received 
on board H.M.C.S. Niobe from Ottawa 
on June 14, announcing that the pension- 
ers and reserve men are to go home to 
England early in July. Commander 
Macdonald sailed for the Old Country 
on Wednesday, June 18, and the other 
officers will follow within a few weeks. 
A handful of men, it is understood, will 
be retained on board the Niobe as care- 
takers, and the ship will be tied up at 
one of the dockyard piers. 

Windsor, Ont. — In a cruise down 
through Livingstone Channel in the 
lower Detroit River, Lieut.-Col. Patrick, 
United States District Engineer; Wm. 
Livingstone, President of the Lake Car- 
riers' Association, and others asso- 
ciated with marine interests, investi- 
gated a number of conditions concern- 
ing which vessel masters have voiced 
criticism. Following the trip, the an- 
nouncement was made that the Lake 
Carriers' Association will place the tug 
Pittsburg on patrol duty along the chan- 
nel at night until some arrangements 
can be made for a Government patrol 
boat. The Pittsburg, among other duties, 
will see that lights are kept burning by 
placing lanterns to mark any which be- 
come extinguished. A stake light will 
be established on the west bank of 
Livingstone Channel about midway be- 
tween the lightship and gas buoy No. 
29, which marks the turning point, and 
is opposite Canadian buoy No. 79, and 
shows a green and white light. The light 
shown from the stake will be white. 

Charles B. Connell, head of the firm 
of Charles Connell & Co., Scotstoun, on 
the Clyde, who died recently in Glasgow, 
was one of the most popular men in Bri- 
tish shipbuilding. The undertaking in 
the management of which he succeeded 
his father was never a producer of liners, 
nor did it make the propelling machin- 
ery for the- vessels which it built; but 
for 20 or 30 years it has been in the 
forefront of British cargo-boat yards, 
expanding in area and productive capa- 
city as steamers of the type increased 
in size. He was about sixty years of 
age and had been ill for some time. If 
our memory serves us truly, his firm 
built, in 1883, two of the three vessels, 
the "Algoma," "Alberta," and "Affia- 
basca," for the Canadian Lakes service. 
These ships were constructed so that 
they passed through our eastern caals 
in two lengths. 



Royal Georgie at Sea Again. — The 

C. N. R. liner Royal George sailed from 
Bristol for Montreal, June 17, for the 
first time since she stranded on the Isle 
of Orleans late last fall. After the ac- 
cident, the company despaired of ever 
floating the ship again, but some excel- 
lent salvage work was accomplished, 
with the result that the George was fin- 
ally refloated and -towed into Quebec, 
where she was patched up sufficiently 
to allow of her proceeding to Halifax, 
where repairs of a more durable, though 
still of only a temporary nature, were 
effected. When these were completed, 
Captain Thompson, the marine superin- 
tendent of the line, took the ship to the 
other side, where she was thoroughly 
overhauled at the Tranmere yards of 
Cammell, Laird & Co., at Birkenhead. 
Recently, the Royal George made a most 
satisfactory trip, through a roughish 
sea, from Birkenhead to Avonmouth. 
Captain Thompson is in command, and 
the liner has a very satisfactory passen- 
ger list, by way of celebrating the happy 
occasion. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The new oil tank 
steamer "Imperoil," which has been 
added to the fleet of the Imperial Oil 
Co., and which formerly plied on the 
ocean, arrived at Sarnia on June 13, with 
a full cargo of crude oil which she load- 
ed at Cleveland on the way up. The 
boat hails from Old London, and is one 
of the strongest built crafts sailing on 
the lakes. She has hardly any fancy 
work, being built for great carrying ca- 
pacity. The machinery and equipment 
are, however, thoroughly up-to-date. The 
boat is considerably larger than the last 
new comer, the "Iocoma," and will be 
used to carry crude oil from Cleveland 
to Sarnia, and refined oil from here to 
Port William. 

S. S. "Impoco. — The Greenock and 
Grangemouth Dockyard Co., Limited, 
launcbed • on May 20, the steel 
screw steamer "Impoco," built to the 
order of the Imperial Oil Co., Ltd., of 
Sarnia, Ontario. Her dimensions are: — 
Length, b.p., 230 ft.; breadth, 43 ft,; 
depth, moulded, 21 ft. She is classed 
100 Al at Lloyd's, and has been built 
for the carriage of petroleum in bulk on 
the Canadian lakes, having been design- 
ed for passage through the Welland 
Canal. She will carry a total dead- 
weight of about 3,000 tons on 18 ft. 
draught, She will have triple-expan- 
sion engines, taking steam from two 
large boilers. 

Montreal, Que. — The new service be- 
tween Italy and Canada will start early 
in July, under the auspices of the Navi- 
gazione Generale Italiana and Italia 
lines, which are subsidiaries of the 
117 



Hamburg-American line. It was at first 
thought that the Sannio would be one 
of the boats employed on the route, but 
it has now been decided to commission 
the Napoli and the Lazio, each of which 
is about 9,200 tons gross register, and 
of a speed of about 14 knots. One boat 
will run to Quebec and Montreal, and 
the other to Halifax and Boston, the 
sailings being from Genoa, Naples and 
Palermo. 

® 

S.S. "JAMES CARRUTHERS." 

y N the descriptive article on the steam- 
*• ship "James Carruthers, " which ap- 
peared in our May number, we should 
have stated that the interior of the 
double bottoms and side tanks were 
coated with Briggs' Anti-corrosive Bi- 
tuminous Solution, and not with Anti- 
fouling compound. It may be of inter- 
est for our readers to know that Briggs' 
bituminous coatings were, for the most 
part, applied to the Hamburg- Ameri- 
can Co. Steamship "Imperator, " and 
are on order for the two vessels now 
under construction by them. 

@ 

CANADA'S WRECK COMMISSION 
SCORED. 

"DRITISH and American shipping 
journals, almost without exception, 
unite in condemning the Canadian 
Wreck Commission Court in the East- 
ern Provinces for its decisions with re- 
gard to captain's certificates in case of 
accident to the ships they command, and 
allege that many of the decisions given 
are unjust, and that their injustice has 
been inspired by the Dominion Govern- 
ment, with the object of casting blame 
on the commanders, in order to conceal 
the dangers which are stated to be in- 
cidental to the British North American 
trade. 

Commenting on the decisions arrived 
at in the cases of the Royal George and 
Bengore Head, the London Shipping- 
Gazette says: "In the case of the Royal 
George we have an experienced master 
thrown out of his command first, and ex- 
onerated afterwards. In the case of the 
Bengore Head, we have a master who 
serves his punishment first and is hon- 
orably acquitted afterwards. If this is 
justice, what in heaven's name is in- 
justice?" 

Syren and Shipping maintains that it 
is folly to censure a master because he 
happened to be below when an accident 
occurred. Captains, it points out, are 
merely human, and must sleep at times. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



KING'S BIRTHDAY HONORS. 

HONORS bestowed on the occasion of 
the recent birthday of our King, 
will be appreciated no less by the ship- 
building, shipping and marine engineer- 
ing fraternity than by the gentlemen on 
whom they have been conferred. Dr. 
Archibald Denny and Mr. Stephen Fur- 
ness have been made Baronets, and Pro- 
fessor J. H. Biles has been made a 
Knight. Sir Archibald Denny, Bart, is 
a partner in the world-known ship- 
building and marine engineering firms 
of William Denny Bros, and Denny & 
Co., respectively, of Dumbarton, Scot- 
land. He holds a high reputation as a 
naval architect, and has acted on several 
occasions as Chairman of Royal Com- 
missions appointed to investigate, ques- 
tions pertaining to naval architecture 
and marine engineering. As a contem- 
porary expresses it, "His Majesty will 
probably be esteemed to have distin- 
guished the whole of the world's premier 
shipbuilding river, by so honoring Dr. 
Denny. ' ' 



nections between all British possessions 
on this side of the Atlantic. 

The Assets. 

The statement of the Canadian Ap- 
praisal Co. as to the valuation of the 
new company was placed before the dir- 
ectors as follows: 

Vessels $16,875,034.00 

Real estate, buildings & 

dock properties 5,450,267.99 

Lease and contracts, good- 
will, etc 8,791,935.67 

Bond investments 139,232.37 

Stores and supplies on 

hand 161,623.62 

Cash in bank and on hand 130.873.28 

Notes and accounts re- 
ceivable 845,545.74 

Unexpired insurance .... 98,802.66 

Deferred charges on oper- 
ations 31,294.59 

Cash paid on account new 

steamers 60,078.95 



R. & O. MERGER PLANS. 

'"pHE board of directors of the Riche- 
lieu and Ontario Navigation Co., at 
a special meeting held on -June 10„ 
unanimously ratified the plans which 
have been under way for some time, call- 
ing for the organization of a new com- 
pany to take over the Richelieu and 
Ontario and some ten other steamship 
lines operating on the upper Canadian 
Lakes and the St. Lawrence River route. 
The board appointed a committee con- 
sisting of the president, James Carruth- 
ers; the vice-president and managing 
director, James Playfair; the chairman 
of the finance committee, Sir H. Mon- 
tagu Allan, and the chairman of the ex- 
ecutive committee, J. R. Binning, and 
Messrs Edmund Bristol, K. C, M.P.; 
C. A. Barnard, K.C. and W. Grant Mor- 
den, to carry out the detailed arrange- 
ments, a full detailed announcement of 
which will be made in due course. 

Objects of the Consolidation. 

The main objects of the consolidation 
were, it was explained, to round out the 
entire organization of the package 
freight and passenger business right 
through from Montreal to the head of 
the Lakes at Port Arthur and Fort AVil- 
liam, and the purchase of the Quebec 
Steamship Co., it was shown, would pro- 
vide the company with a through pas- 
senger service on the entire St. Lawrence 
route from Montreal to Pictou, and 
thence to New York. The company 
would also have a through line from New 
York to Bermuda and the West Indies. 
This would result in an all-British or- 
ganization, with direct steamship con- 



$32,584,688.87 



Liabilities. 

5 per cent. 30-year deben- 
tures $ 7,500.000.00 

125,000, 7 per cent, prefer- 
ence shares at $100 each 12,500,000.00 

120,000 ordinary shares at 

$100 each 12,000,000.00 

Current accounts payable 584,688.87 



$32,584,688.87 



tario Navigation Co., of U.S.A. ; Quebec 
Steamship Co., Ltd. ; Canada Interlake 
Line, Ltd.; Ontario and Quebec Naviga- 
tion Co., Ltd.; Merchants Montreal Line; 
S.S. Heddington; and Thousand Island 
Steamboat Co., Ltd. 

— m — ■ 



Estimated Earnings. 
The statement of net earnings of the 
companies for the past three years were: 
1910 $ 885,545.39 

1911 1,153,909.62 

1912 1,503,948.67 

Allowing for new tonnage, not in 
operation before this year, the increase 
in earnings over 1912, it was estimated, 
would amount to $263,000. It was said, 
too, that the saving in executive ex- 
penses under central management would 
be $150,000, which would make the 1913 
net profits $1,916,948.67. This would 
leave 7 per cent, on the preferred stock, 
5 per cent, on the debenture stock, and 
5% P €r cent, on the common stock. 

The new company will have an author- 
ized capital of $25,000,000, divided into 
$12,500,000, 7 per cent, preference cum- 
ulative stock, and $12,500,000 ordinary 
stock. There will also be $7,500,000 of 
5 per cent., 30-year first mortgage de- 
benture stock. 

Companies Acquired. 

The following companies have been 
acquired: — Richelieu & Ontario Naviga- 
tion Co.; Inland Lines, Ltd.; Northern 
Navigation Co., Ltd.; Niagara Naviga- 
tion Co., Ltd.; St. Lawrence River 
Steamboat Co., Ltd.; Richelieu & On- 
118 



CAR BARGE FOR C.P.R. 
■T^HE Poison Iron Works, Ltd., Tor- 
onto, are building to the order of 
the C.P.R., for service at Nelson, B.C., 
a 3 track car barge, with capacity of 15 
loaded cars, and of the following dimen- 
sions : Length, 224 ft. ; beam, 42 ft. 6 in. ; 
and depth, 8 ft. The barge will be er- 
ected at the builder's yard, being after- 
wards "knocked down" and shipped to 
Nelson, where it will be re-erected, com- 
pleted, launched and put into commis- 
sion. Watertight bulkheads of ample 
strength for the particular service, 7-in. 
shipbuilding channel frames, 7-16-inch 
shear and keel strake plates, and %-inch 
hull and deck plating constitute a few 
of the constructional details. The con- 
tract price was in the vicinity of $80,- 
000. 

© 



WELLAND CANAL ACCIDENT. 

A N accident unprecedented in the 
history of the Welland Canal, oc- 
curred at five o'clock in the morning of 
June 15, when the four gates at Lock 
(1) were carried away by a small steam- 
er bumping against the foot gates, while 
the lock was full of water. As a result, 
navigation was tied up. 

The steamer Neepawah had left lock 
(1) at Port Dalhousie bound up. The 
upper gates had not been closed, and 
only the foot-gates separated the level of 
water from the harbor and Lake On- 
tario. The little wooden steamer Lloyd 
Porter, owned by Hepburn, of Picton, 
which had towed two barges into the 
harbor, approached the lock with too 
much speed on, and the captain discov- 
ering the gates closed, and that his boat 
was travelling too fast, signalled the en- 
gineer to stop and reverse, but the engin- 
eer's interpretation of the signals was 
to the contrary, and he gave the boat 
further speed ahead, striking the gates, 
unmitering them, and allowing a few 
inches of water through. 

Once started, the pressure of water 
wrenched both gates from their fasten- 
ings, and tossed them into the harbor, 
the open upper gates soon following. The 
Neepawah had not reached lock (2), 
1ml danger whistles from below and re- 
ceding water proved sufficient warning 
to the mate, who succeeded in making 
the lock before the water had run too 
low. The gates were then shut, and 
sufficient water to float the Neepawah 
was obtainable from the level above. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



PORT NELSON. 

OLLOWING the decision of the 
Hon. Frank Cochrane, Canadian 
Minister of Railways and Canals, that 
Port Nelson, on the south-westerly 
shore of Hudson's Bay, near York 
Roads, is to be the tidewater terminus 
of the Hudson Bay Railway, work upon 
the $25,000,000 project will be resumed 
this season, so soon as the ice and snow 
have passed. The railway is designed 
to bring the vast grain areas of the 
Canadian North-West within a hauling 
distance of Liverpool of 3,500 miles, or 
about 1,800 miles less than the existing 
rail-and-lake routes through the ports 
of Montreal, St. John, N.B., and New 
York. Of the total length of 410 miles 
from Le Pas, a Canadian Northern 
Railway station on the Manitoba-Sas- 
katchewan border, to Port Nelson, 75 
miles already have been laid with track- 
age and a bridge spanning the Sas- 
katchewan River is all but completed. 

Objection to Panama Route. 

An objection to the Panama route 
for grain shipments exported through 
Prince Rupert and Vancouver is cited 
by J. B. Hunter, Deputy-Minister of 
Public Works, in the annual report of 
that Ministry, who avers that "in the 
warm, humid climate (of Panama) 
there is danger of grain heating." It 
therefore becomes apparent that the 
Hudson Bay route will enter sharply 
into competition with the Panama 
Canal. In an article in the May issue 
of the National Waterways Magazine, 
by the National Rivers and Harbors 
Congress, Harry Chapin Plummer pays 
a tribute to the foresight and courage 
of the present administration of the Do- 
minion in advancing to a state of early 
realization the magnificent undertaking, 
which he likens to "some epic stroke of 
daring by heroes of Norse or Nibelung 
mythology." 

The writer observes that, unlike rail- 
ways operating in more temperate lati- 
tudes the Hudson Bay Railway can be 
worked to its capacity for only two 
months in the year, and to a lessening 
extent for little more than another 
month, but that during this interval, 
the volume and importance of its de- 
pendable traffic dictate that it be liter- 
ally overworked. 

He quotes the chief engineer of the 
Hudson Bay Railway, John Armstrong, 
as pointing to the markedly increased 
difficulty a hostile fleet would have in 
attempting to blockade the Atlantic 
coast of Canada when the Hudson's 
Bay route is opened, due to the fact 
that ships can enter and leave Port Nel- 
son all the year round. 

"The likelihood of Port Nelson be- 
coming an objective strategic point in 



the calculations of land or naval forces 
invading the Dominion occurs as not al- 
together a supposition," he observes, 
"when the picturesquely dramatic 
events of the long period of warfare be- 
tween the English and the French, 
which was terminated by the Treaty of 
Utrecht, in 1713, are reviewed. The old 
Fort Nelson or Fort Bourbon as it was 
alternately called by its British and 
Gallic besiegers, became the scene of 
repeated conflicts, and the stubborn- 
ness of the resistance offered on each 
occasion of attack, and the decisiveness 
which marked its fall, proves how im- 
portant a stronghold it was regarded." 

Optimistic View of the Scheme. 

An optimistic view is taken as to the 
probable effect of the development of 
the railway and steamship route upon 
the Hudson's Bay country, and the 
mineral wealth of the region is pointed 
to as promising the future exploitation 
of marble, iron, mica and limestone, 
especially in the territories known, un- 
til recently, as Ungava and the North- 
West Territory, but now included with- 
in the provinces of Quebec and Sas- 
katchewan, respectively. 

"A glance at the geological forma- 
tion of the cliffs on both sides of Hud- 
son Strait and the rocky highlands suf- 
fices to promise that, as the waterway 
comes to be frequented as a route of 
navigation, mining and quarrying in- 
dustries will result in extending the 
zone of operations of tramp steamers in 
the North Atlantic trade to the Strait 
proper 

"Bedded iron ore, similar to the iron- 
bearing rocks of Lake Superior, and 
credited as being of the same age as 
those famous deposits, have been the 
subject of investigation and analysis by 
corporate interests of the Dominion for 
several years past all along the eastern 
shore of Hudson's Bay, and marble of 
an exceedingly high grade is quarried 
on Marble Island, off the western shore 
of the bay on the mainland, near Fort 
Churchill. 

"It is in the well-nigh inexhaustible 
motive power provided by the streams 
and waterways that the country to be 
crossed by the railway has its funda- 
mental asset for future industrial ex- 
ploitation. An approximate estimate of 
the discharge of the Nelson River alone 
gives indication of 156,869 cubic feet 
per second." 

@ 

The Volt Electric Co., incorporated at 
Toronto, to manufacture, electrical ap- 
pliances at Toronto, with capital of 
$40,000; incorporators, Daniel F. 
Pierce, James J. Kenney, John E. 
Anderson, Leopold Macauley, all of 
Toronto. 

119 



SOLID INJECTION FOR DIESEL 
ENGINES. 

qpHE problem of injecting fuel with- 
*• out an air blast is one which has 
for some time past been occupying the 
minds of a large number of Diesel en- 
gine makers. When it is remembered 
that the air in the cylinder is compres- 
sed to about 600 or 700 lbs. to the square 
inch, and that the oil has to be injected 
at a still higher pressure, it will be un- 
derstood that it is difficult to do this 
without the use of a powerful air com- 
pressing system. A three stage air com- 
pressor means expense, additional 
weight and space. Compressed air is, 
of course, necessary for starting and 
manoeuvring purposes, but if the main 
compressor could be done away with, it 
would simplify the design and mean less 
complication. Already several devices 
have been patented to accomplish this 
end, and, in fact, there is a Continental 
Diesel engine in the market, in which 
the oil is injected into the cylinder in 
its liquid state. 

One of these systems which deserves, 
perhaps, more than usual attention has 
been designed by Mr. James Kechnie, of 
Vickers, Ltd., and is made by the well- 
known BaiTow firm, who, by the way, 
have given a deal of attention to ex- 
perimenting in this direction. In this 
arrangement, the fuel is pumped at a 
high pressure into a tube, manufactured 
of a material which yields to the pres- 
sure of the oil, and on the opening of 
the injection valve, this tube contracts 
and forces the oil through the pulver- 
izer into the cylinder. The pressure in 
the tube is, of course, greater than the 
pressure of the air in the cylinder, and 
the oil is sprayed into the cylinder in 
much the same way as it is injected by 
the use of compressed air on the present 
type of Diesel engine. The effect on the 
fuel consumption in this system is nil; 
in fact, in certain instances, there was 
a slight improvement. 

To obtain a very high pressure, a 
grooved distance piece is inserted in the 
tube which prevents it contracting to 
its full extent. The result of this is that 
expansion does not commence until the 
pressure has risen to something Hike 
2,500 lbs. per square inch. Whether this 
system is suitable for heavy oils, such 
as tar oils, is not yet known, but there 
is no reason, we can see, why it should 
not be applicable. Within the next few 
years, there will doubtlessly be many 
improvements made in Diesel engine de- 
sign, and our own opinion is that im- 
provement will be on the lines of in- 
creased simplicity, and that an effort 
will be made to perfect and popularize 
the solid injection Diesel. — J. C. 



ASSOCIATION AND PERSONAL 

A Monthly Record of Current Association News and of Individuals 
who Have Been More or Less Prominent in the Marine Sphere 



Robert S. White, Montreal Collector 
of Customs, has been appointed ship- 
ping master for the port of Montreal, in 
place of Mr. William Cunningham, who 
has resigned. 

Wigham Richardson, of the shipbuild- 
ing firm, Swan, Hunter, Wigham 
Richardson, Ltd., Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
England, is now on a tour through 
Canada. 

Captain Benjamin Dorland, one of the 

few remaining old-time lake captains, 
died at his home, 182 Beatrice Street, 
Toronto, on May 29. Captain Dorland 
was born in 1847, at Bronte, Halton 
County, where he resided for many 
years. 

A. D. Swan, until recently assistant 
chief engineer of the Montreal Harbor 
Commission, and Captain P. Sidney 
Morrisey, left for New York en route to 
Chile on Friday last. Mr. Swan will re- 
port on sites for harbors in South Ameri- 
ca for a British Company. 

Captain Gambell, of the Allan Line 
Steamship "Virginian,'' which sailed 
from Montreal for Liverjiool on Thurs- 
day, June 19, is making his last trip 
on that vessel, he being slated to take 
command of the S.S. "Calgarian" now 
completing on the Clyde for the same 
company. Captain Gambell has served 
28 years under the Allan Line flag. 

John S. MacLean has been appointed 
to take charge of the publicity and ad- 
vertising work of the Canadian General 
Electric Co., Ltd., and of the Canadian 
Allis-Chalmers, Ltd., with headquarters 
in Toronto. The latter Company, in ad- 
dition to manufacturing an extensive 
line of machinery and appliances, will 
also act as sales agents for all the pro- 
ducts of the Canada Foundry Co.. Ltd. 
Mi'. MacLean held a similar position 
with Allis-Chalmers-Bullock, Ltd., for a 
number of years. 



LICENSED PILOTS. 

River St. Lawrence. — Captain Walter 
Collins, 43 Main Street, Kingston, Ont., 
Captain M. McDonald, River Hotel, 
Kingston, Ont.; Captain Charles J.Mar- 
tin, 13 Balaclava Street, Kingston, Ont. ; 
Captain T. J. Murphy, 111 William St., 
Kingston, Ont. 

River St. Lawrence, Bay of Quinte, 
Murray Canal. — Captain James Murray, 
106 Clergy St., Kingston, Ont.; Captain 
James H. Martin, 259 Johnston Street, 
Kingston, Ont.; John Corkery, 17 Rideau 
Street, Kingston, Ont.; Captain Daniel 
H. Mills, 272 University Avenue, Kings- 
ton, Ont. 



ASSOCIATIONS 

DOMINION MARINE ASSOCIATION. 
President — James Playfair, Midland ; Coun- 
sel— F. King, Kingston, Ont. 

GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE 
RIVER RATE COMMITTEE. 
Chairman — W. F. Wasley, Gravenhurst, Ont. 

Secretary — Jas. Morrison, Montreal. 

INTERNATIONAL WATER LINES 
PASSENGER ASSOCIATION. 
President — A. A. Heard, Albany, N.Y. 
Secretary — M. R. Nelson, New York 



THE SHIPPING FEDERATION OF CANADA 
President — A. A. Allan, Montreal; Manager 
and Secretary— T. Robb, 526 Board of Trade, 
Montreal. 

SHIP MASTERS' ASSOCIATION OF 
CANADA. 

Grand Master — Capt. J. H. McMaugh, Tor- 
onto, Ont.; Grand Secretary-Treasurer — Capt. 
H. O. Jackson, 376 Huron St., Toronto. 



GRAND COUNCIL, N.A.M.E. GRAND 
OFFICERS. 

James T. McKee, Box 98 Falrville, N.B. 
Grand President. 

Thos. Theriault, Levis, P.Q., Grand Vice- 
President. 

Neil J. Morrison. P.O. Box 238, St. John, N.B., 
Grand Secretary-Treasurer. 

Jno. A. Murphy, Midland, Ont., Grand Con- 
ductor. 

George Bourret, Sorel, P. Q., Grand Door- 
keeper. 

Richard McLaren, Owen Sound, Ont. 
L. B. Cronk, Windsor, Ont. 

Grand Auditors. 



Capt. William Steeves has left for 

England to bring to Canada the new 
freight steamer W. H. Dwyer, built 
there for Forwarders, Limited, of Kings- 
ton. The Dwyer will go into service on 
the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence 
River and Gulf. She is expected here 
by the end of the present month. 

Captain Rostron Again Honored. — 

The British Board of Trade have re- 
ceived, through the Foreign Office, a 
gold watch, which has been awarded by 
the Emperor of Austria-Hungary to 
Commander A. H. Rostron, R.N.R., 
formerly master of the steamship Car- 
pathia, of Liverpool, in recognition of 
his services in rescuing certain Austro- 
Hungarian subjects who were on board 
the Titanic when she foundered. 

Chief Engineer Hale, of the C. P. R. 

liner Montcalm, has just completed his 
two hundred and fortieth round trip 
across the Atlantic. The Montcalm's 
chief engineer has completed his 88th 
voyage in that vessel. It is interesting 
to note that Second Engineer Skinner 
has also completed his 88th voyage in 
the Montcalm. Both he and the chief 
engineer joined the ship at the same 
time, more than twelve years ago, and 
have been with her ever since. 

L. A. Walker, representing W. R. 
Grace & Co., was in Vancouver this 
month, to make arrangements for ship- 
ments of freight from San Francisco to 
British Columbia ports by the new 
British steamer Colusa. The Colusa is 
the first of a number of new steamers 
which will engage in the Vancouver 
trade, and was built at Port Glasgow. 
She was launched on February 7, and 
after coaling at Cardiff proceeded to this 
coast. She is a steamer of 8,000 tons 
d. w. capacity, and is 424 feet in length, 
with a beam of 58 feet. 



Directory of Subordinate Councils for 1913. 


Name. 


No. 


President. Address. Secretary. 


Address. 



Toronto, 

St. John, 

Oolllngwood, 

Kingston. 

Montreal, 

Victoria, 

Vancouver, 

Levis, 

Sorel, 

Owen Sound, 

Windsor, 

Midland, 

Hnllfnx, 

Snult S. Marie, 

Charlottetown, 

Twin City. 



A. J. Fisher, 
H. E. Berry, 
W. T. Rennie, 
A. B. Kennedy, 
A. F. Hamelin, 
Alex. McNivern, 
Andrew T. Roy, 
Helaire Mercier, 
Geo. Gendron, 
W. Robertson, 
Alex. McDonald, 
Jos. Silverthorne, 
D. J. Murray, 
Thos. O'Reilly, 
J. F. McGuigan, 
Arthur Abbcv 



707 Bathurst St. 

Collingwood, 

305 Johnston Street. 

3210 Le Tang Street, 

P. O. Box 234, 

1212 Burrard St., 

3 St. Joseph St. 

Sorel, P.Q.. 

1030 4th Ave. East, 

28 Crawford Ave, 

Victoria ltd., Dartmouth, 

153 Queen St. 

38 Queen St. 

Fort William. Ont. 



E. A. Prince, 
G. T. G. Blewett, 
Robert McQuade, 
James Gillie, 
O. L. Marchand, 
Peter Gordon, 
E. Read, 
S. G. Guenard. 
Al. Charbonnp.ui. 
Richard McLaren, 
Nell Maitland. 
Jno. A. Murphy. 
Chas. E. Pearee. 
Geo. S. Blggar, 
Lem Wincheste- 
.Tnhn A. Smith. 



50 Ferrier Ave., Toronto. 
65 Harrison St., St. John, N.B. 
P.O. Box 97. Collingwood, 
101 Clergy St., Kingston. Ont. 
St. Vincent de Paul. P.Q. 
808 Blanchard St.. Victoria, B.C. 
859 Tlinrlow St 
Lauzon, Levis, P.Q. 
P.O. Bus 132. Sorel. P.Q. 
447 13th St., Owen Sound. 
221 London St. W., Windsor, Ont. 
Midland. Ont. 

Portland Street, Dartmouth, N.S. 

43 Grosvenor Ave., Sault Ste. Marie. 
302 Fltzrny St.. Charlottefn, P.E.I. 

Fort William. Out. 



120 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



21 



C. N. R. STEAMSHIP PURCHASE. 

titKj are informed that the Canadian 
** Northern Railway Co. have pur- 
chased from the Great Western Railway 
Co., of England, the turbine steamer St. 
George, which vessel was on the Fish- 
guard to Rosslare service. Built in 
1806, by Cammell, Laird & Co., Ltd., of 
Birkenhea-d, the steamer has a speed of 
23 knots, and is 350 feet in length. 

The purchasers are the owners of the 
Royal Edward and Royal George, run- 
ning between Bristol and Canada, and it 
is intended, after extensive overhaul 
and repairs at the hands of the builders, 
that the St. George will cross the Atlan- 
tic for service on the Canadian seaboard. 



ENGINEERS 

BOILERMAKERS 

BLACKSMITHS 




Marine 
Repairs 
^^f* f° ur Specialty 



C. White 

t. MONTREAL 

M. 2435. 



GEORGIAN BAY SHIPBUILDING 
& WRECKING COMPANY 

MIDLAND, ONTARIO. 

Yachts, Tugs, Dump Scows 
and Repair Work a Specialty. 
All Kinds of Wrecking and 
Diving. 



BELL TELEPHONE : 
Office No. 163 Residence No. 149 

P. O. Box 83. 
D. G. D0BS0N, ■ General Manager 



THE DIXON MFG. CO. 

Mfrs. of 

High-Class Marine Gasoline Engines and 
Marine Motors, Experimental Machinery, 
Gray Iron, Brass and Bronze Castings. 
Repair work a specialty. 
Address: COLUNGWOOD, ONT. 
Tel. No. 164. 



DAVIS DRY DOCK COMPANY 

Builders of Wood and Steel Passenger 
Steamers, Tug, Steam and Gasolene 
Engines of all Descriptions. New 
catalogues February 1st. 

KINGSTON, ONTARIO 



Office 'phone 528. Private 'phones 437 and 49 

Donnelly Salvage and 
Wrecking Co., Ltd. 

Kingston, Ont. 

Tugs, Lighters, Divers, Steam Pumps, 
etc., supplied on shortest notice. 

700 Ton Lighter with McMyler clam 
shell Derrick. 

Tug "Saginaw" has two 100-ton Pull- 
ing Machines with 4,000 feet of 1^ inch 
Steel Cable, and two 3-ton anchors, 
always ready for work. 

JOHN DONNELLY. Pres. and Gen. Mgr. 



J. J. TURNER & SONS 

Peterborough, Ont., and Regina, Sask. 



The largest manufacturers and dealers 
in Canada of 



Sails, 
Tents, 
Flags, 
Life Belts, 
Life Buoys, 
Waterproof 

ing. 
Coal Bags. 



Cloth- 



Horse Blankets, 
Lap Rugs, 
Canoes and Row 

Boats, 
Vessel, Yacht. Boat, 

and Canoe Sails 

made by Expert 

Sail Makers. 



Tents to Order and Camping Outfits to rent. 

Write for Catalogue. 



The SECRET 
of PRODUCING 




Garloek High Pressure Ring. 



High Pressure Packing that will give reliable and 
efficient service without injury to piston rods lies in 
the thoroughness of its lubrication as well as in the 
quality of material used. Every fibre of Garloek High Pressure Packing is thoroughly 
lubricated, and the design, material and workmanship are unexcelled. 

Write for Garloek catalogue showing 
"Packings for Every Purpose." 




Garloek High Pressure Spiral 



The Garloek Packing Company 

Head Office and Factory : 

HAMILTON ONTARIO 

Branches -MONTREAL TORONTO WINNIPEG 

"Pioneers in the Packing Business." 



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22 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Storey upon Storey — Story upon Story 



If Cass Gilbert, architect of the cloud-high Woolworth building, didn't stop 
ihe contractors when they had the first floor steel up, because the building didn't 
look finished. 

If He was content to wait while, storey after storey, higher and higher, the 
structure reared its bones above the common level. 

1f He was satisfied to wait while the details of his plans were worked out — 
piece by piece, storej^ by storey, week after week, month after month, until the 
finished giant stood out one day in all its glory — catching the first rays and the 
last of an approving sun. 

% He had a vision of the giant structure when the plans were drafted. He 
knew that success was ahead. The owners of the building had confidence in 
him and backed him up. The contractors followed specifications to the letter, 
and a big success and an everlasting monument to man's genius, nerve and 
pertinacity was the result. 

There would be more and greater business successes if there were more Cass 
Gilberts as advertising managers and more Woolworths to back them up. 
Advertising successes are built up just as the Woolworth building was — storey 
after storey, according to a preconceived and well defined plan. 

H There are too many one storeyadvertisers. They can't catch the vision of a 
big success, or if they can, they get dizzy-headed when they contemplate the 
height. They lack the nerve to back the advertising architect, and they doubt 
the greatest of all contractors — printer's ink. 

t It will take months, and sometimes years to build up a big business through 
advertising. 

V But once that building goes skyward, neither the adverse winds of compe- 
tition, nor the earthquakes of changing conditions and hard times will ever 
shake it! There is only one condition- — the foundation must be as solid as 
the rock upon which the Woolworth Building stands, and that foundation must 
be Honest Goods and Honest Prices and Honest Service. If you can build on 
these, there is no limit to the possibilities of your business. Otherwise your 
structure will totter and crumble over your head — as it should. 

•f Get the vision of a bigger business ! Start to-day to make it a success through 
advertising, column upon column, story upon story, week after week. Keep 
at it. That's the idea ! Keep everlastingly at it till results come in a satisfying 
measure. 

' And then keep on keeping on ! 

Rate card and full information gladly furnished. 



MARINE ENGINEERING 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and development of Merchant and 
Naval Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, the building ot Harbors and Docks etc. 



[\T A I v. I N 10 I0N< ; 1 NI010IM N( ; OF CANADA 



23 



Insurance & 
Professional 





MORRIS, 
BULKELEY 
& HALLIDAY 



MARINE ENGINEERS 
and NAVAL ARCHITECTS 

Specialists in 

Steel and Wood Vessels 



17 Promis Bldg. 
VICTORIA. B.C. and 



514 Hoiden Bldg. 
VANCOUVER. B.C. 



BREWER & McBRYDE 

NAVAL ARCHITECTS MARINE BROKERS 

142 Hastings St., Vancouver, B.C. 

15 years' practical experience designing all 
types of vessels. 




With Exceptional Facilities for 
Placing 

Fire and Marine Insurance 

In all Underwriting Markets 



Agencies : TORONTO, MONTREAL, 
WINNIPEG, VANCOUVER, 
PORT ARTHUR. 



THOS. G. BISHOP 

ENGINEER AND MACHINIST 

Marine and General Repairs, Gas and 
Gasoline Engine Repairs a Specialty 
PHONE 38 

FOOT OF PRINCESS ST.. KINGSTON. ONT. 



Cablegram: Curr, Port Arjhur. 

Telephone 3503 North. 
ROBERT CURR 
Surveyer to Lloyd's Register of Shipping. 
Plans and specifications furnished for all 
types of vessels. Careful attention given 
to superintending construction and repairs. 
Instructions on theoretical and practical 
shipbuilding by correspondence. 
The Observatory, 28 South Water St., 
Port Arthur, Ont. 



T. B. F. BENSON 

(Assoc. Inst. N. A.) 
NAVAL, ARCHITECT. 

All types of vessels designed and construc- 
tion superintended. 

Estimates promptly furnished. 
205 Yonge Street, Toronto. 
Phone Main 5379. 



THIS SPACE 
$15. A YEAR 



MARINE ENGINEERING 

OF CANADA 

is edited and published with a view to providing for all sections of marine 
men, an attractive and newsy record of Shipbuilding, Engineering, Harbour, 
Port and Dock Progress and Development throughout the Dominion of 
Canada and over the World- 

One Dollar per year is our regular subscription rate 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 

143 UNIVERSITY AVE., TORONTO 

Date 1913 

Gentlemen, — 

Please find enclosed herewith $1.00, being subscription to Marine Engineering of Canada. 

NAME 

RANK OR POSITION 

ADDRESS IN FULL 



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24 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 




THIS SPACE $45 
PER YEAR 
$25 FOR 6 MONTHS 



Ann Arbor No. 2 
For Sale 




T 



HE Ann Arbor Railroad Company 
having no further use for Steamer No. 
2 of its line, has decided to offer it for 
sale. Length 264 ft. Beam 53 ft, Depth 14-2 
ft, Buill 1892, rebuilt 1906. Boilers built 1901 
foi 135 pounds steam. Engines, 2 horizontal 
fore and aft 20 x 40 x 3 ft. stroke of piston. At 
present laid up at Frankfort, Mich. Any one 
interested may secure full information by ad- 
dressing 

A. W. TOWSLEY, Vice Pres. & Gen'l Mngr. 
TOLEDO, OHIO 




Over 30 Years' 
Experience 
Building 

ENGINES 

AND 

Propeller 
Wheels 

H.G.TROUTCO. 

King Iron Works 

226 OHIO ST. 
BUFFALO, N. Y 



The Otis Feed Water 
Heater and Purifier 

will positively heat feed water to the boil- 
iug point without causing back pressure. 
It will separate oil from the exhaust and 
prevent a large proportion of ordinary im- 
purities from entering the b.oiler. 

Cleaned quickly and thoroughly in a few 
minutes. Will not foul up with scale, scum 
or sediment. 

It is sold under a liberal guarantee of 
satisfaction or money back. If your engi- 
neer is having boiler troubles consult us 
for the remedy. 

Stewart Heater Co. 

35 Norfolk Ave. Buffalo, N.Y. 




STEAM and POWER PUMPS, CON- 
DENSERS, TRAVELLING CRANES 




The SMART-TURNER MACHINE CO., Limited 
Hamilton Canada 



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MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 




Bobbie's Patent 
Liquid Compass 

With Reduced Diameter 
Card. 



Furnished complete with 
Binnacle or Compass only. 



Dobbie's Patent Sounder, and Recording 
Winch. 

Prices on application. 

Marine Hardware and Supplies. 
OUR NEW CATALOGUE NOW READY 

JOHN LECKIE LIMITED 



77 Wellington St. W. 



Toronto 




THE 



D A K E 



Steam Steerers 
and Steamers, 
double wheel. 



for Tugs 
Single or 



0<KX>CK>0- 



Write for 
Complete 
Catalog and 
prices. 

Dake 
Engine 
Co. 

Grand 
Haven 
Mich. 



Centrifugal Pumps direct 
connected to DAKE engines, 
all on one base. 




MANGANESE BRONZE 




PROP/JTLER 
WHEELS 



Tensile 
Strength 
75,000 lbs. 




Write to-day for our descriptive booklet. 

Lumen Bearing Company 



Brass Founders, 



TORONTO 




Ship and Yaeht 



Fittings of Every 
Description 

Pumps, Portlights, 
Sanitary Appliances, 
Folding Lavatories, 
Baths, Ventilators, 
Bells, Hinges, etc., 
Send for Catalogue. 



AGENTS WANTED IN CANADA 




J. DOWNTON & CO. 

69-71 West India Dock Road 
LONDON, ENG. 

[Cables : "John Downton, Phone London.' 



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MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Colliipood Shipbuilding Co., Limited 

Collingwood, Ont. 3 Canada 




Canadian Government Steamer "ESTEVAN" — 212 -200' x 38' x 17 -6. 
Built bv Collingwood Shipbuilding Co., Limited. 



Steel and Wooden Ships, Engines, Boilers, 

Castings and Forgings 

PLANT FITTED WITH MODERN APPLIANCES FOR QUICK WORK 

Dry Docks and Shops Equipped to Operate 
Day or Night on Repairs 



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CIRCULATES IN EVERY PROVINCE OF CANADA AND ABROAD 

MarjneEngineerino 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and development of Merchant and Naval Marine Engineering, 
Shipbuilding, the building of Harbors and Docks, and containing a record of the latest and 
best practice throughout the Sea-going World. Published by 
The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 

MONTREAL, Eastern Townships Bank Bldg. TORONTO, 143-149 University Ave. WINNIPEG, 34 Royal Bank Bldg. LONDON, ENG., 88 Fleet St. 

Vol. III. Publication Office, Toronto— July, 1913 No. 7 

POLSON IRON WORKS, LIMITED 

TORONTO - - CANADA 

Steel Shipbuilders 
Engineers and Boilermakers 




Steel Hydraulic Dredge "Port Nelson" now being built by The Poison Iron Works for the Department of 
Railways and Canals, to be used in the deepening of the Hudson's Bay Rail wayTerminal Port in Hudson's Bay. 

Manufacturers of 

Steel Vessels, Tugs, Barges, Dredges and Scows 
Marine Engines and Boilers all sizes and kinds 

Works and Office : Esplanade Street East. Piers Nos. 35, 36, 37 and 38 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



■THE SOLUTION 



of the Corrosion Problem 



o 

U 
■ 

4-1 

c 

< 

-a 
— 

o 
w 
V 



o 




S;;fATENT 

c Luminous - 

s olutioN 





s 

Q. 



O 
3 

bp 



3 

BP 

CO 

o 
o 



WM. BRIGGS & SONS, Limited 

DUNDEE & LONDON 

Agents for Canada : MACDONALD & SONS, 

176 King St. East, TORONTO. 



Dipper Dredges 

Clam Dredges 

Steel Scows 

Drill Boats 




Equipment of this nature together with Hoisting 
Engines of all kinds are specialties with us. 

Let us figure on your requirements. 

We have the experience necessary to build any- 
thing you need in this line and you will find our 
prices right. 

Send for descriptive matter now. 

M. BEATTY & SONS, Limited 
WELLAND ONTARIO 




This is one of our Compound Surface Condensing 
Engines with Pumps and Horse Shoe Thrust attached. 



The Doty Marine Engine & Boiler Co. 



LIMITED 



Builders of High Grade 



Marine Engines and Boilers 



Compound Jet Condensing Engines 

Compound Surface Condensing Engines 
Triple Expansion Engines 

Non-Condensing Stern Wheel Engines 
Tandem Compound Stern Wheel Engines 



Marine Boilers of various types including Scotch, Locomotive, 
Fitzgibbon, Fire-box Return Tubular and Safety Water Tube. 



Estimates furnished for complete Marine outfits. 

The Doty Marine Engine & Boiler Co. 



LIMITED 



GODERICH, 



CANADA 



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MARINE ENGINEERING OP CANADA 



l 



The First Sign of 
Decay 



1 A salesman who was more than a salesman was trying to sell his 
line to a certain manufacturer. 

1 "No," argued the latter, "I do not care to change. I am satisfied 
with the line I am now using." 

1 "That," replied the salesman, "is the first sign of decay!" 

H It was a jolt for the manufacturer. It bumped him clean out of 
the rut of self-satisfaction, and set him thinking. 

H It cranked the engine of progress that had stalled within him and 
set to work the rusty machinery of his ambition. 

U The salesman secured his order and later received a letter profuse 
with thanks. 

IT Any man who is satisfied with his business as it is has entered 
upon a period of commercial decay. 

H No matter how successful a business may be there is a legitimate 
twentieth century way of making it better. 

H There is a vital force that can be injected into it — a regenerating 
force that will eradicate decay and replace it with the pulsing throb 
of increasing profits. 

H That force is ADVERTISING. And advertising is never so force- 
ful and effective as when it is undertaken in highly specialized 
mediums, of which this journal is so fine a type. 



Rate card and full information gladly furnished 

MARINE ENGINEERING 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and development of the Merchant and 
Naval Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, the building of Harbors and Docks etc. 

143 University Avenue, TORONTO 



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MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 




Marine Twin 
Pop Safety Valve 



Marine Oiler Set 
on Brass Stand 




Manufacturers of a Complete Line 

-of— 

Marine Engineers' 
Supplies 

In Brass and Iron 

Marine Closets and Lavatories 
Brass Railing Work, Etc. 



Our goods are well and favor- 
ably known for their depend- 
able quality, efficiency and 
durability. 




Folding Lavatory 




Your enquiries on any line or 
lines will receive our prompt and 
careful attention. 

Our prices are most reasonable 
for that of dependable quality. 





Ship Telegraph 
Outfit 

Extra Heavy 
"Bronze" ' 
Blow-Off 
^ Valve 




The James Morrison Brass Mfg. Co., Limited 

93-97 Adelaide Street West, Toronto, Canada 



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Electric Propulsion of Ships on Canals, Lakes and Rivers 

By John Reid and H. A. Mavor 

The accompanying article is one that should appeal, not only to Canadian Lake Vessel 
Owners, but to all engaged in the navigation and handling of our lake craft generally. The 
authors of the paper are thoroughly intimate with the conditions existent, and their confi- 
dence in the new system of propulsion proposed is so unbounded, that the coming of the 
"Tynemouth" to our shores will be anxiously awaited. 



rv NE of the most interesting papers 
at the summer meeting' of the In- 
stitution of Naval Architects at Glas- 
gow was that entitled, "A Case for 
Electric Propulsion," by Messrs. John 
Keid (member) and H. A. Mavor. 

Mr. H. A. Mavor, who read the paper, 
said : — The development of the canal 
barge or freighter presents a problem 
of much greater interest and importance 
than may at first sight appear. No one 
who travels on the great rivers of Eur- 
ope, on the Rhine, Danube, or Volga, 
can fail to observe the immense traffic 
which they bear, and the remarkable 
way in which the vessels employed in 
such traffic have been designed to suit 
local conditions and requirements. 

It is so, also, on the great North 
American inland waterways, the impor- 
tance of which, as affording the only 
system of transportation which can 
compete with the railroad, has been very 
generally recognized. Perhaps, no- 
where in the world is the influence of 
local conditions on vessel design more 
recognizable than on the Great Lakes 
of North America, where the immense 
quantities of bulk ore, coal, and grain, 
which have to be handled in a short six 
months' season, the importance of quick 
loading and discharge, the shallow na- 
ture of the canal and river channel con- 
necting the Lakes, and other local con- 
siderations, have led to the evolution of 
a very remarkable type of vessel, enor- 
mous in size, unique in proportions, and 
unapproachable in the efficiency and 
economy of its operations. 

Conditions in Canada. 

The same influence of local conditions 
on vessel design is very marked in the 
Canadian vessels which make use of the 
St. Lawrence and Welland Canals, by 
which access by water is maintained be- 
tween the head of ocean navigation at 
Montreal and the end of lake navigation 
proper at the eastern end of Lake Erie. 
This canal system comprises the range 
of canals by which vessels are enabled 
to pass the currents and rapids of the 
St. Lawrence River above Montreal, and 
the Welland Canal, by which the differ- 
ence in levels between Lake Erie and 
Lake Ontario, of which the Falls of 
Niagara is the outcome, is surmounted. 

In this series of canals the limiting 
draught is 14 ft. under normal water 



conditions in many of the canal reaches 
as well as on the sills of the numerous 
locks. These locks themselves are for 
the most part of a standard size, per- 
mitting the convenient passage of any 
vessel not exceeding 250 ft. between per- 
pendiculars, 42 ft. 6 in. beam over plat- 
ing, and drawing not over 14 ft. in 
fresh water. Larger vessels have been 
locked through, but only with difficulty, 
and for our present purpose it may be 
taken that the above dimensions cannot 
safely be exceeded. 

The Short Season Feature. 

When it is considered that a Cana- 
dian canal vessel can only operate on 
the Lakes and canals for six months in 
the year, owing to prevailing ice condi- 
tions, and that for various reasons it is 
not possible to employ it during the off 
Lake season in any deep sea trade, and 
when it is remembered that the trade 
in grain, coal, pulpwood, package 
freight, etc., between Montreal and the 
Upper Lake ports, and vice-versa, is al- 
ready very large and rapidly increasing, 
it will be easily understood that not 
only is it of prime importance to carry 
the utmost possible deadweight per 
trip on the limiting draught of 14 ft. 
but it is equally important to obtain 
quick loading and discharge, and to lose 
as little time in negotiating the canals 
and locks of the St. Lawrence and Wel- 
land systems as possible. 

The last consideration is due to the 
fact that, as the speed in the canals is 
limited to four miles an hour, and as 
there is ever present in the canals the 
possibility of vexatious delay on ac- 
count of passing vessels, railway swing- 
bridges, waiting turn at locks, interfer- 
ence from fog or darkness when the 
main canals cannot be navigated, and 
so forth, the vessel cannot too quickly 
escape into open water, where only can 
continuous navigation at full speed be 
carried on. Under these conditions it is 
fair to state that anyone starting out 
to design or build a canal vessel suit- 
able for the Canadian trade without ref- 
erence to the local conditions, would be 
pretty certain to produce a failure, 
however successful the vessel might be 
in open water alone. 

Locking Operations. 

For example, in attempting to enter 
a lock which is only 45 ft. wide with a 
121 



vessel which is 42 It. G in. beam, and 
under which there may only be an inch 
of water over the canal bottom, it would 
be natural to expect that the navigat- 
ing officer would arrange to approach 
slowly, pass lines ashore, and gradually 
warp the vessel in. To follow such a 
course would probably obviate a great 
deal of canal damage which these ves- 
sels now sustain, but it would inevit- 
ably entail such a delay in the locks as 
would most seriously reduce the vessel's 
earning capacity. 

Actually the course followed is for 
the navigating officer, as he approaches 
each lock, to line up his vessel as well 
as wind and current will allow, and to 
enter at considerable speed, so as to 
displace the lock water past the ves- 
sel 's sides as quickly as possible. Full 
stop a few feet short of the gate ahead 
is obtained by quick engine reverse, and 
by holding on with an extra heavy com- 
pressor to a snubbing wire made fast to 
a mooring pin on the quay. When the 
vessel has risen or descended in the 
lock, it is equally important to get under 
way again with the least loss of time, 
which is usually done by passing a 
mooring wire forward along the lock 
wall or canal bank and warping out for 
a short distance until the propeller can 
get the vessel up to the desired speed. 

The Propeller Feature. 

It will be at once apparent that under 
such conditions as I have outlined, the 
form of the propeller, its revolutions, 
and its control must play a most im- 
portant part on the efficiency of the ves- 
sel as a canaller. Engineers experienc- 
ed in this line of work look for a screw 
which will cause this very full-formed 
vessel to respond immediately to its ac- 
tions, and, of course, there goes with 
that an arrangement of propelling ma- 
chinery which must respond immediate- 
ly to the demands of the engineer in 
charge. A quick-acting throttle and an 
instantaneous and positive reverse are 
all important. These would be value- 
less, however, to the desired end but 
for a propeller which will enable the 
vessel to be driven into and out of a 
lock with the least loss of time. 

Bear in mind that in entering the lock 
there is a direct resistance from the 
water throttled in front of the vessel, 
and in leaving the lock a corresponding 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



vacuum tendency, behind the vessel, and 
a refusal of the water to flow quickly 
through the restricted channels between 
the vessel's sides and the lock walls to- 
wards the propeller. Evidently, for 
successful work under such peculiar 
conditions, everything depends on the 
propeller. Note that there is no ques- 
tion here of hull form; that is to all 
intents and purposes fixed and unalter- 
able. It will be understood that if a 
Canadian canal vessel has to pass every 
week through a hundred or more locks, 
and if the time lost in locking can vary 
from 70 per hours per week for an un- 
suitable type to 40 for a well-designed 
and wellhandled canaller, it may be 
well to design rather to overcome the 
lock and canal delay than from mere 
considerations of the best speed obtain- 
able in open water, especially as the 
time which many of these vessels spend 
in open water is very short. 

Driving Power Ahead and Astern. 
It has been found, for example, that 
by the use of a very broad-bladed pro- 
peller, with a pitch ratio 1.1, and at 
about 80 revolutions per minute, the 
best results can be obtained in locking 
operations. The propeller is so design- 
ed that it has great driving power 
ahead and astern in locking operations, 
quickly decelerating and accelerating 
the speed in manoeuvring into or out of 
a. lock as the case may be. If one, in 
imagination, place a vessel in one of the 
locks, which it absolutely fills, we will 
the more easily realize the general help- 
lessness for efficient results of any small 
fine-pitched high-speed propeller, how- 
ever excellent that type might be in 
open water work. Furthermore, in lin- 
ing up to enter a lock, the broad-bladed 
Canadian propeller can be utilized to 
throw over the stern of the vessel with- 
out occasioning headway, by giving the 
big coarse screw a short full-speed im- 
pulse with the rudder hard over. This 
is done as a last resort in 
entering a lock to prevent a foul en- 
trance, the occurrence of which gener- 
ally results in a heavy blow on the one 
bow, a rebound with a blow on the other 
bow, and finally a severe nip abreast of 
No. 1 or No. 2 hatch, with the in- 
evitable consequence of serious struc- 
tural straining, leaky rivets, and dam- 
aped cargo. 

Hull Design. 

When the design of the hull is care- 
fully considered, it is found that other 
circumstances, for the most part aris- 
ing from local considerations, militate 
against any advantage being taken of 
the fact that these vessels trade in com- 
paratively sheltered waters to reduce 
the 3cantling in an effort to add to the 
deadweight. The main scantlings, fram- 
ing, and plating must be fully up to 



deep-sea requirements, apart altogether 
from the fact that these vesels. being 
largely built in the United Kingdom, 
have to make passage to Montreal,, gen- 
erallv in a two-thirds full load condi- 
tion,' over the stormiest region of the 
Atlantic. It is essential, in fact, to 
have even stronger close spaced mam 
framing forward, almost as if provid- 
ing against ice, to enable the vessel to 
resist the continual pounding against 
the lock walls and approaches, to which 
it is inevitably subjected in this canal 
trade. 

The double bottom must be deep, so 
as to provide ample water ballast to 
get the vessel well immersed in ballast 
trim, otherwise canalling and locking- 
become impossible in a high wind, a 
oreat cause of lost time for badly de- 
nned vessels. The bottom plating- 
must not be less than y 2 in. to resist oc- 
casional rubbing in the canal; the tank 
top plating must be equally heavy to 
withstand blows from the unloading 
grabs; the bilges require 23-40 for pro- 
tection against canal bank rubbing; and 
the docks must be heavily plated and 
well suppported for deck cargoes of 
pulp wood and lumber which may be 
stacked as high as 14, 16, and even 20 
feet above the deck. 

The Deadweight Feature. 
Under these conditions, if an attempt 
is to be made to increase the dead- 
weight carried on the canal draught of 
14 feet— and owners are perpetually 
urging such increase— it is found that 
a limit is soon reached beyond which no 
reduction in weight of scantlings is pos- 
sible, and as the form is usually .83 
block, or fuller, the deadweight capa- 
city cannot be materially increased by 
any changes in hull, form, or structure. 
In a word, the designer is bound hand 
and foot as to dimensions, form, and 
hull weights, and is, therefore, driven to 
reconsider his propelling machinery m 
an effort to economize in the weights of 
raachinerv and fuel. It is this fact that 
makes this class of vessel a most nat- 
ural type in which to experiment with 
the internal combustion marine engine 
of the Diesel or other type. First ef- 
forts, however, were devoted to adapt- 
ing the gas engine and producer, be- 
cause while fuel oil is very plentiful and 
cheap on the Lakes, coal of all kinds in- 
eluding anthracite, js even more widely 
available, and at very reasonable rates. 
Therefore it was natural to consider 
the producer-gas proposition in the first 
place. 

The Marine Ga s Engine. 

Tn 1908-1900 the marine gas engine 
had not been reduced to any very prac- 
tical or reliable form, and the land en- 
sines built and running offered very 
little in the way of experience to quide 
122 



one in adapting them to marine work. 
Reliability was doubtful, reverse uncer- 
tain, revolutions much too high, and re- 
duction gear at that time by no means 
to be relied upon. Finally, the attempt 
to adapt the gas engine was reluctantly 
abandoned, and the experience of other 
investigators in this field goes to show 
that this was an escape from an adven- 
ture full of trouble. One thing, how- 
ever, the writers' investigations did in- 
dicate, was that no internal combustion 
engine then extant could be coupled di- 
rect to a Lake type of propeller, and 
that to substitute a suitable type of 
propeller for the proposed engine, re- 
gardless of local requirements in Can- 
adian waters, was to court certain fail- 
ure under the conditions indicated 
above. 

Mechanical Reducing Gears. 

Mechanical reducing gears, though 
considered, did not offer any great 
prospect of success, because the revers- 
ing gear on the main engines had to be 
retained, which certainly promised an- 
other source of weakness and loss m 
canallino-, possibly a failure to start or 
to stop under conditions as regards locks 
and gates certain to result sooner or 
later in serious disaster. At this time 
electricity seemed to offer possibly the 
best prospect of successful solution to 
the problem. Being satisfied that the 
single Lake type of propeller and the 
facilities for monoeuvring the same un- 
der steam would have to be retained if 
failure was to be avoided, it remained 
to find some third feature through 
which the desired large slow-turning 
propeller could be reconciled with the 
comparativelv light high-speed internal 
combustion engine of the Diesel oi 
other type. It must be admitted that 
the introduction of electricity for this 
purpose, while committing one to a cer- 
tain loss in transmission, gave assur- 
ance of certain incidental advantages of 
oreat value, which had not originally 
been anticipated. 



The Triple Expansion Steam Engine. 

No internal combustion engine. Diesel 
or other known to the writers, is an ab- 
solute substitute so far as simplicity ol 
operation and reliability of handling are 
concerned for the ordinary up-to-date 
triple-expansion steam engine, oven in 
deep-sea go-ahead work, much less m 
manoeuvring in narrow waters within 
harbour limits or in rivers or canals. 
Whatever success may have been ob- 
tained by the recently developed two- 
cycle slow-speed, marine type of Diesel 
engine, and there is here no suggestion 
that success has been other than most 
encouraging, it still seems that the line 
or development followed is not such as 
seems likely to lead to the evolution of 
current at 220 volts to motors located 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



a propelling engine which an owner will 
be as ready to have in his vessel as he 
would an ordinary steam outfit. 

Attention has been paid to obtaining 
a special resemblance to the marine 
steam engine in an effort to make the 
Diesel engine exactly suited to take the 
steam engine's place direct on the pro- 
peller shaft for the sake of a simplicity 
which is more apparent than real. To 
get the low revolutions most desirable 
for propulsion in slow-speed cargo ves- 
sels, important advantages in the nor- 
mal Diesel engine, such as high speed, 
low weight, and moderate over all di- 
mensions, have been sacrificed, while the 
necessity for fitting reversing gear on 
the engine itself has added a most un- 
fortunate complication necessitating the 
lavish use of compressed air in man- 
oeuvring, an addition of a particularly 
troublesome and expensive nature. Fur- 
thermore, experience has already shown 
that the use of large single-screw Diesel 
engines in propulsion is attended with 
grave risk of the breakdown of the 
whole propelling mechanism of the 
vessel. 

Diesel Engine Delicacy. 

It is idle to deny that there is inher- 
ent in the very operating -principle of 
the Diesel engine an ele'ment of deli- 
cacy and unreliability very little in 
keeping with the rough work of marine 
propulsion from which the modern 
steam engine emerges with credit. The 
fuel economy, which has been the one 
real outstanding claim for the adoption 
of the Diesel engine is, in fact, depen- 
dent on an operation of great nicety in- 
volving the use and maintenance of very 
delicate mechanism. A governor action 
controlling this mechanism is set in 
on tion by the racing of the engine in a 
seaway and the cycle of the cylinder 
operations, so far from continuing uni- 
form as is essential for good working, 
are periodically interfered with, prob- 
ably under impulses given too early or 
too late, with inevitable trouble. 

It must be considered also that no 
engine of the Diesel type, with its num- 
erous spring-loaded cam-driven valves 
and other fine-set gear, can take kindly 
to the vibration set up by the action of 
a vessel in a seaway. The reference 
here is particularly to a vessel engined 
astern; but the same is true of any posi- 
tion of the machinery in direct drive. 

Shipowners' Viewpoint. 

Finally, any adjustments necessary on 
the Diesel engine, need for which may 
not be at once apparent, in fact, which 
may not become apparent at all until 
serious trouble lias developed, must be 
at once attended to. to avoid trouble, 
whereas in a steam engine they may 
without serious detriment be put off to 
a suitable opportunity. 



Enough has been said to indicate 
some of the points which experience 
has already developed as requiring con- 
sideration in the present Diesel type of 
marine engines before its reliability can 
be confidently placed in the same cate- 
gory with that of the triple expansion 
steam engine. After all, it is the aver- 
age shipowner's wish to have a ship 
which, while attaining all reasonable 



efficiency and economy in its operations, 
shall be first and foremost, trustworthy, 
and the propulsion of which will be 
carried on as surely as the limitations 
of the best engineering mechanism will 
permit. It is hopeless to introduce new 
methods of marine propulsion which do 
not guarantee all the security and cer- 
123 



tainty of the mechanism which they dis- 
place. Therefore it is suggested that it 
is unfortunate that so much effort has 
been devoted to attempting to force the 
Diesel engine into conditions of service 
for which it appears inherently unfit, 
without saying that in certain classes of 
vessels where the conditions are special, 
there may not be a perfectly legitimate 
field for the type criticised, viz.. the 



direct-drive, slow-speed, two-cycle open 
marine engine. 

Diesel Unsuitable for Canadian Canal 
Service. 

Such scope is most assuredly not 
found in the full-bodied cargo boat, 
still less in the Canadian Canal vessel 




LAYOUT OF MAYOR SYSTF.M OF VICSSF.L I'K< HTLSH IX. CANADIAN LAKES AND 

CANALS. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



under the peculiar conditions and limit- 
ations above described. It is unthink- 
able that, with its present form of hull, 
which cannot be varied, and the still 
more definitely fixed type of propeller, 
the present triple-expansion engine can 
be displaced by any direct connected 
D ; tsel engine. Eighty revolutions per 
minute, which is common with the 
steam engine, is almost hopeless for the 
Diesel, and however successful the re- 
versino- gear mav operate in the latter 
en<-ine! it is little likley to be improved 
by" hundreds of rapidly alternating go- 
ahead and go-astern motions required 
in negotiating such a series of locks as 
in the Welland Canal. 

Place of the Diesel Engine. 
Broadly speaking, the introduction of 
electricity in this connection puts the 
Diesel engine back into work for which 
it is eminently suited, under conditions 
which give it every chance to maintain 
efficiencv and reliability. It is as far 
as possible removed from the uncertain 
action of the propeller, and the uneven 
-loadino- and vibration incidental to a 
direct" propeller drive. In Canadian 
canal work, the power required for pro- 
pulsion varies between very wide limits. 
In the canals theselves, four miles be- 
ino- the limiting speed, 150 i.h.p. or less 
is^suffieient though full speed must be 
always available for emergency, espeei- 
allv in backing. In the open lake, m 
fair weather, 500 i.h.p. is sufficient to 
maintain fair speed, while 750 i.h.p. is 
necessarv in contending with the St. 
Lawrence currents. In some designs, 
the writers, therefore, proposed three 
Diesel generating units of 250 i.h.p. 
each of which can V Fwitched on to the 
propelling motor as required. 

Diesel Electric Arrangement. 
In the Tvnfcmouth, which is now 
building, to ' demonstrate the Diesel 
electee arrangement of propelling ma- 
chinery, a two-unit sub-w vision is ar- 
ranged for, each unit furnishing 300 
b.h.p. The electric system adopted is 
that identified with the name of the 
second writer, involving the use of alter- 
nating current. Investigation and actu- 
al tests have amply si. own the suitabil- 
ity of this system for marine propulsion. 

This system has for its special object 
the simplification of the electric equip- 
ment. Many applications of electric 
power have been made to marine pro- 
pulsion, but hitherto, with the exception 
of the Electric Arc, propelled on this 
system, and built in 1911, continuous 
currents only have been used, the reason 
being that regulation of speed and con- 
trol is easier for continuous current 
under ordinary conditions than for alter- 
nating current. 

The disadvantages attached to the 
use of alternating current in respect of 



regulation are associated with the 
greater number of conductors and parti- 
cularly with the property of alternating 
current motors, that the speed of the 
motor bears a fixed ratio to the speed of 
the generator, and that any departure 
from this speed is associated normally 
with loss of efficiency and with more or 
less complicated devices for changing 
the frequency of the current alterna- 
tions. 

In the system under notice these diffi- 
culties are overcome by the use of more 
than one frequency applied to each in- 




T AYOTJT OF "MAYOR" SYSTEM OF VESSEL 
PROPULSION. CANADIAN LAKES 
AND CANALS. 



dividual motor. The currents of differ- 
ent frequency are carried in indepen- 
dent mutually non-indicative circuits, 
the magnetic systems being entirely in- 
dependent but operating upon a com- 
mon rotor, so that their mechanical 
effects can be superposed and the power 
transmitted in the separate circuits 
combined to produce the required me- 
chanical effect. The required currents 
may be obtained from one or more gen- 
erators. 

Equipment of the "Tynemouth." 

Tn the Tynemouth, the equipment con- 
sists of two three-phase generators 
124 



driven by Diesel engines running at 400 
revolutions per minute. The electrical 
output from each set is 235 kilovolt 
amps, at 500 volts alternating. The 
generators have six and eight poles res- 
pectively, giving frequencies of 20 and 
2b\6 per second. The exciting current 
is obtained from direct connected con- 
tinuous current machines on the same 
shafts as the alternators. The normal 
exciting current is 30 amps, at 100 
volts. A single three-phase motor is 
coupled direct to the propeller shaft, 
which is the ordinary type with marine 
thrust block. The motor develops 500 
s.h.p. 

The rotor or moving part is of the 
simple squirrel cage type, without any 
electrical or mechanical connection other 
than its rigid attachment to the propeller 
shaft. The stationary part of the motor 
has two separate non-inductive windings 
for 30 and 40 poles respectively. When 
each of these two windings is connected 
to the appropriate generator, the speed 
due to each is 78 revolutions per min- 
ute. By changing the connection on 
both windings, the direction of rotation 
is reversed, and by connecting the 40- 
pole winding of the motor to the 6-pole 
generator, the speed in either direction 
drops to 58 revolutions per minute, or 
about three-quarters of the full revolu- 
tions. 

If full speed be not required, one gen- 
erator may be stopped, and the other 
left running at full revolutions under 
governor control and at full economy, 
because the power required to drive the 
ship" at three-quarters speed is about 
half of that required to drive it at full 
speed. If either of the generators be 
left attached to its own winding, and the 
other generator shut down, the ship is 
propelled by either engine at a little 
over half speed, the speed of the 
ship falling with the speed of rotation 
of the engine, until an automatic adjust- 
ment of power and speed is reached at 
about half-speed. 

The Control Gear. 
The control gear consists of an appar- 
atus for changing the connections of 
the generator and motor windings re- 
spectivelv. There are five positions on 
the switch,, corresponding to the ordin- 
ary positions on the engine-room tele- 
graph. Thev are "Full Speed Ahead," 
'"'Half Speed Ahead," "Stop," "Hall 
Speed Astern." and "Full Speed 
Astern." Each position of the con- 
troller is definitely fixed by means of 
cams and rollers, so that stopping at 
intermediate positions is prevented. The 
controlling gear provides for the inter- 
ruption of the excitation of the gener- 
ators while the switch is being moved 
from one step to another, the excitin" 
switch and the main switch being inter- 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



locked so that the switching-over oper- 
ation is accomplished while the electric 
circuits are "dead," thus avoiding^ in- 
jurious sparking. Should it be found 
convenient, a very simple arrangement 
could be made whereby the control 
could be operated from the bridge of 
the vessel, and the engineer's attention 
confined to the keeping of his engines 
lubricated and supplied with fuel to run 
at constant speed. 

It will be seen that this method of 
control entirely dispenses with the stop- 
ping and starting of the Diesel engines 
for manoeuvring, an operation which, in 
itself somewhat difficult, becomes im- 
possible if a liberal supply of com- 
pressed air be not available. To keep 
up a supply of compressed air for man- 
oeuvring the vessels in the locks and 
channels of a canal involves the upkeep 
of a very expensive and inefficient air- 
compressing plant, and the dispensing 
with this auxiliary is a very important 
feature of the system. It is also ad- 
vantageous to have two units, each cap- 
able of driving the ship, so that in the 
event of any interruption to the running 
of either, the vessel is still under con- 
trol. 

Electrical Equipment Functions 
Recapitulated. 

The functions performed by the elec- 
tric equipment may be recapitulated: — 

(1) — It adapts the speed of the en- 
gine to the speed of the propeller. 

(2) — It combines the power of separ- 
ate engines and applies the whole to a 
single propeller, with perfect freedom 
to use either or both power units. 

(3) — It provides a simple and easy 
reversal of the propeller, while leaving 
the engines running in one direction at 
constant speed. 

(4) — It also provides ready means of 
distant control should this be required. 

It will be seen that the use of mechan- 
ical gearing could perform the first, and 
the first only of these functions, and, 
for this reason it is anticipated that, 
compared with a mechanically geared or 
direct connected Diesel engine equip- 
ment, the electrical equipment will offer 
very material advantage in the operation 
of the vessel in the special circumstances 
under which it is placed. 

The writers have endeavored to show 
how important and, indeed, even indis- 
pensible for reliability and efficiency, 
the use of electric transmission may be 
in the propulsion of so relatively simple 
a type as this Canadian barge where it 
is decided to adopt the Diesel engine. 
This should help to dispose of the too 
prevalent idea that the natural scope for 
electrical propulsion is in warship or 
other highly specialized vessels in which 
electricity might provide means for ad- 
justing economically the power generat- 



ed to the very conflicting power require- 
ments, say, under peace and war condi- 
tions. Undoubtedly a battleship or bat- 
tle cruiser does offer the very best scope 
for the electric drive, but only because 
that class of vessel presents on a large 
scale the same problems in propulsion 
which are found in almost all other 
vessels, viz., how to adjust efficiently 
and economically the power available 
to the j>ower required at any given time, 
nut necessarily always from the point 
of view of propulsion alone. 

Tramp Steamer Logs Analysis. 

From the analysis of the voyage logs 
of an ordinary tramp steamer, the sec- 
ond writer has shown how important 
towards efficiency of propulsion might 
be the introduction of electric transmis- 
sion, with the added economy of a mod- 
ern hisih-speed re-action turbine as the 
power generator in place of the usual 
triple-expansion engine, and, of course, 
in this case such possibilities of econ- 
omy are confirmed by the results since 
obtained with mechanical gearing in- 
troduced for the same purpose. An ad- 
vantage, however, lies with the electric- 
al arrangement, in that it permits a 
much wider range and variation of revo- 
lutions between the propeller and the 
turbine, permitting also a more advan- 
tageous sub-division of the generating 
plant into units of different sizes, and 
finally eliminating the necessity for re- 
verse in the turbine and simplifying the 
control. 

In the United States, Mr. Emmett, of 
the General Electric Co., has also shown 
the suitability of electric propulsion for 
a deep-sea collier of great size and 
7.000 h.p., for which the equipment has 
already been completed and tested with 
the most brilliant results. From such a 
vessel to a large passenger liner such 
as the Celtic, is a mere step, and in such 
vessels also, the possibilities of economy 
and all-round efficiency are most mark- 
ed. 

Problems to Face. 

In such matters, it is much too com- 
mon to pronounce judgment for or 
against without adequate analysis of the 
problems which are as numerous and 
varied as the vessels which come up for 
consideration.- Trial-trip data, however 
valuable for comparative purposes, can- 
not be used as a guide, because what we 
are concerned with is maximum effi- 
ciency in working conditions; not pro- 
pelling efficiency alone, but the innum- 
erable phases of the working a ship, 
of which propulsion is, perhaps, the 
most important, all of which have a 
bearing on the general efficiency of its 
operation. 

Experience in developing a compara- 
tively simple type, such as this Cana- 
dian Canal vessel, shows that it is fre- 
125 



quently quite impossible to convey to 
the builder any adequate conception of 
how such a vessel is handled, and has to 
be handled, to get maximum efficiency 
out of it in the short six months' season. 
What Lord Kelvin used to call the "bias 
of preconceived notions" is apt to pre- 
vent a detached view on the part of a 
builder, especially when a decided de- 
parture from established practice and 
precedent is called for. For example, the 
idea that special scantling provisions 
forward should be fitted to any type 
of vessel to enable it to "butt" stone 
walls and quays with impunity seems to 
many builders very unreasonable, though 
the same builders might not hesitate to 
fit, special bow stiffening against ice. 

Scepticism Regarding Electricity in 
Marine Propulsion. 

It is for this same reason that one is 
not surprised to meet with considerable 
scepticism in regard to the scope for 
electricity in marine propulsion. To 
the majority of sea-going engineers, the 
idea of a transmission feature between 
the driving engine and the propeller is 
simply anathema. To prevent such an 
introduction, an infinity of pains will be 
devoted to experimenting with high- 
speed propellers and low-speed turbines 
and oil engines with an all-round lower- 
ing of total efficiency, and an increase 
in complication actually in excess of 
that which it is desired to avoid. There 
are not 10 per cent, of the merchant 
vessels now afloat which would not be 
most efficiently propelled by screws de- 
signed to turn at revolutions not ex- 
ceeding 80 per minute, and for real pro- 
gress towards maximum efficiency in 
marine propulsion, one should at all 
costs retain the simplest form of pro- 
peller, the efficiency of which permits 
of no dispute, and from that basis arrive 
through the various methods of trans- 
mission now available, at an arrange- 
ment of machinery best suited to each 
individual case. At the start, such a 
scheme of powering a vessel would work 
a hardship on the builders of standard 
marine machinery; but it should be 
understood that, in advocating the use 
of transmission gearing, one does so to 
enable the newer forms of power gener- 
ators to be utilized. 

Nothing is more likely to retard the 
introduction of the internal combustion 
engine in marine work than the mistak- 
en attempt to treat it as a perfect sub- 
stitute for the triple-expansion engine 
which it is intended to displace. It is 
at this point that electricity acts as a 
safeguard in a way that no other system 
of transmission can approach. 

Only Possible Solution. 

There are, of course, problems of pro- 
pulsion, the analysis of which shows 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



that approximately equal results may 
be obtained whichever form of trans- 
mission gearing, electric, hydraulic, or 
mechanical, is adopted. In such cases, 
tlu decision will (ho doubt lie with 
that system which offers the greatest re- 
liability and simplicity of operation. 
The success which has attended the in- 
troduction of the geared turbine and the 
hydraulic transformer is of good augury 
for similar success with electric trans- 
mission, but there is a class of problem 
in marine propulsion for which the only 
possible solution is through electrical 
means, viz., vessels in which propulsion 
is only one, and sometimes not the most 
important one, among many functions 
calling for power, which it is evident 
would be most efficiently provided from 
a central generating' station. Among 
such vessels, one might class the larger 
sizes of warships, with their multitudin- 
ous requirements in power for the driv- 
ing of auxiliary engines as well as pro- 
pelling machinery, but for purposes of 
illustration, it is probably better to take 
a simpler case, such as a dredge, say, of 
the self-propelled suction type. 

Vessels Offering Large Scope. 

Attention was first called to the suit- 
ability of electric drive for such vessels 
by Professor Biles and Mr. H. A. Mayor, 
and Mr. John Reid has recently com- 
pleted a design for a large vessel of this 
class which clearly indicates the very 
important advantages which may be ob- 
tained by the introduction of a central 
generating station furnishing power as 
required to the propellers, the dredge 
pumps, or the numerous auxiliary ma- 
chines. 

In a similar steam-driven job, there 
arc four separate triple-expansion en- 
gines, two for propulsion, each of 800 
i.h.n.. and two for the pumps, each of 
500 i.h.p.. or a total of 2,600 i.h.p. When 
it is considered that the introduction of 
the electric system allows the total 
horse-power generated to fall back to 
2,000 as a maximum without in any way 
prejudicing the operations of the 
dredge, it is at once apparent that here 
we have a first-class incentive to adopt 
an electric arrangement. A further in- 
centive of great importance in such 
work is the ability which the Use of elec- 
tricity confers to place the complete con- 
trol of the dredge in the hands of one 
man, the dredge master. 

Here, again, we have evidence of the 
importance of studying - such a problem 
rather from that of the dredge builder. 
No real progress can be made until this 
is done. By a simple system of switch- 
es, scarcely more complicated than ordin- 
ary bridge telegraphs, one man can 
handle the whole machine directly with 
the very areatest advantage to the effi- 
ciency of the dredging operations. 



Such are some of the most likely cases 
in which electricity seems to offer a 
means of solving certain difficulties in 
the power question, which are, after all, 
only components of a problem which in 
one form or another have long confront- 
ed the marine engineer, viz., how to 
generate the power required in a given 
vessel independently of the means used 
for propulsion, enabling the source of 
power for all purposes to be concentrat- 
ed in a central station with a simple 
economical and easily controlled system 
of distribution, by which the power gen- 
erated for any particular purpose may 
be exactly related to its requirements. 

Average Log For Package Freighter. 

The following interesting details of 
work done were given in the form of an 
appendix to show fluctuation of power 
requirements, being the average log of 
a package freighter of "canal" type, 
on a voyage from Montreal to Fort- 
william and return. 

Leave Montreal with about 700 tons 
freight, draughts say F. 10.1 ft.: A. 7.4 
fr.. From harbor of Montreal enters La- 
chine Canal, 8V2 miles long, five locks, 
speed limited to 4 miles per hour. Time 
taken. 4 hours. Crosses Lake St. Louis, 
15 miles, no current. Time taken at 10 
miles per hour — 1H hours. 

Soulanges Canal. — 14 miles. 4 lift 
locks, 1 guard lock. Time taken 6 
hours. 

Crosses Lake St. Francis. — 32 miles 
currents 1 to 3 miles per hour. Time 
taken, 4 hours. 

Cornwall Canal. — 11 miles. 6 locks. 
Time taken, 5 hours. 

Williamsburg Canals. — A series of 
canals alternating with stretches of 
river, with 5 to 6 mile currents. 12 
miles. Time, 5 hours. 

To Prescott in river. — 30 miles: 5 mile 
current; 4^4 hours. Distance Montreal 
to Prescott about 125 miles, in which at 
least 10 hours vessel is stopped alto- 
gether, locking and tied up. 

Prescott to Toronto.— 230 miles, full 
speed : about 21 hours. Stop at Tor- 
onto for cargo. 25 to 35 hours, say 30 
hours. Leave Toronto with 1.200 tons 
cargo, drafts F. 11 ft. 9 in. A.. 9 ft. 10 
inches. 

Toronto to Hamilton. — 40 miles: 4 
hours. Stop at Hamilton for cargo 25 
horn's. Leave Hamilton with 1,400 tons 
cargo, drafts F. 12 ft. 7 in.: A. 10 ft. 
8 in. 

Hamilton to Port Dalhousie.— 30 
miles; 3 hours. 

Welland Canal. — 26% miles, numer- 
ous locks and swing bridges; 16 to 24 
hours, depending on wind and number 
of boats coming down. Wind is a bad 
drawback owing to exposed nature of 
canal. (Vessel is driven over against 
hank ) : say 20 hours. 

126 



Port Colborne to Courtright on St. 
Claire River. — 300 miles; 28 hours. Stops 
at Sandwich for coal and packs up 
freight at small ports. Add 13 hours 
stopped. 

Courtright fto Sarnia. — 10 miles; 1 
hour. 

Sarnia to Soo Canal. — 270 miles; 26 
hours. Allow about 5 hours average de- 
lay at Soo taking cargo, waiting for 
locks, etc. 

Soo to Fort William.— 260 miles; 26 
hours, full speed. Total distance, 1,300 
miles; usual time, 9 to 10 days. Load- 
ing grain at Fort William. 3 days. Re- 
turn journey to Montreal, 7 days. Un- 
loading Montreal and waiting turn. 2 
days. Loading package freight, 2 days. 
Total for round trip, 24 days. Actual 
average is rather longer, 25 to 27 days, 
owing to delays, Sundays, etc. Burns 

10 tons per average day right away. 

Trip on S.S. Keystorm, Montreal to 
Oswego. 

This voyage began on July 22, and 
ended on July 25, 1910, and although 
the engineer did not join the ship until 
she reached Lachine, we have the ap- 
proximate time at the first locks be- 
tween there and Montreal. 

Unfortunately during the trip there 
were unavoidable delays caused by 
breaking of lock 18 in the Cornwall 
Canal. This itself not only delayed us. 
hut tied up a number of boats which all 
got away together, thus causing further 
delay in waiting for locks and passing 
these boats in the canal. 

The low power cards were taken in 
the Soulanges Canal. The canal here is 

11 miles long, without a lock, and has 
power stations at the lower end, which 
make a current of at least V/2 miles 
per hour. The speed of the ship was ac- 
curately measured by taking the time 
between posts marked and fixed in the 
canal bank half a mile apart. This dis- 
tance the boat made in 7 minutes and 45 
seconds at 50 revolutions, which is a 
speed of 3.87 miles an hour, or practi- 
cally 4 miles an hour. The draft was 
11 ft. 7 in. aft and 13 ft. 2 in. forward. 
The indicated horse power as shown by 
cards was 218. 

There are canals without currents, 
hut they are short, and it would be im- 
possible with only one indicator to get 
the cards in time. In any case it is a 
difficult matter, as they arc constantly 
cliaiming the speed of the engine. While 
tlie boat was in the currents the en- 
gines were turning 82 revolutions per 
minute, 177 lbs. of steam. 48 first re- 
ceiver. 9 lbs., second receiver. 25 1 '■> in. 
vacuum. 

Cards were taken on the lake at the 
same pressure and revolutions as when 
running in the currents. The total 
power developed was 762 i.h.p.: speed 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



about 10.25 miles per hour. The coal 
was accurately measured for six hours, 
and, allowing 44 cubic feet to the ton, 
amounted to 15.6 tons per 24 hours, or 
about 1.9 lbs. of coal per indicated horse 
power per hour. The coal was of infer- 
ior quality, with a high percentage of 
ash. 

The speed of the currents varies; 
therefore it is hard to get any accurate 
information regarding their speed by 
taking t he speed of the ship. 

On board this trip it was noticed that 
the boilers were being operated under 
natural draught while running slow 
speed and in the canals. This is not 
good practice and very uneconomical, no 
benefit being derived from the heating 
arrangement in the uptake. When 
working very slowly, the fan if making 
too much draught can be stopped, hut 
the ash-pit dampers should always be 
shut, the necessary air being taken 
through the fan and uptake. Any quan- 
tity of ashes should never be allowed in 
the ash-pit, otherwise the fire bars will 
get red hot and collapse. 

It was also noticed that the injector 
Mas used excessively in canals. This is 
a very inefficient instrument for feeding 
boilers, especially when a feed pump is 
in operation and doing the same work. 
An injector should only be used for feed- 
salt water or to fill a boiler when all 
feed pumps are cold, if economy is to be v 
considered, as most of the steam is used 
to give velocity to the water. 

Some of these tilings are common 
practice but are not right. The engin- 
eer has been instructed on these differ- 
ent points. 

In the following report the locks 
are numbered from Montreal, counting 
only the locks the boat passes through. 
The ordinary numbers include some old 
canals, and are rather misleading. 

Lachine Canal. 

The total length of the Lachine Canal 
is SVo miles, and the total length of 
lockages, 45 feet. 

Lock 1. — In and the gates shut 8.35 

a. m. Clear of the gates at 8.55. 
Lock 2. — This lock is straight ahead, 

about 100 yards distant. In and the 
gates closed at 9.23. Clear of the gates 
at 9.42 a.m. 

Lock 3 (Gabriel. — This lock is about 
a mile distant. The canal is compara- 
tively wide in places, at other parts it is 
rather narrow and crooked. There is 
one bridge immediately on leaving lock 
2. There are also elevators, coal and 
freight wharves along both sides where 

b. »ats and barges are tied up. In and 
gates shut at 10.4. Clear of gates at 

I 10.20. 

Lock 4 (Cote St. Paul).— This lock is 
about l 1 /? miles distant. The canal is 
narrow all the way, but comparatively 



straight; lias one bridge, and dredges 
working to repair canal bank. In and 
gates closed at 11.15. Clear of gates 
11.30. 

Lock 5 (Lachine Lock). — This lock is 
about (> miles distant; has two bridges, 
and is comparatively straight, but from 
these canals at different points there is 
water taken for power purposes, which, 
besides making an undesirable current, 
causes eddies around, and in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the outlet strong suc- 
tion, which sometimes draws a ship 
close to the outlet, when the power has 
to be shut off before she can be taken 
away. In passing these a ship must 
keep well to the opposite bank. In and 
gates closed at 1 p.m. Clear of the 
gates 1 . 15. 

Lake St. Louis. 

On leaving this lock there is a canal 
of about IV2 miles in length. Cleared 
this at 1.40, after which a boat can usu- 
ally run at a full speed on the lake, al- 
though it is only a channel marked by 
range lights and buoys. There is a 
current in this channel estimated at a 
mile an hour, but during the last 4 miles 
the current is stronger, varying from 1 
to a maximum of 3% miles. The dis- 
tance is 17 miles, j 

Slowed down at 3.46 and tied up at 
the entrance of the Soulanges Canal at 
4 p.m., making a total time between 
locks of 2 hours 45 minutes. The boat 
was running at half speed for about 
one-third the distance. This was on ac- 
count of one of the lightships being out 
of its position. 

Soulanges Canal. 

The total length of the Soulanges 
Canal is 14 miles, and the total eleva- 
tion of lockages, 84 feet. 

Lock 6. — This lock is straight ahead 
about 200 yards. In lock and gates shut 
at 4.48. (It takes on an average 8 
minutes for a loaded boat to enter lock). 
Lock filled, gates opened and engine 
started at 5 p.m. 

Lock 7. — This lock is about 300 yards 
straight ahead; no current or obstruc- 
tion of any kind. In lock and gates 
shut at 5.20. Lock filled, gates opened 
and engines started at 5.30. 

Lock 8. — This lock is about 2 miles 
distant; has one bridge, but no other ob- 
struction. In and gates shut at 6.16. 
Out of this lock and through guard lock, 
about 300 yards distant, at 6.35. 

Lock 9. — After passing- through lock 
8. tied up until 7.30 to allow the Rapids 
King and R. and O. passenger boat to 
pass. From this lock to lake St. Fran- 
cis or Coteau Landing, a distance of 11 
miles, is where the cards were taken. 
It has at the lowest estimate a current 
o:': I14 miles. There are two bridges and 
some construction plants ^fixing the ca- 
nal bank. In and gates shut at 10.23. 
127 



Lock filled, gates opened and engine 
started at 10.35. 

Lake St. Francis. 

This lake is 28 miles long; has very 
little current except at a distance of 
about 4 miles from the west end, where 
it varies from 1 to 4 miles per hour. 
Arrived at Cornwall 2 a.m., Saturday, 
July 23. Here it was found that the 
third lock from here was broken (called 
18), therefore tied up for the night, 
causing a delay of about 14 hours. 

Cornwall Canal. 

The total length of the Cornwall 
Canal is 11 miles, and the total elevation 
of the lockages, 48 feet. 

Lock 10. — Under way again at 4.10 
p.m. In lock and gates closed at 4.30. 
Some trouble in .getting gates opened. 
Lock filled, gates opened and engines 
started at 5.25. 

Lock 11. — About 250 yards straight 
ahead. In lock and gates closed at 5.35. 
Lock filled, gates opened and engines 
started at 5.47. After leaving this lock 
the ship tied up again, as the next lock 
was broken and it was not then repaired. 
Delay, 5 hours. 

Lock 12. — About 7V 2 miles distant* 
Two bridges, slight bend about half-a- 
mile after leaving lock. Left Cornwall 
11.15, arrived broken lock at 12 mid- 
night. In broken lock and gates shut 
at 3 a.m. July 24 (delay. 3 hours). 

Lock 13. — 'About V-/± miles distant, % 
of a mile straight before entering lock. 
In and gates closed at 4.34 a.m. Lock 
filled, gates opened and engines started 
at 4.50. 

Lock 14. — About V/4 miles shallow 
water and crooked channel. In and 
gates opened and engines started at 
5.45. Passed through guard lock at 
5.55. 

Lock 15 (Dickinson Landing). — About 
7y 2 miles, crooked but plenty of water. 
In fact, it is a branch of the river made 
into a canal by means of dams. One 
bridge. Arrived head lock. In and 
gates shut at 7.40. (Lift only 3 feet.) 
Lock filled, gates opened and engines 
started at 7.50. 

Lock 16 (Farran's Point). — One lock, 
800 ft.; lift, 3V 2 feet. After leaving 
Dickinson's Landing there is a break- 
water about half-a-mile with a light on 
the outer end. Passed this light 8 a.m. 
From here to Farran's Point, a distance 
of eight miles, a boat is in a current of 
about a maximum of 4V 2 miles. En- 
gines slow at 8.35. This is the worst 
landing to make in the whole river, in 
fact, a captain would not make it at 
night with a loaded boat (14 feet). A 
swift current flows past the entrance of 
the lock, causing a miniature tide in the 
lock, and eddies between the current and 
the bank. There is a rise and fall at the 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



lock of about eight inches in every ten 
minutes. In lock and made fast at 9 
a.m. Waited for other two boats. Lock 
filled, gates opened and engines started 
at 9.40. 

Lock 17 (Morrisburg). — Two locks, 
ll 1 ■> feet lift. After leaving Farran's 
Point there is a canal about one mile 
long. Clear of this at 10.10 a.m., and 
into the river and currents. Passed 
Weaver's Point at 10.40, the first bad 
point. Current estimated at 8V2 miles. 
Passed the churches, the second bad 
point, at 11.20. Here a boat crosses 
from the south to the north shore, and, 
of course, loses some ground in doing so. 
From here to Morisburg, a distance of 
about three miles, there is a current of 
between six and eight miles. Total dis- 
tance from Farran's Point to Morris- 
burg 12 miles. Dorin's Point, just be- 
low Morrisburg. is about the swiftest 
current in this run. Slow 11.50. Tied 
up waiting for lock gate at 12.5. In 
lock, sates shut at 12.23. Lock filled, 
gates opened and engines started at 
12.37. A boat having a speed of nine 
miles per hour could leave the head of 
Cornwall Canal, going around Farran's 
Point up to the Snye and land at Morris- 
burs. There is no time gained or lost 
hi this, but it avoids a difficult landing 
at Farran's Point. 

Lock 18— Head lock; lift about 1 ft. 
About 4 miles distant: crooked with 
slight current. In lock and gates shut 
2 p.m. Lock filled, gates opened and en- 
gines started at 2.10. 

Lock 19 (Iroquois).— Two locks, 15 ft. 
elevation; 1,800 ft. long. From this 
lock it took 5 minutes to clear the canal. 
(2.15 p.m.) From here to Iroquois, a 



distance of 7 miles, is in the river and 
currents. Passed Pine Tree Point at 
2.45, which is as swift a current as 
there is in the river; the boat barely 
moved in the worst part, but it is only 
about 300 yards long. Slow 35, waited 
for another boat. In and gates shut at 
3.30. Lock filled, gates opened and en- 
gines started at 3.55. 

Lock 20. — About 7 miles distant; 
crooked at the eastern end and rocky 
bottom. Very few iron boats loaded 
venture through here at night. Two 
bridges. About two miles east of Card- 
inal there is a rough stone wall on either 
side. These are close together, as no 
boats pass down, all are up bound. In 
Galops Lock, gate shut 5.50. Lock 
filled, gates opened and engines started 
at 6.10. Soft bottom in this lock. A 
boat is not allowed to work her propel- 
ler until she is about half out of the 
lock. This is the last lock. After leav- 
ing the lock there is a canal about half 
a mile long, then the open river with a 
current of about 3V2 miles for about a 
mile and through another canal called 
the "North Channel," about 1% miles. 
Passed the western end of this 6.43 
pin. Prescott 5 miles at 7.20. From 
here alons for about 20 miles is the 
Thousand Islands. Arrived at Oswego at 
7 a.m.. July 25. The. distance frcjn 
Prescott to Oswego is about 125 miles. — 
"Engineer" and "Journal" of Com- 
merce." 

© 

STEAMER W. H. DWYER. 

'"plIE new steamer, "W. H. Dwyer," 
A recently built for the Canadian Lakes 
service, by the Sunderland Shipbuilding 



Co., takes the highest class of the British 
Corporation. Her principal dimensions 
are : 

Length 257 feet, breadth 42 feet 8V2 
inches, depth 18 feet 6 inches. Deck 
houses are placed aft over the machin- 
ery, with sun deck above, and over the 
top-gallant forecastle is fitted a texas 
house. The vessel is fitted with clear 
holds for the carrying of grain in bulk, 
and is built with cantilever frames in 
order to dispense with pillars. Accom- 
modation for captain and owner is pro- 
vided in house on forecastle deck, and 
for officers and engineers aft, whilst the 
sailors and firemen are berthed in fore 
end of boiler room casing. The saloon 
is in a deck house at the after end, and 
is fitted up in polished hardwood. A 
complete installation of electric light is 
fitted, and all living rooms are heated by 
steam. The deck machinery consists of 
four steam winches, steam steering gear 
and direct steam capstan windlass. The 
vessel was built to the order of Dwyer 
& Hennessy, Ottawa, Ontario. 

The propelling engines were supplied 
by MacColl & ^Pollock, Ltd., Sunder- 
land, and _have cylinders 17 in, 28*4 in. 
and 46 in. by 33 in. stroke; steam being 
supplied by two large boilers working at 
a pressure of 185 lbs. per square inch. 

The trial trip was in every way most 
satisfactory, everything worked well, 
and a mean speed of lO 1 /* knots was 
easily maintained. Mr. Dunlop, of John 
Reid & Co., naval architects, Montreal 
and Glasgow, who superintended the 
construction of the vessel, was on board, 
and expressed himself as thoroughly sat- 
isfied with the result. 




NEW CANADIAN LAKES STEAMSSHIP "W. II. DWYBB 

128 



A Board of Trade Steam Valve Chest Explosion Inquiry 



The evidence furnished goes to show that "water hammer" was the cause of the ex- 
plosion, and as the subject is one of more than usual interest to operative engineers, and, 
at the same time, highly educative, we are reproducing the data and illustrations submitted 
by the B. of T. Surveyor, which contributed so largely in helping the Court of Inquiry to 
arrive at a decision. 



"D Y THE explosion of a steam valve 
chest on board the Royal Mail Steam 
Packet Co. liner, Araguaya while in dock 
at Southampton on March 10 of this 
year, three boiler scalers were killed, and 
three others were injured, through the 
escape of scalding steam. At the Board 
of Trade investigation which followed, it 
was found that the valve which burst 
had been correctly designed and con- 
structed, that it was free from flaws, 
and that it had been properly installed. 
The cause of the explosion as determin- 
ed by the evidence was shown to be 
"water hammer," a contingency brought 
about by the accidental opening of a 
drain cock. In his evidence, Mr. C. W. 
Roberts, Board of Trade Engineer Sur- 
veyor, said : 

"I examined the fracture with a lens. 
There was no flaw to account for the 
failure. The metal at the fracture was 
solid, having no blow-holes, and of a 
fine granular structure. Water passed 
freely through the port of the drain 
cock, equivalent to that which would 
issue from an orifice of a *4 in. to % in. 
The strength of the valve chest cannot 
be determined with precision, but I es- 
timate that the bursting pressure would 
be at least 1,600 lb. per sq. in., giving 
a factor of safety of iy%. These are 
rough calculations. The chest must have 
received a very great shock, and I am 
satisfied it could have resulted in no 
other way except from water hammer 
action, the circumstances, in my opinion, 
being ideal for the production of water 
hammer, for this reason : The branch 
pipe to which the chest was secured 
had a horizontal portion, and then it 
rose abruptly, and this formation would 
cause water of condensation to be en- 
trapped in this part of the pipe. 

The Water Hammer Feature. 

I have prepared diagrams to illustrate 
in six stages how water hammer was 
probably formed, from the time that the 
drain cock was open, shortly before the 
explosion occurred, assuming it was so 
open, to the time of the explosion. The 
outlines of these diagrams are, of course, 
the same. The chest is indicated in sec- 
tion, and with it is the branch pipe 
leading into a portion of the main auxil- 
iary pipe. Actually, the pipes and the 
chest were not in the same vertical plane 
as shown in the drawings. This branch 
pipe, after branching from the main pipe, 
was bent round at. right angles to the 
main pipe. Then the horizontal portion 



was again bent round at right angles to 
meet the chest. In the diagrams, only 
the bend from the vertical to the hori- 
zontal portion is shown. It is shown 
as it is, so as not to confuse the issue. 
The conditions at the time of opening 
the cock, shortly before the explosion 
would be as represented in Fig. 1. The 
valve would be closed, and the chest, or 
portion of the chest above the valve, 
would be filled with water of condensa- 
tion, as would also the branch pipe up 
to some level above the horizontal por- 
tion. 



J a 




J n 



A point I wish to emphasize is this, 
that the neck of the chest would be com- 
pletely filled with water, because, on the 
water draining into this pipe, and reach- 
ing the level of the top of the horizontal 
portion, steam would be entrapped in 
the chest. The sides of the chest and 
the surface water would be at the same 
temperature as the steam within the 
chest ; but as the metal and water cooled 
down by radiation, the steam in the 
chest would be condensed, the process, 
129 



of course, being very gradual, and the 
pressure of steam within the pipe, act- 
ing on the surface of the water within 
the pipe, would gradually force the wa- 
ter into the upper portion of the chest, 
which had been previously occupied by 
steam, so that the chest would be com- 
pletely filled right up to the cover. 

Now, the conditions which obtained 
would be the same as in Fig' 1. The 
surface water would be at the same 
temperature as the steam. Elsewhere, 
the water would be comparatively cool, 
especially at the bottom of the pipe and 



I * 




Fig « 



j a 



in the valve chest — in the positions most 
remote from the steam, and in which 
the water had been standing longest. On 
the drain cock being opened, the level 
of the water in the vertical leg of the 
pipe would gradually fall. The surface 
would remain unchanged as regards tem- 
perature and area until passing the first 
bend — that is the bend shown in the dia- 
grams. On passing the first bend the 
surface would expand, the additional 
area being made up of cooler water — 




MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



that is, water that had been lying lower 
down in the pipe. On this cooler water 
being presented to the steam, condensa- 
tion would occur. 

The condensation would not be uni- 
form over the whole surface of the wa- 
ter owing to the irregular temperature. 
The surface water would probably be 
cooler towards the inner radius of the 
bend of the pipe than towards the outer 
radius. This would result in the sur- 
face of the water no longer being level, 
but it would assume a more or less slop- 
ing position — as shown in Fig. 2 — due 
to the irregular pressure on the surface 
of the water. The surface would be de- 
pressed where the water was hottest. 
Then, on the water continuing to be 
drawn from the pipe — steam would be 
admitted along the upper portion of the 
horizontal length. The process would be 
very gradual, because the drain cock 
was only partially open, so that the 
steam in its passage through the pipe 
would gradually heat up the water on 
its way. There would be no violent com- 
motion of the water until the steam 
reached the valve chest. The position 
assumed by the water when the steam 
was at the entrance to the chest is shown 
in Fig. 3, and on gaining access to the 
chest the steam would displace the wa- 
ter which had been previously held up 
in the neck of the chest as shown in 
Fig. 4. 

The Condensation Feature. 

In falling by gravity the water would 
be suddenly agitated and would prob- 
ably again block the pipe — as shown in 
Fig. 5. In blocking the pipe, steam 
would of course be imprisoned in the 
valve chest. This steam, on meeting the 
comparatively cool sides of the chest 
and the surface of the recently disturbed 
water would be suddenly condensed, and 
the block of water in the pipe would 
be propelled by the pressure of steam 
acting on its surface within the pipe into 
the vacuum caused in the chest, and it 
would strike the cover with enormous 
velocity — with sufficient force to frac- 
ture the neck of the chest, as I estimate. 
The ultimate position is shown in Fig. 6. 

The length of the branch pipe to which 
the chest was attached scales about 7*4 
feet on the drawing, that is, the pipe 
itself from flange to flange irrespective 
of the branch of the T-pieee. To fill 
tha< pipe with water beyond the bend, 
there must have been rapid condensation 
of the steam between 6 and 10.45 a.m. 
<m the day of the explosion. According 
to the evidence there appears to have 
been no preliminary sign of knocking be- 
fore the explosion occurred. Several 
cases have come to my notice in which 
there was no knocking. Of course, it 
depends on the arrangement of pipes. If 
the length of the horizontal portion is 
great relative to the diameter, one might 
expect a knocking to occur, and the 



rapidity with which the water is drained 
from the pipes has an important bearing 
on the subject. 

The action is somewhat different when 
the steam is admitted to a long horizon- 
tal pipe in the lower portion of which 
there is relatively cool water. There is 
no doubt very rapid local condensation 
when steam is admitted, and it has been 
suggested that the steam in rushing 
through the restricted channel raises up 
behind it a wave which isolates the steam 
in the remote portion of the pipe, and 
this steam becoming suddenly condensed, 
the pressure wave is carried into the 
vacuum and delivers the water hammer 
blow ; but it is incorrect to term the 
movement of this mass of water a 
""wave." which is a translation rather 
of form. 

In all probability, the local condensa- 
tion results in the sensible diminution 
of pressure at a particular place. This 
has the effect of heaping up the water 
at this particular place, due to the great- 
er pressure elsewhere on the surface. The 
water is heaped up and, in assembling, 
is gathered up from the lower portion of 
the pipe. This exposes a fresh surface 
of the water to the steam, and the con- 
densation is more rapid and causes a dis- 
turbance in other portions of the pipe. 
These heaps of water must oscillate ow- 
ing to the irregular pressure. There is 
a violent agitation over the whole sur- 
face, which will continue so long as the 
temperature of the surface water differs 
from that of the steam. 

For example, when steam is admitted 
into deck winch pipes in which there is 
water of condensation, they will almost 
immediately start to knock and vibrate, 
and this will continue until the pipes are 
thoroughly warmed up, or the water is 
expelled. The knocking is produced by 
the impact of the water against the side 
of the pipe as it fills the spaces left by 
bodies of steam on suddenly becoming 
condensed. This steam is entrapped or 
isolated by the water in the general com- 
motion: it may be in the form of glob- 
ules or in larger bodies separating blocks 
or plugs of water. The action of water 
hammer is in effect always the same. It 
is the movement of a mass of water by 
pressure on one side into the space oc- 
cupied by lesser pressure on the other. 

In my opinion, the valve chest was 
sound, and the failure was practically in- 
stantaneous, by reason of water hammer 
action. The whole of the theory that 
■this rupture was brought about by wa- 
ter hammer action depends upon the fact 
that the drain cock must have been open 
prior to the explosion. 

© 

TOWAGE ACROSS THE ATLANTIC. 

T IV Kb' POOL has long been noted for 
•■-"'her fine fleet of tugs, and particularly 
lor long and successful towages. At the 
KM 



present time two tugs are engaged in for- 
eign work, one being the Blackcock, 
which has sailed for Canada haying in 
tow the coasting steamer St. George, 
which the Canadian Pacific Railway re- 
cently purchased from the Great West- 
ern Railway for coastal service in the 
Dominion. The steamer was recently 
built at Birkenhead for the Fishguard- 
Rossclare service and has a speed of 
about 20 knots. 

— m — 

CIVIL SERVICE BOARD TO CON- 
TROL CHANNEL WORK. 

TT is the intention of the Minister 
of Marine to have the branch of his 
department which has the supervision 
and management at headquarters of 
the St. Lawrence ship channel placed un- 
der the jurisdiction of the Civil Service 
Commission. When this policy has been 
put in force, appointments in the tech- 
nical and engineering staff will be made 
after competitive examinations. In the 
meantime a decision of more immediate 
concern to employees of the Channel 
service has been come to, namely, an 
increase of ten per cent, in wages of 
firemen and deck hands on the tugs, 
tenders and dredges working on the St. 
Lawrence channel improvements. 

© 

FERRY STEAMER "PONTIAC" 
BURNED. 

'"PHE ferry steamer Pontiac was gut- 
ted by fire, said to have been of an 
incendiary origin, on the night of July 
6, at the Grand Trunk docks, Toronto, 
causing a damage of $6,000, partly cov- 
ered by insurance. An attempt was 
made to burn the Pontiac last winter, 
but the firemen succeeded in subduing 
the blaze before it had a chance to gain 
headway. Two months ago the vessel 
sank, and had just been raised. 

The boat had been lying on the wa- 
terfront for some time, and was recent- 
ly rebuilt. About midnight, smoke was 
noticed coming from the wheelhouse by 
passing trainmen, and the alarm was 
rung in. By the time the fire depart- 
ment had reached the scene the fire had 
obtained a good hold on the boat, and 
as it was situated in a bad position for 
the men to reach, it was some time be- 
fore the hose was carried aboard. 

In the vicinity of the ferry was the 
steamer Frontier of the defunct Peoples 
Line, and a large cofferdam, valued at 
$5,000, and several million feet of lum- 
ber, The good work of the firemen, how- 
ever, prevented the blaze from spread- 
ing, although the dock, which is in a 
dilapidated condition and full of open- 
ings, endangered the lives of the fire- 
fighters. 

The Pontiac is owned by John Smith 
ol Rosedale. She formerly plied around 
W indsor and Detroit. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



MOTOR ENGINES. 

T N a former report, the attention of 
Canadian manufacturers was drawn 
to the trade with Newfoundland in mo- 
tor engines. The passing of old methods 
of prosecuting the fisheries is evidenced 
by the surprising increase in the number 
of motor boats that will be employed 
in the Colony's staple industry this sea- 
son. 

There is at present scarcely a harbor 
around the coast but will have one or 
more boats this summer, and some of 
the principal ones as many as five or 
six. Besides being used for ordinary 
fishing purposes, motor boats are now 
employed in connection with various in- 
dustries and other callings, such as lum- 
ber and pulp mills; for carrying mails; 
by clergymen in connection with their 
missions; by the medical profession; 
while for freighting and similar pur- 
poses large motor boats will soon be in 
demand. 

About 2,000 boats propelled by motor 
engines are now in use around the coast, 
and already 300 engines of Canadian 
manufacture have been sold to fishermen 
by one firm since the beginning of the 
year. 

© 

NEW HYDROGRAPHIC SERVICE 
VESSEL "ACADIA." 

>TpHE "Acadia," a new ship, built for 
Hydrographic Service of the Domin- 
ion Government, recently arrived in 
Canadian waters. This vessel was built 



in execution of a contract entered into 
between the Department of Marine and 
Naval Service of Canada, and Clarence 
1. de Sola, of Montreal, acting in con- 
junction with Swan, Hunter & Wind- 
ham Richardson, Ltd., the well-known 
shipbuilders of Wallsend-on-Tyne, who 
built the vessel in I heir Tyneside Yards, 
from designs furnished on behalf of the 
Canadian Government by R. L. Newman, 
their naval architect in Ottawa. 

The "Acadia" is 170 feet long by 35y 2 
feet beam, and has been built to attain 
the highest class Lloyds register. She 
is propelled by one set of powerful triple 
expansion engines, supplied with steam 
from two boilers working under How- 
den's forced draught system. On the 
trial trip the vessel attained a mean 
speed of 12% knots, and in her passage 
across the Atlantic she upheld her record 
splendidly for speed, in spite of unfav- 
orable weather, arriving in port ahead 
of the scheduled time. 

The vessel is schooner rigged, and is 
built of steel, being strengthened with 
heavy plates to enable her to run 
through ice and work under all climatic 
conditions. She is very completely out- 
fitted for hydrographic service work, be- 
ing equipped with two special motor 
launches and Lucas sounding machine, 
marine sentry, sounding winch, electric 
light with projector, etc. In addition to 
the usual accommodation for deck and 
engine room officers there are a number 
of special rooms for the various officials 
engaged in survey work, all of which are 
handsomely furnished. 



Altogether, the "Acadia" is a valu- 
able addition to the Dominion Govern- 
ment marine service, and is excellently 
adapted for the special work for which 
she is intended. This is the second hy- 
drographic vessel which Swan, Hunter 
& Wigham Richardson have contracted 
for ami built in conjunction with Mr. de 
Sola for the Canadian government, the 
"Cartier," built three years ago. being 
the first. 

® 

NEW WHITE STAR LINER 
"BRITANNIC." 

/ "p HERE are more watertight bulk- 
heads in the new White Star Liner 
Britannic, building at Belfast, than 
were introduced into the Olympic. Per- 
pendicular plating is to be found on the 
stern, which tapers out, considerable 
cargo space having been sacrificed by 
this arrangement. It is said that this 
space will be devoted to the storage of 
oil in bulk, so that, in the event of oil 
being partly used for fuel on the vessel, 
it can be led to the boilers in quick 
time. 

A novel device for launching life- 
boats will be introduced into the equip- 
ment of the liner. Invented by the 
builders, the mechanism is controlled 
by electricity from the bridge. When 
the officer on duty touches a button, a 
pin is forced out of the supports, and, 
at the same time, the boat is given suffi- 
cient momentum to send the davits out 
clear of the ship's side, the work of 
'owering into the water being then only 
a matter of a few moments. 




MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



STERN WHEEL TUG FOR HUDSON 
BAY. 

^pHERE is being built at the Poison 
Iron "Works, Toronto, a stern wheel 
lug' to the order of the Dominion De- 
partment of Railways and Canals, for 
service on the rivers running into Hud- 
son's Bay. Our illustrations represent 
5 hours erection labor on the hull at 
the Poison plant. The dimensions of 
the vessel are as follows: 

Length over hull and wheel, 117 ft.; 
length over hull only. 104 ft.; breadth, 
ISft.; depth molded, 4 ft.: draft aft, 2 



above deck to form the bulwarks. The 
main keelson and centre truss consist of 
% in. plate, 15 in. wide, with side keel- 
sons of 6 in. ship channels from end to 
end. There are 3 transverse watertight 
bulkheads, 2 docking- keels of 3 x 10 
in. oak, and 4 x 8 in. oak wales secured 
by 3 x /2 x 2% x V4 in. angles. Two bal- 
anced rudders of % in. steel plate are 
being fitted. The hull will be put to- 
gether in the builders' yard, and be 
afterwards dismantled and shipped 
knock-down to Hudson's Bay, aboard 
the dredsre Port Nelson. The Poison 




STERN WHEEL TUG FOR HUDSON BAY IN COURSE OF ERECTION. 



ft. The framing is spaced at 15 in. 
centres, and consists of 2y 2 x 2% x % 
in. angles throughout. The hull plating 
i3 of 14 m ; steel, while the stringer 
plate of Vo in. steel extends around the 
ship and is connected to the shear plate 
by 2V2 x 2V2 x 14 in. gunwale bar. The 
shear plate extends 12 in. above deck 
tc receive the cabin stanchions, and 
forward of the cabin, it extends 30 in. 



Co will furnish the labor necessary to 
put together and complete the tug at 
her destination. Ample and comfort- 
able accommodation is being provided 
for the crew, and in the matter of gen- 
eral equipment, electric light, plumbing 
and steam heating systems are being 
installed. 

Machinery. 

The motive power consists of one 




MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



pair of stern wheel engines, with cy- 
linders of 12 in. diameter by 48 inch 
stroke, and a locomotive type boiler, 56 
in. diameter by 20 ft. long, for a work- 
ing steam pressure of 160 pounds per 
sq. inch. Two outside packed 5^4 x 3 x 
6 in. pumps for boiler feed and general 
service, a National feed water heater 
and two double barrel type capstans 
with 6x8 in. double cylinder reversing 
engines form part of the auxiliary ma- 
chinery equipment. 



are not in a position to make a state- 
ment as regards our intentions." The 
land in question is near the Grand 
Trunk elevator. 

It is generally believed in shipping 
circles that the Commission wish to 
build new sheds, as the accommodation 
for grain vessels in the port is felt to 
be insufficient. According to the terms 
of the lease which the companies are 
said to hold, the Government, on giv- 
ing two months' notice, can reclaim the 



Trade that, as larger vessels are being 
placed on the St. Lawrence route, the 
work of dredging the channel ought to 
be advanced with as little delay as 
necessary. 

It is estimated that eighteen million 
yards of material must be taken from 
the channel between the Isle of Orleans 
and Goose Cape in order to obtain a 
uniform depth of 35 feet in a channel 
1,000 feet wide. So far, 3,000 000 cubic 
yards have been taken out, and it is ex- 



p 


(T 

Is 


\ 

A 


m 
1 


\ 

r 




m 


r 




m 


i 


4^ 





^7 




-^7— — 9 ■ ■ ■ <=^- 

DECKHOUSE PLAN OP STERN WHEEL TUG FOR HUDSON BAY. 



MONTREAL HARBOR COMMIS- 
SIONERS VISIT OTTAWA. 

'T* HE exact object of a visit made by 
W. G. Ross and Farquhar Robert- 
son, of the Montreal Harbor Commis- 
sion to Ottawa recently, where they 
were in conference with the Hon. J. D. 
Hazen, Minister of Marine and Fish- 
eries, has not been disclosed. 

Although a despatch from Ottawa 
states that the Commissioners were in 
the Capital with the object of obtaining 
some 60,000 square feet of land near 
the Laehine Canal, which is now leased 
to private firms, Mr. Ross chairman of 
the Harbor Commission, declined to 
make an affirmation, although he said 



land for its own purposes. Mr. Ross' 
refusal to make a statement is looked 
upon as an admission that this clause 
of the lease will be acted on, but it is 
thought that the Commissioners wish 
to delay plans for what new accommo- 
dation will be necessary until final per- 
mission is secured from the Govern- 
ment. 



peeted that the dredging of the re- 
mainder will be finished in four years. 



DREDGE TO IMPROVE ST. LAW- 
RENCE CHANNEL. 

A N additional dredge will shortly be 
placed in the north channel of the 
St. Lawrence, below Quebec, by the De- 
partment of Marine and Fisheries, with 



HALIFAX AND WEST INDIES 
SERVICE. 

TW- EGOTIATIONS which are in pro- 
A ~ gress for first-class steamships for 
the Halifax and West Indies service 
have not yet resulted in their being se- 
cured, but, in the meantime, four ships 
are engaged, and there are sailings 
every twelve days, as called for by the 
contract. Two larger vessels will be in 
commission shortly. It is yet too early 
accurately to gauge the trade develop- 
ment to result from the new agreement 
between Canada and the West Indies, 




MIDSHIP SECTION OP TUG FOR HUDSON BAY. 



he could not deny the statement. "The the object of hastening the work of but the Department at Ottawa is well 

information was probably given out by deepening the channel. Representations pleased with the showing made since 

the Government. " he said, "but we have been made by the Quebec Board of the treaty came into force. 

133 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



The MacLean Publishing Company 

LIMITED 

(ESTABLISHED 1888.) 
JOHN BAYNE MACLEAN ... President 
H. T. HUNTER .... General Manager 
PUBLISHERS 

MarineEngineering 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and develop- 
ment of Merchant and Naval Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, 
the building of Harbors and Docks, and containing a record of 
the latest and best practice throughout the Sea-going World. 



H. V. TYRRELL, Toronto 
PETER BAIN, M.E., Toronto 



Business Manager 
Editor 



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Vol. Ill 



JULY. 1913 



No. 7 



WRECK COMMISSION AGAIN IN THE SPOTLIGHT. 

IN a recent issue we had occasion to record the repeal 
of the certificate suspension sentences pronounced by 
Wreck Commissioner Lindsay on the masters oi' the 
steamships Royal George and Bengore Head. The de- 
cision of another such Court of Inquiry has since come to 
grief, to wit, the certificate suspension passed on the 
master of the steamship Bellona. 

Before the President and Justice Bargrave Deane in 
the Admiralty Court Division. Captain Cunningham's 
appeal against his sentence of 3 months' suspension, was 
heard recently, with the result that the officer's character 
was completely vindicated, and his certificate returned 
him as from the date of suspension, December 5. 1912. 
The facts of this particular case are as follows. 

The Bellona, outward bound, !.°.>t October, went 
ashore in the St. Lawrence. The master, feeling unwell, 
had gone below, leaving instructions with the pilot and a 
deck officer that he was to be called if necessary. Some 
time after, the mate of tTTe Bellona noted a move so in- 
comprehensible, as to make him hazard the question to 
the pilot; are we going back to Quebec 1 ? The rudder had 
been put hard aport, and the vessel had swung round and 
was heading S.S.W. The mate's query had the desired 
effect, with the result that the vessel was put back on her 
proper course again, of N.N.E. That officer's confidence 
in the pilot had naturally vanished, and fearing a repe- 
tition of such fantastic manoeuvres, he called the Master. 
Ere they reached the bridge, the S.S.W. course was again 
being steered, and, although Captain Cunningham, on 
grasping the situation, took charge of the ship, he was 
too late to prevent her going ashore. 

The Wreck Commission Inquiry held at Quebec, while 
admitting that the pilot was responsible for the strand- 
ing, found the Master of the Bellona at fault because 
of his having gone below, leaving an officer inexperienced 
in navigating the St Lawrence on the bridge. The most 



heartless, because inhuman feature of the decision deal- 
ing with the certificate, is that which dubbed Captain 
Cunningham's sickness as not being such as to incapaci- 
tate him from attending to his duties as master. 

Ye gods! If the fate of recent Wreck Commission 
inquiries in the St. Lawrence district are not of sufficient 
moment not only to incapacitate but to make Wreck 
Commissioners there, seek private life, then what will. 
Captain Cunningham had been continuously on duty for 
15 hours, when he left his officer in charge with the pilot, 
and as regards the unimportance of his sickness, a subse- 
quent paralytic stroke, was, according to medical evi- 
dence, most probably manifesting itself at the time of 
the Bellona stranding. 

The matter of the mate's lack of knowledge of the 
St. Lawrence is too silly to be taken seriously, and 
simply goes to show how utterly unable those presiding 
at the Inquiry were to discriminate between justice and 
injustice. An officer subordinate to the master may be, 
and is, oftentimes on an unfamiliar route, and if he were 
unable to take charge, it might be that the master him- 
self would have to without intermission. Again, masters 
themselves would, according to the Wreck Commission 
Court's reasoning, be unfit to take command, when navi- 
gating a new route. 

Casualties on the St. Lawrence have got enhanced 
publicity through the proceedings relative to overt urnifig 
Commissioners' decisions, and have, we are afraid, drawn 
unnecessary attention to failings inherent in the whole 
system by which navigation is regulated there. 

@ 



DIESEL-ELECTRIC VESSEL PROPULSION. 

/"CONSIDERABLE space is devoted in this issue to the 
subject of the propelling machinery for lake, river 
and canal freighters, with a view to furnishing our read- 
ers with a record of the steps being taken to develop this 
feature, as disclosed in the paper read before the Insti- 
tution of Naval Architects, recently. We believe we are 
right in saying that those responsible for the safe navi- 
gation and machinery handling of this particular type 
vessel, are unanimously in accord with the opinions ex- 
pressed by the authors of the paper. 

The outlook, for the Diesel engine of itself usurping 
the place of the triple expansion steam engine is not 
particularly bright, even under the most favorable cir- 
cumstances, and after a perusal of the actual logs of 
vessels in service, without the more or less trying per- 
sonal experiences of canal freighters' officers and crew, 
one has little difficulty in discerning little in the Diesel 
engine alone, for such work. Whether the new type pro- 
pelling machinery will achieve all that its sponsors claim 
and hope for, remains to be seen, but one thing, however, 
is clear and conclusive — that they have a thorough grasp 
of the conditions to be met, 

To the members of the Institution of Naval Architect-, 
the Paper will reveal existent conditions on our inland 
waterways, for the most part, hitherto undreamed of, and 
will awaken, we believe, an interest in this sphere of 
naval architecture and marine engineering, which will 
lead to investigation and research, whose ultimate 
result will be towards a higher degree of achievement in 
lake and canal vessel machinery equipment. 

The advent of the ship now building in the Old Coun- 
try, and her service record will be matters of more than 
ordinary interest to all sections of marine men through- 
out (he Dominion, and while nothing immediately revolu- 
tionary may be anticipated, there are apparent all the 
elements of such initial attainment as will make ultimate 
success available. 



134 




MabineNews 




E/h^Source 




Point Edward, Ont.— The plant of the 
Point Edward Elevator Co., near Sarnia 
was destroyed by fire July 7 at a loss of 
$350,000. 

Vancouver, B.C. — The British cruiser 
New Zealand has arrived at this port. 
The city will hold an official reception 
on July 28th. 

Levis Drydock Contract — The contract 
for the new drydock at Levis, Quebec, 
has been let to M. P. & J. T. Davis, 
Levis, at a price of $2,721,116. 

Toronto, Ont. — The R. & 0. Naviga- 
tion Co. have abandoned the $1,000,000 
dock project owing- to the new viaduct 
plans for Toronto. 

Coburg, Ont. — The work of extending 
the west pier at the harbor is being pro- 
ceeded with, and the first crib has been 
launched. Two tugs were required to 
pull it off the ways. 

Montreal, Que. — It is reported that the 
harbor commissioners of Montreal pro- 
pose to increase the length of some of 
the piers in the harbor, by 250 ft. to fur- 
nish accommodation for more steamers 

Sydney, C.B. — H.M.S. Cumberland, 
Captain Smith, R.N., while coaling at 
Sydney preparatory to leaving for 
England, took on board 1,500 tons of 
coal in one hour at the Dominion Coal 
Co.'s new coaling plant. 

Ottawa, Ont. — The Hydrographic Sur- 
vey Department is advised that the 
Boethic, ashore at Point Rich, was 
pulled off the rocks on the evening of 
July 22. 

Selkirk, Man. — It is probable that 
the Dominion Government will have a 
railway drydock built and located at 
Selkirk, Man., for the use of vessels 
navigating the Red River and Lake 
■ Winnipeg. 

Increase of Pay — The Minister of 
Marine and Fisheries, Hon. J. D. Hazen, 
has put through an increase of ten per 
cent, in the pay of the firemen and sea- 
men employed on the St. Lawrence ship 
channel fleet. 

Port Colborne, Ont.— The Govern- 
ment elevator here established a world's 
record on July 23, by discharging the 
steamer Emperor, from Fort William 



with 350,000 bushels of wheat, in the re- 
markable time of eleven hours. 

Vancouver, B.C. — Announcement is 
made that the new harbor commission of 
Vancouver is to consist of F. Carter- 
Cotton (chairman) and James A. Fuller- 
ton and Sam McLay. 

Halifax, N.S., July 16.— The crew of 
H. M. C. G. S. Niobe are making prepara- 
tions for departure. Twenty intended 
leaving for Montreal on July 15, but 
were detained and will not likely go un- 
til a week later. Other detachments will 
leave shortly afterwards. 

Victoria, B.C.— Two Grand Trunk 
Pacific steamers are now on the regular 
run between Victoria, Vancouver with 
a call at the Queen Charlotte Islands en 
route. The company anticipates a 
tremendous rush of tourists over this 
popular route this summer. 

Montreal Harbor Revenue — From the 
official returns of revenue of the port, 
issued by the Secretary to the Harbor 
Commissioners on July 4, an increase of 
over $13,000 revenue, as compared with 
June, 1912, is disclosed. The Collector 
of Customs reports revenue from im- 
ports $40,000, and from exports $19,000, 
as against $37,000 and $14,000 for June, 
1912; a total increase of $8000. 

Steamer "Ionic." — The steamer Ionic, 
of the Northern Navigation fleet, has 
been changed some in her appearance 
since she was taken to Collingwood, 
where new boilers were installed, as or- 
dered by the Canadian inspectors. Be- 
fore the changes were made, the boat was 
a two-stacker, but is now equipped with 
one only. There are only two or three 
of the old two-stack variety left on the 
lakes. 

The Poison Drydock.— Two thousand 
tons of steel for the new drydock to be 
built at the Poison shipyards have ar- 
rived but the company will not be able 
to start work until the site for its new 
plant has been selected. A change is 
being made as a result of the revised 
plans agreed upon by the railway com- 
panies for the esplanade viaduct, which 
will take in a portion of the property 
of the Poison Company. 

Canal Record Broken. — Every previ- 
ous record of the Montreal harbor and 
135 



Lachine canal was smashed in the month 
of June. The canal grain record was 
2.000,01)0 bushels in excess of that 
for the previous month. The amount that 
came down the canal during June Avas 
as follows: Wheat, 4,070,532 bushels; 
curn, 7,000,001) bushels; oats, 2,201,444 
bushels; barley, 480,289 bushels; flax, 
772,475 bushels; rye, 96,000 bushels; 
flour, 45,936 bags; eggs, 5,067 cases; 
cheese 37,548 boxes, and apples, 41 
bbls. 

M. Beatty & Sons, Welland, Ont., 

.have just concluded arrangements 
whereby H. W. Petrie, Ltd., will repre- 
sent them in the cities of Toronto, Ham- 
ilton and adjacent territory. A com- 
plete stock of standard size hoisting en- 
gines, clamshell buckets, centrifugal 
pumps, derrick irons, etc., will be car- 
ried at the Toronto warehouse of Petrie, 
Ltd., which will enable them to fill or- 
ders promptly for Beatty material hand- 
ling equipment. 

Montreal, Que. — The extension of all 
the piers in the harbor undertaking 
which may cost over $1,000,000, and 
which will consume the greater part of 
three years, is to be assumed by the 
Harbor Commissioners, according to an 
announcement made at the offices of the 
board on July 9. For several seasons 
complaints have been laid by the ship- 
ping companies and others interested 
that great inconvenience and often dan- 
ger has been incurred by ocean-craft jut- 
ting out beyond the end of the piers. 
Several times this year, collisions, which 
only a good fortune saved from being 
serious, have occurred. 

Saute Ste. Marie, Canal Record. — For 

the second time this year, all previous 
records for one month's commerce 
through the American and Canadian 
canals at Sault Ste. Marie has been brok- 
en by the showing made In June, when 
freight carried through the waterways 
aggregated 12,113,613 tons. These fig- 
ures, given in the statistical report com- 
piled by Superintendent L. C. Sabi'i, un- 
der direction of Lieut. -Col. Mason M. 
Patrick, district engineer, compare v.ith 
a freight movement of 11,376,195 tons 
in May this year, and with 10,747,159 
tons in June, 1912: The amount is near- 
ly as great as the freight movement for 
the entire season of 1894, when the total 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



traffic through the canals was 13,195,860 
tons. 

Rapid Cargo Discharge. — The Dom- 
inion Coal liner "Hoehelaga" recently 
accomplished a good performance at the 
company's towers at Windmill Point, 
Montreal. With 5 two-ton hoppers 
working, about 350 tons of coal were 
discharged per hour, including time 
allowance for turning. 

Drydock at Levis, Que. — What is 
claimed to be the world's largest dry- 
dock accommodation at Levis, Que., for 
the largest ocean liners, is about to be 
constructed as the first of a series of 
drydocks and ship repair plants under 
contemplation by the Department of 
Public Works. Others will be located 
at Esquimalt and Vancouver on the 
Pacific, and Sydney, St. John or Hali- 
fax on the Atlantic. The contract has 
just been awarded for the Levis dry- 
dock, the cost being $2,721,116, construc- 
tion to be commenced at once, and to be 
ready for use in 1915. 

Vancouver, B.C. — Early next month 
the Russian volunteer fleet will in- 
augurate a service between Vladivos- 
tock, Victoria, Vancouver, Tacoma and 
Seattle. Outward the shipment will 
consist mainly of Soya beans and other 
Siberian and Manchurian products, 
while homewards agricultural imple- 
ments and general manufactured pro- 
ducts will be carried. Russian immi- 
grants to Canada and the United States 
are to be conveyed at low rates, includ- 
ing specially reduced fares from Europe 
over the Trans-Siberian Railway. The 
settlement of Canadian or American 
farmers and manufacturers in Siberia 
will be encouraged. 

© 

VESSEL ARRESTED. 

THE strong hand of the Canadian 
law was laid recently upon the 
steamer Wallula, which is owned by no 
less distinguished a person than C. W. 
Morse, popularly known across the 
border as "the Ice King" and as the 
financial magnate who had to spend a 
considerable time behind penitentiary 
walls. 

The authorities of the Admiralty 
Court in Montreal are no respecters of 
persons, and when the charge was laid 
that the Wallula, owned by the "Ice 
King," was stealing into the Lachine 
Canal without paying her towage fees, 
action was prompt, the vessel being 
immediately placed under seizure, and a 
big placard affixed to her sides by a 
marshal! of the court. 

The steamer under seizure is one of 
three steel craft which have been oper- 
ating in the Great Lakes on behalf of 
C, W. Morse, and which are now being 



brought through the Canadian canals to 
go into the coasting trade between New 
York and Florida. The Wallula was 
the last of the three vessels to pass 
through, when her voyage was inter- 
rupted. 

Many complaints are made regarding 
American craft stealing past Montreal 
without paying their dues. Last sum- 
mer an American revenue cutter com- 
ing down from the Great Lakes was ac- 
tually arrested, according to the nauti- 
cal term, and many yachts of famous 
American millionaires have been treat- 
ed in the same manner. 

@ 

GEORGIAN BAY CANAL COMMIS- 
SION. 

A ROYAL Commission will be ap- 
pointed to investigate the commer- 
cial advantages of the Georgian Bay 
Canal project. Whether the Govern- 
ment will proceed with a 22-foot water- 
way from Montreal, through to the head 
of the lakes via the Ottawa River and 
the Georgian Bay, or whether it will 
proceed to deepen the St. Lawrence 
Canal to a depth of 22 or possibly 35 
feet will depend upon the report of the 
Commission. 

© 

HUDSON BA'Y STEAMER MOVE- 
MENTS. 

THE first of the Hudson Bay steam- 
ers to sail for northern waters 
this season will be the Nascopie, which 
is now at Montreal. The Nascopie is 
commanded by Captain Meikle, who is 
making his Hist trip to Hudson Bay and 
James Bay. but he is taking with him 
a master mariner who has frequently 
voyaged there, and who is well qualified 
to act as pilot whenever required. The 
Nascopie is taking a full cargo of stores 
for the Bay ports, as well as 10 pas- 
sengers. 

After clearing from her berth at 
Windmill Point, the steamer will pro- 
ceed, without stopping at Quebec, to 
Cartwright, on the Labrador, where she 
will meet the Pelican from London. 
Some of the Pelican's stores will be 
transferred to the Nascopie. and some 
of the Nascopie 's to the Pelican, after 
which the latter steamer will proceed 
to Ungava Bay, and the Nascopie to 
Churchill and other ports on the shores 
of Hudson Bay and James Bay. The 
Beothic was the first boat to leave Mont- 
real on this trip last summer. 

$ 

SHIPPING RETURNS. 

THH shipping returns for both Van- 
couver and Victoria have shown 
big increases in tonnage during the past 
136 



year. For May, the shipping in and 
out of Vancouver exceeded all previous 
records and established a mark which 
local shipping men believe will require 
some beating. During last month, the 
net register tonnage of ships coming 
to this port amounted to 91,339 tons, 
and this does not include the tonnage 
of the regular coasting steamers. In 
the month of April, the net inward ton- 
nage was 81,199 tons, of which 3S.634 
were British and 42,565 foreign. The 
outward net tonnage for April was 80,- 
286, as compared with 72,904 tons for 
the month of May. The figures for the 
port of Victoria are not available at the 
moment of writing, but from statements 
of previous months, that port is doing 
more business this year than at any 
other time in its history. 

— -© 

HUDSON BAY FISHING INDUSTRY. 

p ROFESSOR J. B. McCarthy, of 
King's College, Windsor, N.S., one 
of the most noted biologists on the con- 
tinent and a great fish expert, has been 
selected by the Dominion Government to 
study this summer the commercial pos- 
sibilities of the fishing industry in the 
Hudson Bay. It is the belief of the 
Minister of Marine and Fisheries that 
there is a splendid opportunity for the 
development of a big industry on Hud- 
son Bay with the opening of the new 
railroad. 

Prof. McCarthy will go north on a 
new steamer which has been chartered 
in England by the Naval Service De- 
partment, and will leave shortly with 
a party to carry on hydrographic surveys 
in the bay and straits to prepare chan- 
nels for navigation as soon as the steel 
reaches Port Nelson. 

The Bonaventura and the Bellaven- 
tura, chartered by the Government to 
take men and supplies to Port Nelson, 
have sailed from Halifax. They have on 
board one hundred men, and before the 
summer is aver, it is expected to have 
250 in camp. These two boats were load- 
ed with supplies, which include lumber 
for building camps and general construc- 
tion. During the season several million 
t Vet will be taken north. There will be a 
construction plant taken to the bay 
which will be sufficient to erect piers and 
breakwater and to get the habor work 
well started. 

$ 

Wages Increase — Nova Scotia Marine 
Engineers have been granted an in- 
crease in wages, from 10 to 15 per cent, 
by steamship owners through the Prov- 
ince. The demand was made through 
the National Association of Marine En- 
gineers last March. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



FLOATING CRANES FOR PANAMA 
CANAL. 

HE Secretary of War has authorized 
award of contract for two floating 
cranes of the revolving type of 250 
gross tons capacity each, to the 
Deutsche Maschinenfabrik A. G., of 
Duisburg, Germany. There were four 



eeived. The time of delivery for the 
two cranes is 580 days. They will, of 
course, be constructed in Germany, and 
a force is now being organized to take 
charge of the inspection at the works of 
the contractor. 

The pontoons will be designed and 
built at the German shipyard, simul- 




structure will be shipped to the Isthmus 
in a knoeked-down condition, final erec- 
tion of the superstructure and place- 
ment of machinery parts being made af- 
ter arrival on the Isthmus. The cranes 
are so high, and the weights of the 
superstructure are so great, that the 
erection of the jib or arm which carries 
the loads will probably be effected by 
means of one of the canal lock cham- 
bers, the water level in the lock being 
lowered sufficiently to permit the jib, 
which will be assembled on the lock 
wall, to be fitted to the remainder of 
the superstructure. A reference to the 
sketch accompanying this description 
will give an idea of the work involved. 

After final erection and adjustment, 
each crane will be subjected to a com- 
prehensive series of tests, during which 
it will be required to demonstrate its 
ability to handle all the specified loads 
at the specified reaches, and to perform 
all of the required motions. The test 
loads will be 20 per cent, in excess of 
the rated loads for the "main hoist," 
and 33 1-3 per cent, in excess of the 
rated capacity of the "auxiliary hoist." 
This means that the maximum weight 
which must be handled without over- 
strain is 300 gross tons, or 672,000 
pounds. 

Crane Features. 

The cranes for which contract has 
been awarded will each consist essen- 
tially of a steel pontoon 150 feet long, 
feet wide, and of a depth of 15 feet 9 
inches at the sides, and 16 feet 8 inches 
at the centre. The pontoons will be 
strongly framed with beams and girders, 
and will be sub-divided into watertight 
compartments of such dimensions that 
any two exterior compartments can be 
flooded and the crane remain stable with 
full load at full reach in any position, 
and with wind blowing at the rate of 
ten pounds per square foot from the 



an 

250-TON CAPACITY REVOLVING TYPE FLOATING CRANE FOR PANAMA CANAL. 



bidders — one American, one English, 
one Dutch, and one German, but the pro- 
posal of the German firm was so much 
lower in price than any other, and the 
experience, facilities, and reputation of 
this firm were so excellent, that it was 
unquestionably the best of those re- 



taneously with the design and fabrica- 
tion of the superstructure and operating 
machinery at the contractor's works in 
Duisburg. The pontoons, after being 
fitted with a part of the machinery lo- 
cated below deck, will be towed to the 
Isthmus, and at the same time the super- 
137 



most unfavorable direction. The pon- 
toons will contain a power generating 
installation, consisting of a Scotch ma- 
rine steam boiler, supplying steam to 
marine type engines driving the main 
and auxiliary electrical and generating 
units. These units will furnish direct 



ASSOCIATION AND PERSONAL 



A Monthly Record of Current Association News and of Individuals 
who Have Been More or Less Prominent in the Marine Sphere 



William Nick Rodan, general manager 
of the Allan Line, London, England, was 
married to Janie, younger daughter of 
Archibald MacNeilage, of Gourock, 
Scotland, recently. 

Captain Walsh, Marine Supt. of the 
C. P. R. Atlantic Steamship Lines, will 
probably be transferred from Montreal 
to Liverpool. It is expected that he will 
leave Montreal about September 1. 

Alex. Johnston, Deputy Minister of 
Marine: Col. Anderson, Chief Engineer, 
and J. G. McPhail, Commissioner of 
Lights, have gone down the Gulf to 
Belle Isle on an inspection of light- 
houses. 

Capt. Wotton, of the C. N. R. liner 
"Royal Edward," has invented an ap- 
paratus for launching lifeboats from 
ships. At a recent demonstration be- 
fore the British Board of Trade two 
boats, successively, were put out and 
launched in twelve minutes. 

@ 

FRENCH CRUISER "DESCARTES." 

'"p HE French Cruiser Descartes, under 
command of Capt. Pugliesi Conti, has 
been visiting Quebec and Montreal. The 
Descartes has been stationed in the 
West Indies and on the South American 
coast during the winter, while during 
the fishing season it patrols the coast of 
Newfoundland to protest the rights of 
the numerous French fishermen, who an- 
nually go here for the season to fish on 
the Grand Banks. 

The Descartes is listed as a second 
class cruiser of four thousand tons dis- 
placement, carries 22 guns, mostly ten 
and sixteen centimetre, and has a com- 
pletement of 15 officers and 360 men. 
She was launched nineteen years ago, 
and took an active part in relieving the 
legations at Pekin at the time of the 



LICENSED PILOTS. 

River St. Lawrence. — Captain Walter 
Collins, 43 Main Street, Kingston, Ont., 
Captain M. McDonald, River Hotel, 
Kingston, Ont. ; Captain Charles J. Mar- 
tin, 13 Balaclava Street, Kingston, Ont.; 
Captain T. J. Murphy, 111 William St., 
Kingston, Ont. 

River St. Lawrence, Bay of Quinte, 
Murray Canal. — Captain James Murray, 
106 Clergy St., Kingston, Ont.; Captain 
James H. Martin, 259 Johnston Street, 
Kingston, Ont. ; John Corkery, 17 Rideau 
Street, Kingston, Ont.; Captain Daniel 
H. Mills. 272 University Avenue, Kings- 
ton, Ont. 



ASSOCIATIONS 

DOMINION MARINE ASSOCIATION. 
President — James Playfair, Midland ; Coun 
gel— F. King, Kingston, Ont. 



GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE 
RIVER RATE COMMITTEE. 
Chairman — W. F. Wasley, Gravenhurst, Ont. 

Secretary — Jas. Morrison, Montreal. 



INTERNATIONAL WATER LINES 
PASSENGER ASSOCIATION. 
President — A. A. Heard, Albany, N.Y. 
Secretary — M. R. Nelson, New York 



THE SHIPPING FEDERATION OF CANADA 
President — A. A. Allan, Montreal; Manager 
and Secretary — T. Robb, 526 Board of Trade, 
Montreal. 

SHIP MASTERS' ASSOCIATION OF 
CANADA. 

Grand Master — Capt. J. H. McMaugh, Tor- 
onto, Ont. : Grand Secretary-Treasurer — Capt. 
H. O. Jackson, 376 Huron St., Toronto. 



GRAND COUNCIL, N.A.M.E. GRAND 
OFFICERS. 

James T. McKee. Box 98 Fairville, N.B. 
Grand President. 

Tbos. Theiiault, Levis. P.Q., Grand Vice- 
President. 

Neil J. Morrison, P.O. Box 238, St. Jobn, N.B., 
Grand Secretary-Treasurer. 

Jno. A. Murphy, Midland, Ont., Grand Con- 
ductor. 

George Bourret, Sorel, P. Q., Grand Door- 
keeper. 

Richard McLaren, Owen Sound, Ont. 
L. B. Cronk, Windsor, Ont. 

Grand Auditors. 



Boxer rising in China. A detachment 
from the ship formed part of the reliev- 
ing force, and the cannon used on the 
march are preserved on board as mem- 
orials of that occasion. Since leaving 
France on the first day of February last 
year, she has traveled upwards of forty- 
eight thousand miles in American waters. 

She will return to the Newfoundland 
coast for about a month before leaving 
for France on 1st of September. This 
is not the first visit the Descartes has 
made to Canada, as last year, sh" 
came to Quebec, and stayed for a few 
days. 

© 

HAMBURG-AMERICA LINE S.S. 
"VATERLAND." 

■pURTHER particulars of the Vater- 
land, recently launched for the Ham- 
burg-America Line, have been issued. 
The dimensions are now stated to be : 

Length between p.p. 905^ feet, beam 
100 feet, height to main deck 63 feet. 
The number of decks will be eleven, the 
main deck being the sixth from the bot- 
tom. The highest point of the funnel 
will be 197 feet above the water line, 
and the masts 249 feet. The launching 
weight was 32,000 tons. 

The propelling machinery consists of 
turbines, to which steam is supplied by 
water-tube boilers. The four turbines 
for steaming ahead can either be driven 
in series or separately, and their con- 
tract power exceeds 61,000 effective 
horse power at 180 revolutions per min- 
ute. The astern turbines can also be 
worked separately. The daily consump- 
tion of coal will be about 900 tons. 

Accommodation will be provided for 
750 first-class passengers, 600 second- 
class, 1050 third-class, and 1900 steer- 
age. The crew comprises 1200 officers 
and men, including 3-40 stokers and 
trimmers. Boat space will be provided 
in excess of requirements. 



Directory of Subordinate Councils for 1913. 


Name. 


No. 


President. Address. Secretary. 


Address. 



Toronto, 

St. John, 

Colllngwood, 

Kingston. 

Montreal, 

Victoria, 

Vancouver, 

Levis, 

SoreL 

Owen Sound, 

Windsor, 

Midland, 

Halifax. 

fault S. Marie. 

Charlottetown, 

Twin City. 



1 A. J. Fisher, 

2 H. E. Berry, 

3 W. T. Rennie, 

4 A. E. Kennedy, 

5 A. F. Hamelln, 

6 Alex. McNivern, 

7 Andrew T. Roy. 

8 Helaire Mereier, 

9 Geo. Gendron, 

10 W. Robertson. 

11 Alex. McDonald. 

12 Jos. Silverthorne, 

13 D. J. Murray, 

14 Thos. O'Reilly. 

15 J. F. McGulgan, 

16 Arthur Abbey 



707 Bathurst St. 

Collingwood, 

305 Johnston Street, 

3210 Le Tang Street, 

P. O. Box 234. 

1212 Burrard St., 

3 St. Joseph St. 

Snrel, P.Q.. 

1030 4th Ave. East. 

28 Crawford Ave, 

Victoria Rd.. Dartmouth, 

153 Queen St. 

38 Queen St. 

Fort William. Ont. 



E. A. Prince, 
G. T. G. Blewett, 
Robert McQuade, 
James Gillie, 
O. L. Marchand, 
Peter Gordon, 
E. Read. 
S. G. Guenard. 
Al. Charbonneau. 
Richard McLaren, 
Neil Maltland, 
Jno. A. Murphy, 
Chas. E. Pearce, 
Geo. S. Blggar, 
Lem Winchester. 
John A. Smith. 



59 Ferrier Ave., Toronto. 
:;<> Murray Street, St. John, N.B. 
P.O. Box 97, Collingwood, 
101 Clergy St., Kingston. Ont. 
St. Vincent de Paul, P.Q. 
808 Blanchard St.. Victoria, B.C. 
859 Thurlow 8t 
Lauzon. Levis, P.Q. 
P.O. Rax 132. Sorel. P.Q. 
447 13th St., Owen Sound. 
221 London St. W., Windsor, Ont 
Midland, Ont. 

Portland Street. Dartmouth. N.S. 

43 Grosvenor Ave., Sault Ste. Marie 
302 Fttzroy St.. Charlottet'n, P.B.I. 

Fort William. Ont. . 



138 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



21 



EDUCATIONAL 



LEARN MARINE ENGINEERING. COM 
plete, practical course by mail. Also station 
ary, traction, gasoline, locomotive and auto 
mobile work, electric power and lighting, etc 
Write, stating in what you are interested 
Canadian Correspondence College, Limited 
Dept. M. I. Toronto. Canada. (7tf) 



THE DIXON MFG. CO. 

Mfrs. of 

High-Class Marine Gasoline Engines and 
Marine Motors, Experimental Machinery, 
Gray Iron, Brass and Bronze Castings. 
Repair work a specialty. 
Address: COLLING WOOD, ONT. 
Tel. No. 164. 



DAVIS DRY DOCK COMPANY 

Builders of Wood and Steel Passenger 
Steamers, Tug, Steam and Gasolene 
Engines of all Descriptions. New 
catalogues February 1st. 

KINGSTON, ONTARIO 



ENGINEERS 

BOILERMAKERS 

BLACKSMITHS 




Murine 
Repairs 
Our Specialty 



C. White 

t. MONTREAL 

M. 2435. 



GEORGIAN BAY SHIPBUILDING 
& WRECKING COMPANY 

MIDLAND, ONTARIO. 

Yachts, Tugs, Dump Scows 
and Repair Work a Speoialty. 
All Kinds of Wrecking and 
Diving. 



BELL TELEPHONE : 
Office No. 163 Residence No. 149 

P. O. Box 83. 
D. G. DOBSON, - General Manager 



For $1 a Year 

MARINE ENGINEERING 

will keep you in touch with Can- 
ada's Maritime developments — 
the only comprehensive Marine 
Paper in Canada. 

THE MACLEAN PUBLISHING CO. 

143-7 University Ave., Toronto, 



Office 'phone 528. 



Private 'phones 437 and 49 



Donnelly Salvage and 
Wrecking Co., Ltd. 

Kingston, Ont. 

Tugs, Lighters, Divers, Steam Pumps, 
etc., supplied on shortest notice. 

700 Ton Lighter with McMyler clam 
shell Derrick. 

Tug "Saginaw" has two 100-ton Pull- 
ing Machines with 4,000 feet of l£ inch 
Steel Cable, and two 3-ton anchors, 
always ready for work. 

JOHN DONNELLY, Pres. and Gen. Mgr. 



J. J. TURNER & SONS 

Peterborough, Ont., and Regina, Sask. 



The largest manufacturers and dealers 
in Canada of 



Sails, 
Tents, 
Flags, 
Life Belts, 
Life Buoys, 
Waterproof 

ing. 
Coal Bags. 



Cloth- 



Horse Blankets, 
Lap Rugs, 
Canoes and Row 

Boats. 
Vessel, Yacht, Boat, 

and Canoe Sails 

made by Expert 

Sail Makers. 



Tents to Order and Camping Outfits to rent. 

Write for Catalogue. 



BE WISE! 

Put in a stock of 

GARLOCK PALMYRA 

RED SHEET PACKING 

and avoid worry. 

Made of high grade rubber, compounded in such 
a way as to give it great strength and reliability. 

Let us send you a sample 
also our general catalogue 

The Garlock Packing Company 



HAMILTON 



ONTARIO 




Branches -MONTREAL TORONTO 

"Pioneers in the Packing Business." 



WINNIPEG 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



on the superstructure, which latter will 
drive the wire ropes actuating the 
blocks to which the loads to be handled 
will be attached. The cranes will not be 
self-propelling, but the pontoons are 
fitted with towing bitts, etc., so that 
they can be handled by tugs. Each 
pontoon is fitted with four steam cap- 
stans, one near each corner, whereby 
the cranes can be manoeuvred to any 
desired position. To safeguard the 
cranes in possible heavy weather, or 
other circumstances, each is provided 
with two 3,000-pound anchors and the 
necessary chain cable, two steam anchor 
winches being provided for each crane 
to handle the anchors. 

The pontoon supports the fixed and 
revolving superstructure at a point 39 
feet distant from one end midway of 
the width of the pontoon. Reference to 
the accompanying sketch will give an 
idea of this superstructure. In general, 
it consists of three parts: — First, the 
fixed superstructure or mast, consisting 
of a four-sided truncated pyramid firm- 
ly secured to the pontoon framing; sec- 
ond, the revolving "bell" which is a 
four-sided, steel framed structure sup- 
ported by a combination collar and 
roller bearing on top of the mast; and 
third, the arm or jib which is supported 
on the bell by two hinge pins, and is 
capable of motion about these pins, the 
motion being imparted to it by means 
of two links connecting it to two cross- 
heads situated at the rear of the bell, 
and actuated by two vertical screw 
spindles driven from the machinery 
house. The bell supports the machinery 
house, which is situated, as shown in the 
sketch, at the rear of the former, and a 
short distance above its bottom. This 
machinery house contains fixed counter- 
weights, as well as the motors, gears, 
drums, etc., for operating the main and 
auxiliary hoists. The bell also supports 
the driver's cab at a point just below 
the hinge pins of the jib, from which 
the operator commands an unobstructed 
view of the entire field of work. 

The bell terminates at its bottom on a 
circular steel girder carrying rollers, 
which press against a roller path se- 
cured to the mast. The motors for re- 
volving the bell and jib around the 
mast are fixed at the bottom of the 
mast, and drive gears engaging a circu- 
lar rack on the annular girder forming 
the base of the bell. All motions are in 
the complete control of one man whose 
station is in the driver's cab. In addi- 
tion to the driver, there will be require;! 
a machinist in the machinery house on 
the bell, another machinist in the gen- 
erating plant in the pontoon, and a fire- 
man for the boiler; thus, with the ex- 
ception of the deck force for handling 
lines, etc., but four men are necessary 
for the operation of each crane. 



From the foregoing description of the 
superstructure, it will be seen that the 
entire revolving weight rests on the top 
of the mast and that the jib is prevented 
from overturning by the resistance of 
the collar bearing at the top of the 
mast, and the rollers at the bottom of 
the bell. The clearances are such that 
no part of the revolving superstructure, 
except the jib, overhangs the pontoon in 
any position, thus rendering it possible 
to operate the crane in restricted spaces. 
The heights of the superstructure are 
such that unencumbered passage around 
it is provided in all positions. 

Hoist Features. 

The jib is provided with two hoists 
designated the "main hoist" and 
"auxiliary hoist," respectively. The 
main hoist is fixed at the point of the 
jib and will consist of two equal blocks, 
each of a rated capacity of 125 gross 
tons. These two blocks can be linked 
together by means of an "equalizer 
bar," whereby they may be made to 
form substantially one hoist of 250 tons 
capacity. Each block of the main hoist 
will be suspended in ten parts of two- 
inch wire rope. 

The auxiliary hoist will have a rated 
capacity of 15 gross tons, and will con- 
sist of a two-part block swung from a 
traveling trolley on a runway secured 
to the lower side of the jib in such a 
manner that the auxiliary hoist can be 
operated at any point of this runway at 
any position of the jib. 

The main hoist can handle its rated 
loads at any point in a full circumfer- 
ence of 360 degrees with the mast as a 
centre. It can revolve completely under 
maximum loads, and can, in addition, be 
luffed in or out by means of the already 
mentioned links and sjcrew spindles. 
The main hoist will have the following 
capacities at the reaches stated; by 
"reach" is meant the horizontal dis- 
tance from face of pontoon fender to 
centre of block: 

100 150 250 
Tons. Tons. Tons. 
Ft. Ft. Ft. 

Loaded reach over end. .80.1 59.0 21.0 
Loaded reach over side. 81.6 62.4 22.3 

From any of these reaches the main 
load can be luffed in sufficiently far to 
enable the crane to deposit the load on 
its own deck. 

The time of hoisting main loads is as 
follows : 

Per 

Tons. Minute. 

250 3 ft. 6 in. 

125 7 ft. 

62.5 14 ft. 

The unloaded blocks are raised or 
lowered at not less than 20 feet per 
minute, and the crane can make one 
complete revolution in from 5 to 8 min- 
utes, depending on the load and wind, 
140 



the lower figure being for the most 
favorable condition without wind. The 
jib, loaded with 100 tons, can be luffed 
in from its maximum to minimum reach 
in not more than 17 minutes, and luffed 
out in not more than 13 minutes. With- 
out load, the jib can be fully luffed in 
from maximum to minimum reach in not 
more than 10 minutes, and luffed out in 
not more than 8 minutes. The speed of 
hoisting the fully loaded auxiliary block 
will be not less than 40 feet per minute, 
and the unloaded auxiliary block can 
be raised or lowered at no less than 80 
feet per minute. The speed of trolley- 
ing the auxiliary hoist along its runway 
will be from 40 to 80 feet per minute, 
depending upon the degrees of inclina- 
tion of the jib. 

Pontoon Features. 

Each crane will be safely stable in a 
wind exerting a pressure of 40 pounds 
per square foot, even with full 300-ton 
deck load on the pontoon. The pontoon 
will have a freeboard of not less than 
3V2 feet when handling maximum capac- 
ity loads in any position without deck 
load; if the deck load be present this 
free load will be reduced to not less 
than 2 feet. The maximum longi- 
tudinal inclination of the pontoon will 
not exceed 2H degrees, and the maxi- 
mum transverse inclination will not be 
greater than 5 degrees. 

Each crane will be provided with lad- 
ders, stairs, gangways, etc., for con- 
venient communication, inspection and 
repair, and will be fully equipped with 
all necessary signals and means of com- 
munication. Electric light will be in- 
stalled throughout. 

@ 

BLACKSOD BAY AND HALIFAX. 
'"pHE Canadian Associated Press is 

*• officially informed that a contract 
of over $5,000,000 has been signed for 
the construction of a railway and new 
harbor on the west coast of Ireland in 
connection with the all-red route scheme, 
which the Canadian government has now 
approved. The run to Halifax will be 
made in three and a half days. 

@ 

THE DREDGE "PORT NELSON." 
'pHE Port Nelson, claimed to be the 
largest dredge ever built in Canada — 
and constructed in record time — for the 
Dominion Government, "will be ready to 
leave shortly on her long journey to 
Hudson Bay. Upon her departure from 
the Poison's shipyards. Toronto, she will 
go down the St. Lawrence River, from 
there she will go through the Straits of 
Belle Isle, and along the coast of Labra- 
dor and Ungava, thence to her destina- 
tion. 

She will take a cargo in tin 1 shape 
of the stern wheel tug, referred to in 
another part of this issue. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



23 



■ ■ ■ 

insurance ot fHH 
Professional l/ln 






■ 






MORRIS, 
BULKELEY 
& HALLIDAY 



MARINE ENGINEERS 
and NAVAL ARCHITECTS 

Specialists in 

Steel and Wood Vessels 



17 Promis Bldg. 
VICTORIA, B.C. and 



514 Holden Bldg. 
VANCOUVER. B.C. 




With Exceptional Facilities for 
Placing 

Fire and Marine Insurance 

In all Underwriting Markets 

Agencies : TORONTO, MONTREAL, 
WINNIPEG. VANCOUVER, 
PORT ARTHUR. 



Telephone 1553 North. 
ROBERT CURR 

Surveyer to Lloyd's Register of Shipping. 
Plans and specifications furnished for all 
types of vessels. Careful attention given 
to superintendiug construction and repairs. 
Instructions on theoretical and practical 
shipbuilding by correspondence. 
The Observatory, 28 South Water St., 
Port Arthur, Ont. 



T. B. F. BENSON 

(Assoc. Inst. N. A.) 
NAVAL ARCHITECT. 

All types of vessels designed and construc- 
tion superintended. 

Estimates promptly furnished. 
205 Yonge Street, Toronto. 
Phone Main 5379. 



BREWER & McBRYDE 

NAVAL ARCHITECTS MARINE BROKERS 

142 Hastings St., Vancouver, B.C. 

15 gears' practical experience designing all 
types oj vessels. 



THOS. G. BISHOP 

ENGINEER AND MACHINIST 

Marine and General Repairs, Gas and 
Gasoline Engine Repairs a Specialty 

PHONE 38 
FOOT OF PRINCESS ST.. KINGSTON. ONT. 



THIS SPACE 
$15. A YEAR 



MARINE ENGINEERING 

OF CANADA 

is edited and published with a view to providing for all sections of marine 
men, an attractive and newsy record of Shipbuilding, Engineering, Harbour, 
Port and Dock Progress and Development throughout the Dominion of 
Canada and over the World. 

One Dollar per year is our regular subscription rate 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 

143 UNIVERSITY AVE., TORONTO 

Date 1913 

Gentlemen, — 

Please find enclosed herewith $1.00, being subscription to Marine Engineering of Canada. 

NAME 

RANK OR POSITION 

ADDRESS IN FULL 



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24 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 




THIS SPACE $45 
PER YEAR 
$25 FOR 6 MONTHS 



STEAM and POWER PUMPS, CON- 
DENSERS, TRAVELLING CRANES 




The SMART-TURNER MACHINE CO., Limited 
Hamilton Canada 




— OHIO- 

Water Gauge 

Comes to you fitted with high- 
grade steam packing — ready to use. 

Chain operation protects user. 

Ohio Water Gauges, Gauge Cocks 
and Regulating Valves can be ob- 
tained promptly from your dealer. 

Write for Catalogue K.C. 

The Ohio Brass Co., Mansfield, O. 




Over 30 Years' 
Experience 
Building 

ENGINES 

AND 

Propeller 
Wheels 

H.G.TROUTCO. 

King Iron Works 

226 OHIO ST. 
BUFFALO, N. Y. 



The Otis Feed Water 
Heater and Purifier 

will positively heat feed water to the boil- 
ing point without causing back pressure. 
It will separate oil from the exhaust and 
prevent a large proportion of ordinary im- 
purities from entering the b.oiler. 

Cleaned quickly and thoroughly in a few 
minutes. Will not foul up with scale, scum 
or sediment. 

It is sold under a liberal guarantee of 
satisfaction or money back. If your engi- 
neer is having boiler troubles consult us 
for the remedy. 

Stewart Heater Co. 



35 Norfolk Ave. 



Buffalo, N.Y. 




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MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



CANVAS WORK 

Hatch and Boat Covers 
Yacht and Vessel Awnings 

■ — Curtains — 
Life Jackets, Ring Buoys, 
Sails, Flags 

MARINE HARDWARE 

JOHN LECKIE LIMITED 

77 Wellington St. W. - Toronto 




THE 



Write for 
Complete 
Catalog and 
prices. 

Dake 
Engine 
Co. 

Grand 
Haven 
Mich. 



DAKE 



Steam Steerers for Tugs 
and Steamers. Single or 
double wheel. 

ooooooo 

Centrifugal Pumps direct 
connected to DAKE engines, 
all on one base. 




MANGANESE BRONZE 




PR0P/3ILE 
WHIRLS 



Tensile 
Strength 
75,000 lbs. 




Write to-day for our descriptive booklet. 

Lumen Bearing Company 



Brass Founders, 



TORONTO 



EI 



Ship and Yacht 



Fittings of Every 
Description 

Pumps, Portlights, 
Sanitary Appliances, 
Folding Lavatories, 
Baths, Ventilators, 
Bells, Hinges, etc., 
Send for Catalogue. 



AGENTS WANTED IN CANADA 





f 

J. DOWNTON & CO. 

69-71 West India Dock Road 
LONDON, ENG. 

Cables '• "John Downton. Phone London." 



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MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



Collingwood Shipbuilding Co., Limited 

Collingwood, Ont., Canada 



K 




NORTHERN NAVIGATION COMPANY'S PASSENGER STEAMER "HAMONIC." 
Built by The Collingwood Shipbuilding Co., Limited, Collingwood, Ont. 

Steel and Wooden Ships, Engines, Boilers, 

Castings and Forgings 

PLANT FITTED WITH MODERN APPLIANCES FOR QUICK WORK 

Dry Docks and Shops Equipped to Operate 
Day or Night on Repairs 



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CIRCULATES IN EVERY PROVINCE OF CANADA AND ABROAD 

MarjneEngineering 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and development of Merchant and Naval Marine Engineering, 
Shipbuilding, the building of" Harbors and Docks, and containing a record of the latest and 
best practice throughout the Sea-going World. Published by 
The MacLean Publishing Co., Limited 

MONTREAL, Eastern Townships Bank Bldg\ TORONTO, 143-149 University Ave. WINNIPEG, 34 Royal Bank Bldg. LONDON, ENG., 88 Fleet St. 

Vol. III. Publication Office, Toronto— August, 1913 No. 8 

POLSON IRON WORKS, LIMITED 

TORONTO - - CANADA 

Steel Shipbuilders 
Engineers and Boilermakers 




Steel Hydraulic Dredge "Port Nelson" now being built by The Poison Iron Works for the Department of 
Railways and Canals, to be used in the deepening of the Hudson's Bay Rail wayTerminal Port in Hudson's Bay, 

Manufacturers of 



Steel Vessels, Tugs, Barges, Dredges and Scows 
Marine Engines and Boilers all sizes and kinds 

Works and Office : Esplanade Street East. Piers Nos. 35, 36, 37 and 38 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



THE TWO SISTER SHIPS 



Of the 



> 

o 

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50,000 Tons. 




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THE TWO LARGEST LINERS IN THE WORLD 

Are Being Coated EXCLUSIVELY 

with BRIGGS' Bituminous 

ENAMELS AND SOLUTIONS 

WM. BRIGGS & SONS, Ltd., Dundee & London. 

Agents for Canada: 
MACDONALD & SONS, 176 King St. East, TORONTO. 



Dipper Dredges 

Clam Dredges 

Steel Scows 

Drill Boats 




Equipment of this nature together with Hoisting 
Engines of all kinds are specialties with us. 

Let us figure on your requirements. 

We have the experience necessary to build any- 
thing you need in this hne and you will find our 
prices right. 

Send for descriptive matter now. 

M. BEATTY & SONS, Limited 
WELLAND ONTARIO 



i 




This is one of our Compound Jet Condensing 
Engines with Pumps and Thrust attached. 



The Doty Marine Engine & Boiler Co. 



LIMITED 
Builders of High Grade 



Marine Engines and Boilers 



Compound Jet Condensing Engines 

Compound Surface Condensing Engines 
Triple Expansion Engines 

Non-Condensing Stern Wheel Engines 
Tandem Compound Stern Wheel Engines 



Marine Boilers of various types including Scotch, Locomotive, 
Fitzgibbon, Fire-box Return Tubular and Safety Water Tube. 



Estimates furnished for complete Marine outfits. 

The Doty Marine Engine & Boiler Co. 



LIMITED 



GODERICH, 



CANADA 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



1 



The Seed Drill and The Reaper 

If It is an amusing, and at the same time significant fact, that men who criti- 
cize and condemn advertising the hardest are the men who advertise the least. 

1f And the most violent critic of the lot is the man who doesn't advertise at all. 

| These men put up strange arguments against advertising sometimes, and one 
of their pet diversions is to compare advertising with Personal Salesmanship. 

II To compare Advertising with Personal Salesmanship is to compare the Seed 
Drill with the Reaper. 

If They are separate and distinct. Each performs different functions, yet each 
is necessary for the common good. 

f They work together, in the same field, for the same man, to the same end. 
If Advertising is the Seed Drill of Modern Commerce. 

| It plants the Seed of Good Will in the minds of prospective customers. The 
seed grows to interest, and interest turns gradually into a desire to possess. The 
harvest ripens and is garnered in by the ever-ready salesman. 

If The Salesman is the Reaper of Modern Commerce, 
f He reaps where advertising has sown. 

H Advertising performs the missionary, the educational and the preliminary 
work- — The Salesman comes along and with minimum exertion carries away 
the order, and, frequently, all the glory of securing it. 

If He reaps most who sows the best, and a just man will not forget the seed drill 
when the reaper is at work. 

Rate Card and Full Information Gladly Furnished on Request. 

MARINE ENGINEERING 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and development of the Merchant and 
Naval Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, the building ot Harbors and Docks etc. 



143 University Avenue TORONTO 



2 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 




Reliable Water Column. 

With heavy water gauge 
mountings, marine gauge 
cock, high and low whistle 
alarm. 




Brass Binnacle on I'olished 
Brass Pedestal. 

We also make short patterns 
In different styles, with or 
without compass. 



Morrison's 

Marine Engineers' Supplies 
Boiler Accessories, Boiler 
Fittings and Deck Brass 
Work 



For Marine service all Fixtures- 
must be of substantial design for 
safety and durability. Our lines are 
recognized by all Engineers as such, 
and meet all the requirements where 
these qualities are necessary. 




Electric Deck Light, 
Heavy Type. 




Brass Port Light 

Made in different types and sizes from 
5 inch to 10 inch diam. 



Your enquiries are solicited upon 
any lines in which you are interested- 



The James Morrison 
Brass Mfg. Co., Ltd. 

93-97 Adelaide Street West, Toronto 





-12 in-- 1 




We make a large variety of 
Steam Whistles from 1 inch 
diam. to 14 inch diam. — for 
all users. 




J.M.T. Valve. 

Renewable disc made stand- 
ard and extra heavy pattern, 
screwed or flanged. 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him- 



The Shipbuilding Plant of G. T. Davie &^Sons, Levis, P. Q. 

Staff Article 

In this article particular prominence is given to the equipment installed at the 
Davie Plant, and to the firm's ability to handle large and heavy marine repairs; the S. S. 
Wabana being a typical example of the latter. 



A CROSS the River St. Lawrence 
from Quebec, a little east of Levis, 
is a quaint two-storey frame building. 
The upper storey is a residence, and the 
lower floor an office. Over the doorway 
of the latter is a sign which reads: 
"Patent Slip Office." This refers to an 
antiquated slip erected seventy-five 
years ago for doing all kinds of repair 
work on wood and iron ships up to 150 
feet keel. Anchored nearby is the re- 
cently launched Canadian Government 
Hopper Barge No. 1, of 850 tons. The 
question that naturally arises is, 
"Where are the shops?" These are at 
St. Joseph de Levis, several miles east- 
ward, near the Government dry dock. 
The "patent slip office" is the head- 
quarters for the shipbuilding firm of 
Geo. T. Davie & Sons, Levis, P.Q. 

Importance of the Firm. 

Interest has been centred in this firm 
of late, because of the hopper barge 
which they are completing for the Gov- 
ernment, and of the fact that they have 
just completed a repair job on the s.s. 



Wabana, a vessel of 5,000 tons register, 
which went on the rocks at Fame Point 
last May. This vessel was 32 days in 
the repahers' hands, out of which five 
Sundays must be deducted. In that 
time 135 plates were handled, 100 of 
which were badly buckled and broken, 
and 50 per cent, renewed. 

S.S. "Wabana"' Repair. 

The "Wabana" was on charter by 
the Dominion Coal Co., Montreal, when 
she went on the rocks. She was, how- 
ever, able to come up the river to Mont- 
real, where she discharged her cargo of 
coal. It was then suggested that the 
ship be placed in the new Montreal 
floating dock for repair, but the under- 
writers sent her back to Quebec. 

Surveyors and experts were called in 
to examine the ship, and tenders were 
called for her repair. 

A New York firm put in a tender, as 
did Geo. T. Davie & Sons, and the latter 
were awarded the contract. The steam- 
er was placed in the Levis dry dock for 
permanent repairs, superintended at the 




start by Mr. Blaekett, chief of the Lon- 
don (Eng.) Salvage Co., and afterwards 
by Mr. Henry Black, expert engineer 




DRY DOCK AT LEVIS, QUE., SHOWING VESSELS WINTERING. 

141 



THE OLD SLIP. 

and Lloyd 's surveyor at the port of New 
York. The Wabana is quite a new ship, 
being only 15 months old when she went 
on the rocks. 

It is remarkable that the repairs 
could be done in such a short time, espe- 
cially when it is considered that the 
movement of all the material had to be 
done by hand. The dock is devoid of 
any travelling cranes or even capstans, 
and the pumps of the dock are so obso- 
lete that it takes 15 hours to pump the 
water out, in comparison with 3 hours 
in other Atlantic dry docks. 

Plant Features. 

From a glance at the illustrations and 
a .study of the following description of 
the shipbuilding works located along- 
side the dry dock, it will be seen at once 
that the plant is considerably hampered 
by the need of proper facilities for 
handling the work between the shops 
and the vessel. The derricks shown in 
the illustration seem hardly capable of 
handling work required for anything 
like the Wabana contract. 

In the shops there is a powerful air 
compressor, with the necessary receiv- 
ers and permanent pipe line to dock 
bottom; also a complete up-to-date out- 
fit of drills, riveters, rammers and other 
necessary air tools for expeditiously 
handling repairs to steel or iron steam- 
ers. There is a portable compressor 
which can be moved quickly to deal 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



with repairs to vessels at the different 
docks and wharves, while loading or dis- 
charging cargo. 

The plant contains a complete outfit 
of differential pulleys, hydraulic blocks 
for tail shaft and propeller work, and a 
floating derrick capable of lifting and 
moving loads of from fifteen to twenty 
tons. The shops, vessels and docks are 
lighted with electricity. There is also 
telephone communication between the 
main office at Levis and the works and 
docks, enabling touch to be kept with 



two Hetherington, Manchester, patent 
swing countersinking machines. 

The plate furnace is capable of deal- 
ing with the largest plates in general 
use. The angle fm'nace is up-to-date, 
with a large bending block area, enab- 
ling stern bars to be curved up to 70 ft. 
long. There is a side lever cold saw, 
for cutting butts off garboard plates, 
with all the necessary gear for quick 
manipulation. In the engineering de- 
partment there is a large multiple drill 
for stern frame work, with other drills 




S. S. "WABANA" IN DRY DOCK AT LEVIS, QUE. 



all departments, thus securing prompt 
despatch on all repair and other jobs. 

The firm has purchased from A. W. 
Smith & Son, Limited, Glasgow, Scot- 
land, and installed in their shops, a set 
of rolls, capable of rolling plates up to 
26 ft. 6 in. long, and of any width and 
thickness in use or likely to be used in 
steel shipbuilding; one cam and lever 
wide gap punch, with powerful cranes 
to handle plates 30 ft. long, 7 ft. wide 
and 1 ft. 6 in. thick. They have also 
purchased from the same firm a com- 
bined horizontal beam bender punch 
and shaper, capable of curving beams of 
any section used in shipbuilding, and 
forming channels, tees, etc., to any rea- 
sonable angle, thus eliminating expens- 
ive angle smith work. There is also a 
Cameron, Manchester, cam and lever 
punch, shear and angle cutter, capable 
of dealing with plates up to 1*4 inches 
thick, and cutting angles 7x7 inches. 

Among the equipment there are also 
a double-ended punch and shear, made 
by Barry's, Sowerby Bridge, England, 
which will punch up to 1 inch in thick- 
ness, and a portable punch for casing 
work on ship decks; a heavy set of 
Cameron rolls for plates 16 ft. long; a 
plate planing machine, by the same 
maker; a Shank's keel bender; a Barry 
horizontal punch and beam bender, and 



for lighter work. In addition to the 
foregoing, there are shaper and searp- 
hing machines, lathes, planers, and 
other machine tools generally associated 
with marine and general engineering 
plants. 

In the blacksmith's department there 
is a Shank's steam hammer with 24 in. 
lift, two rivet making machines, and 
the usual outfit of a first-class forge. 
Material carried in stock, including 
plates, angles, bulb angles, channels, 
tees, rounds, half-rounds, squares, etc., 
is very large. Keel and stern bars, 
chequered plates, and every section that 
the last twenty years of shipbuilding 
has made necessary, are kept on hand. 
Large quantities of rivets of suitable 
sizes, all of which are certified by 
Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign 
Shipping, Bureau Veritas, or other 
classification, are also kept in stock. 



WELLAND CANAL MISHAP. 

1^ AVIGATION on the Welland Canal 
*• was blocked from 2.30 p.m. on 
August 2, until 8.30 the following morn- 
ing by an accident which has only one 
near-parallel in the history of the canal. 
The steamer Lehigh, which had al- 
142 



ready, made three trips this season 
through the Welland Canal with coal 
from Ohio ports to Montreal, entered 
Lock 23, bound down, at an unusual 
rate of speed. Efforts to check the big 
steel freighter, heavily loaded with coal 
were ineffectual. She struck the foot 
gates with great force, smashing them 
off to within 8 feet of the bottom. The 
flood of water from the level above 
hurled the boat over the remaining por- 
tions of the broken gates to the level of 
water 14 feet below. 

The big craft made the descent with a 
dive which submerged her bow for a 
time, and caused her to ship a quantity 
of water. One of the blades of her pro- 
peller was snapped off, and a hole was 
stove in her bottom. As the rush of 
water continued flowing over the banks, 
the Lehigh was swept down the entire 
length of the level at rapid speed, 
straight for the steamer Fairmount, 
which was emerging from Lock 22. 

Rather than collide with the other 
steamer, the captain of the Lehigh ran 
his boat into the stone abutment, where 
she soon began to settle. The pumps 
were at once started, and with the as- 
sistance of another pump loaned by the 
canal officials, the vessel was kept afloat. 
The Lehigh is owned by the Anchor 
Line of Buffalo. 

The break in the canal was repair- 
ed on Aug. 3, and navigation resumed. 



RECORD DAY'S OUTPUT FOR THE 
"COROZAL." 

/ "pHE Corozal established a new one- 
day record for ladder dredges in 
the Panama Canal service, on Friday. 
July 11, by excavating 13,700 cubic 
yards of material, 90 per cent, of which 
was rock, in 19 hours and 50 minutes 
actual working time, an average of 
about 685 cubic yards an hour. The 
dredge has been working in the Canal 
prism, north of the old dam, ever since 
the latter was dynamited on May 18, 
and during nine days up to July 12, in 
which it was operated, the daily aver- 
age of material excavated has been ap- 
proximately 12,000 cubic yards. The 
dredge was taken off the work on Sat- 
urday, July 12, in order to have its top 
tumbler replaced. The tumbler is made 
up of five separate pieces, and is hard 
to handle with the cranes available. 
When the new floating cranes are in ser- 
\ ice, it is estimated that the exchange 
of tumblers may be effected within 24 
hours. 

The Corozal was built on the Clyde 
by Wm. Simons & Co., Ltd., and a des- 
cription of the vessel appeared in our 
issue of May, 1912. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



TWO QUICK REPAIR JOBS. 

By J. H. W. 

/"\N A recent voyage of the twin screw 
Allan Liner ' ' Hesperian ' ' from 
Glasgow to Montreal the port engine 
failed on the second day out, and inves- 
tigation showed that the low pressure 
crank had broken in the main after 
bearing. The break took the form of a 
spiral, and extended about three-quarters 
way round the shaft. The voyage was 
continued with the starboard engine 
only, and Montreal was reached without 
further incident two days behind sched- 
ule. A message had been dispatched 
from Father Point to the Hall Engineer- 
ing Works, Montreal, asking them to be 
prepared to commence work on the re- 
pair immediately the vessel docked. Mr. 
Thomas Hall, managing director, and his 
chief assistant, Mr. W. Fletcher, per- 
sonally supervised the work, which con- 
sisted in replacing the broken t crank 
with a spare one carried on board. 

At first sight this does not seem to be 
a very lengthy job, but it must be re- 
membered that it involved the removal 
of the engine room gratings as well as 
a large amount of auxiliary piping. The 
broken crank had to be uncoupled, the 
bearings taken out and the connecting- 
rod removed. The crank, which weighed 
8 tons, was then lifted out. 

The spare crank was being carried up- 
ended in a corner of the engine room, 
and being in a -rather awkward position, 
it had to be very carefully handled on 
account of its proximity to a fan engine 
and a Weir pump. However, it was suc- 
cessfully raised by means of blocks and 
jacks and placed in position in the bear- 
ings. It was then lined up, the holes for 
the coupling bolts reamed out, and new 
bolts fitted. After the crank had been 
coupled up to its neighbor, the connect- 
ing rod was replaced and adjusted, and 
all auxiliary piping, etc., put back in 
position. Work was carried on day and 
night, about twenty men being employed. 
The Hesperian docked on Thursday 
morning, July 17, and the repairs were 
completed by the following Sunday 
night. It will generally be admitted that 
this constitutes a remarkably good per- 
formance, and one that reflects credit on 
the Hall Engineering Works. 

S.S. Comet. 

This company also recently effected a 
very quick repair to the S.S. Comet, of 
New York. The Comet is a new tank 
steamer belonging to the Standard Oil 
Company. On July 22 last she arrived 
at Montreal with all four blades of her 
sectional bronze propeller badly bent 
through striking a dock wall. Repairs 
were carried out in the short space of 
ten hours without putting the vessel into 
dry dock. 

She was tipped by filling her fore 



peak and forward tanks until the pro- 
peller was out of the water. Three of 
the blades were then removed and taken 
ashore to the shops of the Hall Kn^mccr 
ing Works to be straightened. The 
fourth was left on the boss, it being 
found feasible to straighten it in posi- 
tion by means of hydraulic jacks and 
hammers. Notwithstanding the fact that 
the blades were ver}' much bent the 
whole of the work was completed be- 
tween 10 a.m. and 8 p.m. of one day. 



INJURY TO THE "LAKE MANI- 
TOBA." 

i^vN July 29, in the early hours of the 
morning! the C.P.R. Atlantic liner 
"Lake Manitoba" had her bottom some- 
what seriously damaged by stranding 
off the Isle of Orleans in the St. Law- 
rence, while inward bound for Quebec 
and Montreal. The weather was very 
hazy at the time, and the Lake Mani- 
toba took the ground in avoiding anoth- 
er vessel which suddenly loomed up out 
of the mist. The engines were prompt- 



plates would have to be renewed involv- 
ing a large amount of heavy work. 
After temporary repairs had been ex- 
peditiously carried out by the Canadian 
Vickers Co., the Lake Manitoba left on 
August 8 for New York, where perman- 
ent repairs will be effected by the Kob- 
bins Dry Dock Co., at Brooklyn. 

This step was rendered necessary by 
the discovery of the full extent of the 
injuries sustained, as these necessitated 
the use of a large machine shop and 
forge than are not yet available at the 
site of the "Duke of Connaught" dry 
dock. However, but for the Canadian 
Vickers Company, the Lake Manitoba 
would have been held up for a very long- 
time, because the dry dock at Quebec 
was, at the time of the accident, already 
occupied, and another vessel was wait- 
ing her turn to go in. 

The Canadian Vickers Company are 
rapidly perfecting their organization 
and equipment. They have already re- 
claimed about 145 acres of land in the 
vicinity of the dry dock, and on this 
they will erect up-todate shops, fully 
equipped for heavy work. All this, 




C.P.R. LINER "LAKE MANITOBA,' 



IN "DUKE OF 
MONTREAL. 



CONNAUGHT" DRYDOCK AT 



ly reversed, and the vessel slid off into 
deep water after being less than five 
minutes aground. 

She was found to be making some 
water, but this her pumps were easily 
able to keep under, and she proceeded 
on her way up the river, her passeng- 
ers and cargo being discharged in due 
course at Montreal. The vessel was then 
placed in the floating dry dock of the 
Canadian Vickers Company at Maison- 
neuve for repairs, when it was found 
that the damage sustained was consider- 
ably greater than at first thought prob- 
able. It was seen that about eighty 
143 



however, necessarily takes time, but no 
doubt by next season,, great progress 
will have been made, and the company 
will then be in a position to undertake 
any repairs that a damaged liner may 
require, no matter how heavy. 



A good all-around aluminium mix- 
ture is an alloy containing 92 per cent, 
of aluminium and 8 per cent, of copper. 
This mixture casts well, does not 
crystallize in service, or crack in the 
mould, and has a fair tensile strength. 



Launch of a Powerful Bucket Dredge at Collingwood, Ont. 

By C. T. R. 

The Collingwood Shipbuilding Co. have shown commendable enterprise in undertaking the 
construction of the two dredges — the launch of the first of which, together ivith leading fea- 
tures of their equipment, forms the substance of this short article, and by so doing add to the 
already indisputable evidence available, that shipbuilding in Canada lacks only encourage- 
ment, official and otherwise, to place it in the forefront among our other industries. 



f^N Monday. July 28, there was 
launched from the yard of the Col- 
lingwood Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Colling- 
wood, Ont., the first of two large bucket 
dredges which they are building to the 
order of the Canadian Government De- 
partment of Marine and Fisheries. 
These vessels are intended to operate 
in the St. Lawrence ship channel and 
are capable of digging in hard pan to a 
depth of 52 ft. below the surface of the 
water. The principal dimensions are as 
follows : — 

Length, b.p. 215 ft. ; breadth moulded, 
37 ft.. C in., depth, moulded, 14 ft. The 
whole of the work has been carried out 
under Lloyd 's special survey for their 
100-A1 dredge class. 

Machinery Equipment. 

The vessel is self-propelled by means 
of a set of triple expansion, surface 
condensing engines with cylinders 15 
in., 25 in., and 42 in., diameter, by 26 
in. stroke, supplied with steam from 
two Scotch boilers 10 ft. 6 in. long by 11 
ft. 6 in. diameter, working at 180 lbs. 
pressure. Suitable clut?h year is ar- 



ranged so that the main engine can be 
disconnected from the propeller shaft 
and made to operate the chain of buck- 
ets. All the gearing in connection with 
these arrangements is of a very sub- 
stantial nature. There are 40 buckets 
on the chain, each of 27 cubic feet ca- 
pacity. 

The manoeuvring of the vessel while 
at work is carried out by means of ex- 
ceptionally powerful winches; there be- 
ing fitted one bow winch, one stern 
winch and two large breasting winches. 
In addition to these, a' very powerful 
hoisting engine is fitted for operating 
the bucket ladder, a small winch for op- 
erating the side chute, and two power- 
ful deck capstans for warping. A very 
complete set of engine room auxiliaries 
are installed and no expense has been 
spared to make the vessel complete in 
every respect. 

Vessel Equipment. 

Accommodation for the dredging mas- 
ter and officers is provided on a prom- 
enade deck aft. consisting of very airy 
well-ventilated cabins, while the crew 



are berthed under the main deck for- 
ward on the port side. Forward of the 
crew space, a large workshop has been 
installed for taking care of < the neces- 
sary repairs which may be required to 
the dredging gear while the vessel is in 
service. 

The Department of Marine and Fish- 
eries was represented at the launch by 
Mr. Cecil Doutre, purchasing and con- 
tract agent, and the christening cere- 
mony was gracefully performed by Miss 
Isabel Lindsay, the charming little 
daughter of Mr. Sanford H. Lindsay, 
secretary-treasurer of the Collingwood 
Shipbuilding Co. 



ST. LAWRENCE RIVER WATER 
LEVEL. 

A N elaborate plan for increasing or 
at least maintaining at a consis- 
tent level the waters of the St. Law- 
rence below Quebec will be prepared by 
the Commission now investigating the 
question. It is fairly well advanced in 
its work. 




LALNCII OK IU'CKKT DKKIKJK NO. 14 AT COLLINGWOOD, ONT 

144 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



The function of the Commission is 
not, as stated in some quarters, to de- 
termine the feasibility of the 35-foot 
channel. That has been decided upon, 
and is being proceeded with. Rather, 
the idea is to determine why at certain 
seasons of navigation there is low water, 
while at others there is a sufficiency of 
it. 



gations are completed, but the present 
indications are that they will be along 
the lines above mentioned. 

© 

FRENCH LINE DROPS MONTREAL. 

A RUMOR has been current for some 
time past that the French line had 
made its last sailing to Montreal, for 




BUCKET DREDGE NO. 14 PITTING OUT. 



All the way clown from Port Arthur 
to the sea automatic gauges have been 
installed to record the flow and depth of 
water from week to week, while several 
investigating parties below Montreal 
are enquiring into the varying depths, 
volume and velocity of the river. 
Contributory Causes. 

The investigations so far tend to dis- 
close the fact that there are various in- 
fluences contributory to the conditions 
prevailing. One is the flow of the Chi- 
cago Drainage Canal, and the volume of 
water diverted by it from Lake Michi- 
gan. Another factor is precipitation. 
In a dry season the river levels are very 
much affected by the lack of rain. 

The Commission will make a number 
of practical suggestions for works to 
overcome the variation of navigation 
conditions, and to ensure a steady flow. 
It is understood that the suggestion of 
damming the St. Lawrence in the lower 
part at several points and allowing 
ships to lock through is not likely to be 
favored at all. 

What is more probable is that, coin- 
cident with the deepening of the chan- 
nel, a series of compensating works be 
put in to regulate the flow. One way of 
doing this is by means of a system of 
submerged embankments along the chan- 
nel to ensure the greater depth of water 
being maintained throughout the season. 

The exact character of the recom- 
mendations will, of course, not be fin- 
allv known till the preliminary investi- 



the present season, at any rate. This 
rumor received official confirmation re- 
cently, when it was stated that La 
Touraiue had made her last appearance 
in this port, owing, it was added, to the 
lack of freight offering between Mon- 
treal and Havre, the cream of which 
has been secured bv the Allen line, 



June sailing from Havre had to be drop- 
ped in consequence of an accident to a 
boal belonging to the line on the New 
York route, La Touraine having to take 
her place temporarily. Passengers who 
had hooked from Montreal by the 
French liner had to be otherwise accom- 
modated. This was clone, but the new 
venture received a setback, which com- 
bined with the lack of freight offering, 
decided the management to discontinue? 
future sailings beyond Quebec. 



RICHELIEU RIVER LIGHTS. 

tpXTENSIVE alterations and im- 
provements have been effected on 
the Richelieu river. All the lights have 
been rebuilt on concrete piers, and a 
flat light lias been put in position at 
St. Denis to facilitate approach to the 
wharf. A light has also been installed 
on one of the piers to facilitate ap- 
proach to the bridge at Beloeil. The 
last is one of the greatest improvements 
effected, for the pronounced bend in the 
approaches to the bridge has, in the 
past, often caused confusion to naviga- 
tors, and to small craft, was a positive 
source of danger. The new light, how- 
ever, renders the approach perfectly 
safe in all weather. The light at Point 
Alamule has been rebuilt and a three- 
section tower put up. Stronger lights 
with a range of six miles have been in- 
stalled. 

@ 

THE CUNARD LINER LUSITANIA. 

A FTER being out of commission since 
the latter part of last December, 
the Cunard Liner Lusitania is a^ain be- 




BUCKET DREDGE NO. 14 PITTING OUT. 



which, shippers seem loth to desert. 

The first sailing of La Touraine to 
Montreal, was made last May, but the 
145 



ing prepared to take her place on the 
service, and will, under the present ar- 
rangements, sail from the Mersey for 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



New York on Saturday, August 23. Dur- 
ing the eight months that the Lusitania 
has been berthed at Liverpool, every 
part of the huge liner, external and in- 
ternal, has been thoroughly overhauled, 
and she will be at the time of depar- 
ture in as excellent condition as she was 
when first placed on the service. 

The Lusitania. with her sistership 
Mauretania, are looked upon as the 
highest achievement in naval architec- 
ture and marine engineering, and during 
the period they have been in commission, 
these leviathans have, by their record- 
breaking performances, added lustre to 
the famous Canard Company, and are 
vessels of which the British public are 
justly proud. It is expected that the 
Lusitania will carry from Liverpool 
when she leaves on the 23rd inst, over 
500 first-class passengers and a full 
number of second and third-class pas- 
sengers, as the berths are being rapidly 
booked. 

The Transatlantic passenger traffic 
wesl ward is now at its height, and the 
Lusitania and Mauretania receive a con- 
siderable patronage of the aristocracy 
from both sides af the Atlantic. 

@ 

IMPRESSIVE. 

Op HE navy increases of Great Britain 
were rather impressively set forth 
in the estimates introduced in the House 
of Commons on July 17. "We are," it 
is explained, "due to receive a torpedo- 
boat destroyer on the average of one a 
week for the next nine months. During 
the next 12 months we shall receive on 
the average a light cruiser every 30 days, 
and during the next 18 months we shall 
on the average receive a super-Dread- 
nought of the latest possible type, and of 
the highest possible cost every 45 days. ' ' 
Incidentally, it is held that the age of 
oil firing has come, and that destroyers, 
cruisers and battleships are all being 
ordered for oil firing only. 

® 

RICHELIEU & ONTARIO. 

HE two directors of the Richelieu 
& Ontario Navigation Co. who were 
perhaps most instrumental in bringing 
about the Canada Transportation Lines 
merger, have retired from the Richelieu 
Board. After a meeting of the Board 
of Directors held this week in Montreal, 
it was announced that Edmund Bristol, 
M.P., and Mr. Grant Morden of the 
Richelieu Board of Directors had retir- 
ed in favor of Messrs. J. M. Norcross of 
Toronto, and J. P. Steedman, of Hamil- 
ton. Mr. J. M. Norcross, one of the two 



new directors, is slated as general man- 
ager of the Canada Transportation Lines, 
which is to absorb the old Richelieu, as 
well as the Northern, Inland, Niagara 
and other lines acquired or in process of 
acquisition, by the big navigation merg- 
er. He is at present managing director 
of the Canada Interlake Line. 
. The Richelieu Board is now made up 
as follows: James Carruthers, president; 
W. Wainwright, vice-president; J. Play- 
fair, vice-president; Sir H. Montagu Al- 
lan, J. R. Binning, Wm. Hanson, Hon. J. 
P. B. Casgrain, C. A. Barnard, H. B. 
Smith, F. A. Magee, W. D. Matthews, H. 
W. Richardson, Claud G. Bryan, J. P. 
Steedman and J. M. Norcross. 

© 

LLOYD'S WRECK STATISTICS FOR 
1912. 

HE statistical summary of vessels 
totally lost, broken up, condemned, etc., 
now published by Lloyd's Register, 
shows that, during 1912, the gross re- 
duction in the effective mercantile mar- 
ine of the world amounted to 720 ves- 
sels of 748,965 tons, excluding all ves- 
sels of less than 100 tons. Of this to- 
tal, 379 vessels of 572,745 tons were 
steamers, and 341 of 176,220 tons were 
sailing vessels. The figures are lower 
than those for 1911 by 135,878 tons (47,- 
007 tons steam, and 88,871 tons sail). 

One of the most common terminations 
of a vessel's career is by breaking up, 
dismantling, etc., (not in consequence of 
casualty). The amount of tonnage so 
dealt with in 1912 was 157,641 tons, this 
being 97,S76 tons less than that for 
1911. Nearly 23 per cent, of the steam- 
ers and 24 per cent, of the sailing ves- 
sels removed from the merchant fleets 
of the world in the course of 1912 are 
accounted for in this manner. Of the 
total tonnage of such cases, over 38 
per cent, is represented by United King- 
dom vessels. The number and tonnage 
of vessels lost, etc., during the previous 
ten years are as follows: — 



SAILING 

YEAR. STEAMERS. VESSEES. 

No. Tons (gr.) No. Tons (Net) 

1902 301 408.363 571 292,327 

1903 326 479,081 596 300,722 

1904 344 512,879 463 225,266 

1905 382 527,978 501 264,376 

1906 37S 509,707 567 307,105 

1907 356 565,119 512 2S6.105 

1908 382 566,487 418 242,805 

1909 383 645,670 483 293,562 

1910 421 667,440 442 280,250 

1911 427 619,752 461 265,091 



The statistical tables exhibit interest- 
ing data as to the relative frequency of 
the different kinds of casualty, etc., 
which conclude the existence of vessels. 
Strandings and kindred casualties which 
are comprised under the term "wreck- 
ed," are much the most prolific cause 
of disaster. To such casualties are at- 
tributable over 54 per cent, of the losses 
of steamers, and over 55 per cent, of 
146 



sailing vessels. Cases of abandoned, 
foundered, and missing vessels are no 
doubt frequently more or less similar in 
the circumstances of loss. If these be 
taken collectively, they form over 24 per 
cent, of the steamers, and over 29% per 
cent, of the sailing vessels removed from 
the mercantile marine during 1912, ow- 
ing to casualty. 

The return has been prepared in such 
a manner as to enable a comparison to 
be made between the percentages of 
loss suffered by each of the principal 
merchant navies in the world. Great 
as the absolute annual loss of vessels 
belonging to the United Kingdom ap- 
pears to be, it is seen to form but a 
very moderate percentage of the mer- 
cantile marine of the country, and to 
compare favorably with the losses sus- 
tained by the other principal maritime 
countries. 

— ® 

CANADIAN GOVERNMENT SUBSI- 
DIES TO STEAMSHIPS. 

T N subsidies to steamships, the Cana- 
dian Government will pay this year 
$2,238,600. For this sum, the mails are 
carried free, and freight and passenger 
service maintained on the ocean and 
coastal routes for the development of 
foreign and domestic trade. 

Atlantic Service. 

The principal service is that on the 
Atlantic between Canada and Great 
Britain. Under the new contract made 
this year, the Government is paying one 
million dollars annually for a tri-weekly 
service performed by 12 steamships, in- 
stead of $600,000 a year for a weekly 
service by four steamships as formerly. 
The new contract is with four com- 
panies. The Allan, the C.P.R., the 
Canadian Northern and the White Star- 
Dominion lines. In former years, the 
contract was with the Allan Line, who 
divided up the subsidy and sailings with 
the Canadian Pacific. 

On the Pacific, there are several ocean 
service contracts, chief of which is that 
between Vancouver and Hong Kong, 
China, with calls both ways at Yokoha- 
ma, Japan. This service is performed 
by the Canadian Pacific Co., the yearly 
subsidy being $225,000, of which Canada 
pays $125,000 and Great Britain $100.- 
000. 

A subsidy of $180,000 yearly is paid 
for a monthly service between Van- 
couver and Auckland, New Zealand, 6,- 
366 miles. 

The subsidized steamship service hav- 
ing the longest route is that between 
Canada and New Zealand, via the At- 
lantie, the distance between terminal 
points being 15,650 miles, for which the 
subsidy paid is $120,000 yearly. 



PACIFIC 



Coast 



A PACIFIC COAST SHIPBUILDING 
INDUSTRY. 

WITH the completion of the modern 
steel steamship Princess Maquinna 
at Esquimault, B.C., a new record has 
been established in connection with the 
shipbuilding industry on the British 
Columbia coast. Ten years ago, this in- 
dustry was in its infancy, and at the 
time the wooden steamer Princess Beat- 
rice was constructed by the B. C. Marine 
Railway Co., Ltd., few would have dar- 
ed to predict that the well-known ship- 
building firm at Esquimalt would to-day 
be turning out such magnificent vessels 
as the one above referred to. 

The first vessel of any size to be plac- 
ed under construction at Esquimalt was 
the Princess Beatrice, a vessel of 1,290 
tons register, 195 feet long, 37.4 feet 
beam and 15.2 depth of hold. She was 
turned over to the C.P.R. in 1903, and 
has done yeoman service for that cor- 
poration during her many years' ser- 
vice on this coast. Four years later, the 
more pretentious steamer Princess 
Royal, 2,000 tons, was launched. She 
also, was of wooden construction and it 
was not until 1908 that the first steel 
ships were being built at the Esquimalt 
yards. The steam tug Nanoose was 
completed for the Canadian Pacific Co. 
in that year. 

Within a few months of the comple- 
tion of the Nanoose, the twin-screw steel 
steamer Lillooet was turned out to the 
order of the Dominion Government. She 
was a vessel of 600 tons register, and 
was specially designed for survey work 
on the Pacific coast. 

The steel steamer Madge was built 
for the Dominion Government in 1907, 
and since that time has been in regular 
commission as the quarantine tender at 
William Head. In addition to these 
serviceable vessels, the B.C. Marine 
Railway Co. last year completed a steel 
car-ferry, 250 feet in length and fitted 
with three tracks, for the C.P.R. trans- 
gulf service. At the present time, there 
is under construction a similar steel car- 
ferry 260 feet long. Each ear-ferry 
has accommodation for fifteen cars. 

The Princess Maquinna. 

Undoubtedly the greatest achieve- 
ment is the Princess Maquinna. She is 



a vessel of graceful lines, and compares 
favorably in every way with the modern 
passenger coastal steamers that have 
been brought out from the shipbuilding 
yards of Great Britain. 

The Maquinna is, both in design and 
construction, far superior to the older 
vessels, which more clearly than any- 
thing else goes to show the development 
that has taken place in the shipbuilding 
industry at Esquimalt. At the present 
moment, the yards at Victoria's ship- 
building centre are a hive of industry. 
Large gangs of mechanics and fitters 
have been working overtime in order 
that the Princess Maquinna may be 
made ready for her trials, which auspi- 
cious occasion will be celebrated with 
due eclat. 

The fact that such a fine ship as the 
Maquinna can be constructed in local 
yards augurs well for the future of 
Esquimalt as a centre of great ship- 
building activity. 



SHIP'S NAME EXPLAINED. 

JUST why Capt. Troup, manager of 
the C.P.R. coast service, named the 
new steamship for the run on the west 
coast of Vancouver Island the "Prin- 
cess Maquinna" has been somewhat of 
a puzzle to many newcomers to British 
Columbia, but it is not so to the old- 
timers who have read Capt. Vancouv- 
er's book on his discovery of Puget 
Sound. 

The story dates back to 1792, when 
Capt. Vancouver, accompanied by Signor 
Quadra of the Spanish fleet, conferred 
on the daughter of old Chief Maquinna 
the title of "Princess" It was while 
searching around for a name that Capt. 
Troup turned to Capt. Vancouver's 
writings, and soon found a name entire- 
ly suitable. 

In that early time, Chief Maquinna 
held dominion over most of the North- 
West, and shortly before Capt. Van- 
couver visited him, he had declared his 
daughter heir to all his great wealth 
and power. Capt. Vancouver's visit 
was very formal, and there was much 
feasting and unusual celebration when 
"Princess Maquinna" was given her 
title. 

147 



C.P.R. PACIFIC COAST STEAMSHIP 
APPOINTMENT. 

TIT" ORD was received at the C. P. R. 

headquarters on August 22 of the 
appointment of Lincoln Smith as assis- 
tant to the manager of the British Col- 
Iumbia coast steamship service of the 
C. P. R., with office at Victoria, B.C. 
This is a well-earned promotion, and 
hearty congratulations have been ex- 
tended Mr. Smith by his many friends. 

Mr. Lincoln Smith first joined the 
Canadian Pacific Railway as a clerk in 
the operating department at Toronto, 
and remained there until 1892, when he 
eL-tered the steamship department in 
that city in a similar capacity. The 
following yearr he went to Montreal, 
and five years later was transferred to 
Owen Sound. 

In 1903 Mr. Smith was appointed su- 
perintendent of the Upper Lake steam- 
ers, with office at Owen Sound, and 
subsequently in 190S he proceeded to 
Victoria as chief clerk in the general 
superintendent's office of the British 
Columbia coast steamship service, 
which position he occupied until his 
present pi'omotion. 



PACIFIC COAST WRECK. 

qpHIRTY-THREE or more passengers 
and seven members of the crew of 
the Pacific Coast Steamship Co. S.S. 
State of California, perished on Sunday 
morning, August 17, in Gambier Bay, 
ninety miles south of Juneau, when the 
vessel struck an uncharted rock and 
sank in three minutes with many pas- 
sengers imprisoned in their state rooms. 

The stepmship left Seattle on Wednes- 
day, August 13, for Skagway and way 
points. As all the records are lost, it is 
not possible to get a complete list of 
the missing. 



FISHERY CRUISER LAUNCHED. 

/~\N July 6th, the Dublin Dockyard, Co. 

Dublin, Ireland, launched the first 
of the two fishery cruisers which they 
are building to the order of the Cana- 
dian Government for service on the Pa- 
cific Coast. The vessel, which was nam- 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



ed Malaspina, is 162 ft. in length, 27 ft. 
in breadth and 13 ft. 11 in. in depth 
moulded. She is divided by transverse 
and longitudinal bulkheads into no few- 
er than twenty water-tight compart- 
ments. The propelling machinery, which 
is being supplied by David Rowan & 
Co.. Glasgow, consists of triple-expan- 
sion engines designed to give a high 
rate of speed. Steam will be supplied 
at 180 lbs. pressure from a marine type 
boiler working under forced draught on 
the Howden system. 

® t 

HALF A CENTURY AT SEA. 

A HALF century at sea, the years 
crowded with thrilling- experiences, 
has just been completed by Captain 
Frank Carey of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway steamship service liner Tyrolia, 
which plies between Montreal and 
Trieste and Naples. From deck boy to 
commodore of an Atlantic fleet is a big- 
rise, but that is one that Captain Carey 
has taken since he sailed from his first 
port as a deck boy in 1863. 

That was in the days of sailing ves- 
sels, the big steamers of this century be- 
ing then but vague dreams. He cleared 
on the old sailing barque Catherine for 
Quebec. From deck boy he rapidly rose 
until he became mate of sailing vessels. 
He served two years and a half with the 
Allans and then entered the old Beaver 
line with which he was transferred to 
the C.P.R. fleet when that line of steam- 
ers was taken over. He. has been with 
the Beaver and the C.P.R. since 1880, be- 
ing Commodore of the Atlantic fleet now, 
and the oldest captain in years of ser- 
vice with the company. 

An Adventurous Career. 

The captain has had an adventurous 
career. When he was second officer of 
the Lake Winnipeg, one terrible Febru- 
ary day, he fought with the waves in 
mid-Atlantic to save six sailors who 
were almost frozen to death in the rig- 
ging of a Norwegian barque. Captain 
Carey went to their aid, and after heroic 
efforts succeeded in getting- a line aboard 
and saving the six. For this act of con- 
spicuous bravery he was awarded a 
medal by the Norwegian Government, 
another from the Shipwreck and Hu- 
mane Society and a third by the Mercan- 
tile Marine Association. 

Captain Carey was also once on the 
old Lake Huron when he picked up the 
Canadian ship Kate Cann bound for 
Yarmouth. She lost all her boats but 
one in a terrible gale that had been lash- 
ing the sea into mountainous waves. Her 
masts were gone and boats crushed in 
and she was full of water. The boat had 
been patched up with tallow before the 
rescue could be attempted, but the entire 
crew was saved. 



Captain Carey could tell a further try- 
ing experiences during his long career 
afloat. He was the commander of the 
Empress of Ireland on her first four 
trips to Quebec, and at the end of the 
first voyage he was presented with a 
silver cup, a rose bowl, and an album, 
suitably inscribed by the passengers. 

@ 

HARBOR BOARD INSPECTION. 

A N inspection of works proceeding 
on the south shore was made by 
the Harbor Commissioners on August 
21. The removal of the temporary 
works at Moffatt 's Island was inspected, 
and, though their removal cannot be 
completed for some time to come, it has 
been demonstrated that already more 
water is being diverted from the north 
into the south channel, with' a conse- 
quent diminution of the velocity of the 
current, and. therefore, greater security 
for shipping. 

The wharf at Longeuil was visited, 
and an inspection made of the work of 
the dredges. One of the dredges loaded 
150 cubic yards of mud into a scow, 
filling it within a period of ten minutes; 
in fact, it was shown that the dredges 
can excavate mud into the scows at a 
speed greater than that at which tugs 
can be procured for towing the scows, 
when filled, away. 

@ 

COALING PLANT AT HALIFAX. 
'"pHERE will soon be completed at 
Halifax, N.S., a modern coal-load- 
ing and discharging plant erected by the 
Dominion Coal Co., which will place the 
Nova Scotian capital in line with the 
leading ports on the Atlantic, in the mat- 
ter of coaling facilities. Of course, the 
piers are not as large or as extensive as 
in Sydney, which are the largest in 
America, and excelled by few in the 
world, but still they are of a very im- 
proved pattern, and will greatly facili- 
tate the bunkering of coal at Halifax. 

Three Big Towers. 

Three bridge towers, each reared 95 
feet in the air and mounted on wheeled 
trucks, have been put in position at the 
outer extremity of the Company's wharf 
ready for use, while moored alongside 
the jetty is a barge of 600 tons burden, 
at one end of which is a powerful steam 
lift for bunkering ships in mid-stream. 
The former entailed an expenditure of 
about $36,000. and the latter cost $20,- 
000 to build. The installation of this 
equipment will completely revolutionize 
the loading and discharge of coal at 
Halifax, and marks a turning point in 
the development of bunkering facilities 
there. 

The best result obtained at Halifax 
previous to the construction of these 
148 



piers, in loading a steamer in the stream 
with fuel, was forty-five tons an hour. 
The new automatic barge is capable of 
averaging a hundred and fifty tons an 
hour, more than thrice the speed. 

The new automatic barge is sub-divid- 
ed into six pockets leading to a tunnel 
extending its full length, and holds 600 
tons of coal. At the stern, the coal is 
lifted by a revolving chain of 167 buck- 
ets, carrying 50 pounds each. The coal 
is elevated at great speed by the buck- 
ets on to a moving rubber belt forcing- 
it through a chute into the ship's 
bunkers. 

Four tons a minute is the rate in which 
the monster steel clams of the tower 
booms scoop up the coal from a laden 
collier, and dump it into a compartment 
within the tower of a capacity of ninety 
tons. It is then dropped from the tower 
compartment into hoppers beneath which 
run along a track into the coal sheds. 

© 

LOCATION OF NEW ELEVATOR 
AT MONTREAL. 

HP HE new elevator, which the Mont- 
A treal Harbor Commissioners will 
erect next summer, will be built either 
at Windmill Point or at the Tarte pier, 
Maisonneuve. The odds are in favor of 
the latter site, as at that point better 
loading and unloading facilities can be 
obtained for both ocean and lake ves- 
sels. Windmill Point is already often 
seriously congested with grain ships, 
colliers and liners, and with the increase 
of a million bushels in the storage ca- 
pacity of the Grand Trunk elevator and 
the construction within the next few 
years of a new entrance into the La- 
chine Canal, combined with the steady 
increasing lake and river trade, that 
congestion is likely to increase. These 
considerations are likely to influence 
the Commissioners to choose the Tarte 
pier site. 

That location, too, would remove 
many grain "tramps'' from the upper 
port, thus remedying somewhat the 
present lack of wharfage space. Then, 
too, it would aid in vessels getting away 
to sea quicker. The freighters, which 
berth at Maisonneuve now, unload there 
and then come up to the city for their 
grain cargo. The big elevator there 
would permit loading and unloading at 
the present time. 

The New Elevators. 

The Grand Trunk elevator at Wind- 
mill Point is making rapid progress. 
Twelve of the "bins" are up full height 
now, and the foundations have been laid 
for sixteen more. The addition to the 
Harbor Commissioners' elevator No. 1 
has been delayed a good deal by a strike 
among its carpenters, but the walls are 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



now up over thirty feet. It will be ready 
for next season's crop. 

When all are finished, Montreal will 
have a storage capacity at the deep 
water line of 11,000,000 bushels. 

©— 

EX-HARBOR COMMISSIONERS OF 
MONTREAL HONORED. 

■RECOGNITION in tangible form of 
Xv the services of the late Harbor Com- 
missioners was given at a gathering of 
the various commercial organizations 
recently, in the Canada Club, Montreal, 
when G. W. Stephens, C. C. Ballantyne 
and L. E. Geoffrion, were presented with 
three silver cups and heard much eulogy 
of their services. 

Mr. H untley R. Drummond presided, 
ard explained that they were met to- 
gether for the purpose of paying tribute 
to the late members of the Harbor Com- 
mission for what they had done for the 
port of Montreal. He would not enumer- 
ate what they had accomplished in the 



way of constructing permanent piers, 
grain elevators, and the great floating 
dock, as those things were their own 
monuments as was suggested by the 
Latin inscription on the cups. 

The Port Their Monument. 

7 'he port itself was the greatest and 
most lasting monument of the work that 
thp first Harbor Commissioners of Mont- 
real had carried out, but even more im- 
portant was the example that these gen- 
tlemen had presented to the whole of 
Canada of a great task honestly, ably 
and impartially performed without fear 
or favor of any man or party; for, al- 
though appointed by the late Govern- 
ment, and belonging to that party, they 
had kept themselves free from any taint 
or suspicion of partiality towards their 
ov/u political friends. 

"I say that advisedly,'' said the chair- 
man, "and being conscious of the fact 
tl at. at the time when the present Gov- 
ernment came into office there may have 
been some talk; but I have yet to hear 



of any accusation being made that was in 
the least degree true." Mr. Drummond 
went on to say that when the new Gov- 
ernment came into power, the late Har- 
bor Commissioners had been requested 




C. C. BALLANTYNE. 
Late Member. Montreal Harbor Commission. 



by the Hon. J. D. Hazen, Minister of 
Marine and Fisheries, to remain in 
office, and when they left it was of their 
free-will and with the esteem of the 
Government and of Montreal citizens. 

Non-Political Policy. 

The genius of their career was non- 
political, and he, as a Conservative, was 




L. E. (jliutt'KIoN. 



Late Member, Montreal Harbor Commission 

happy to admit that, and also that the 
action of the Minister of Marine was 
non-political. He himself had been a 
member of the deputation which waited 




MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



upon and urged the present Government 
to retain the late Commissioners, and the 
deputation which was mostly composed 
of Conservatives, was cordially received. 
Air. Drummond expressed the hope tnat 
in the future the city and country would 
benefit in some other way by the services 
of the three ex-Commissioners. 

Mr. Howard Murray and Col. Labelle, 
on behalf of the Manufacturers' Asso- 
e.ation and the Chambre de Commerce, 
tl en presented the cups to the late com- 
missioners, in appreciation of their ser- 
vices. 

Major Stephens Reply. 

Major G. W. Stephens, in acknowledg- 
ing the gift, expressed gratefulness to 
the business men of Montreal and also 
to the press, without whose hearty co- 
operation, he said, very little worth 
while could have been accomplished. 
"Upon the threshold of our public ser- 
v.ce," he said "six years ago we took 
over grave responsibilities, and under- 
took to fit ourselves to meet them. The 
Covernment that appointed us gave us 
a free hand to administer a public trust 
hi the interests of all the citizens of 
Canada, unfettered by outside influence, 
political or otherwise. 

Thus free, for five years, we gave to 
our country and fellow citizens the best 
we had, to give unreservedly. Mis- 
takes were made, of course, as is nat- 
ural, where human nature exists, and 
where great rival interests clash in their 
greed for privileges and opportunity." 

Some of the credit for what had been 
done was due to the loyal harbor staff 
fired by patriotism, as well as the 
earnest co-operation of Montreal citi- 
zens. That, the late Commissioners 
should have followed in the footsteps 
of so many grand Canadians associated 
with the progress of this country, was 
honor enough. 

The late chairman of the commission- 
ers then enumerated a lengthy list of 
Canadian citizens who had made great 
sacrifice to serve their country, and men- 
tioned among those who were especially 
entitled to the credit of making possi- 
ble the development of the Canadian 
national waterway, the Hon. John 
Young, Hon. Israel Tarte, Hon. Ray- 
mond Prefontaine, and Hon. Louis 
Philip Brodeur. "We are proud," he 
concluded, "to have served our country, 
oar city, and fellow-citizens for five 
years; and we are proud to have given 
over the work into the hands of the 
present commissioners, whose integrity 
and independence assure the future." 

C. C. Ballantyne. 

Mr. C. C. Ballantyne also acknow- 
ledged the co-operation of the harbor 
staff and of the public bodies, and said 



that while the Government had pressed 
them to remain in office, they had felt 
that after six years of service the time 
had arrived when others should be given 
the opportunity, and he felt that every- 
one was pleased with the appointments 
that had ensued. The work was na- 
tional, and he believed no one was in- 
clined to allow politics to intrude. 

L. E. Geoffrion. 

Mr. L. E. Geoffrion, speaking in 
French, briefly but cordially thanked 
those present for their mark of confi- 
dence and esteem. 

Following the speech-making the 
healths of the late commissioners, and 
also of the present commissioners were 
pledged. 

Among those present at the gathering- 
there were: Major H. R. Drummond, 
Major G. W. Stephens, C. C. Ballan- 
tyne, L. E. Geoffrion, G. W. Ross, Far- 
qiihar Robertson, Col. A. E.- Labelle, 
Howard Murray, J. H. Sherrard, J. T. 
McBride, Jas. Roger, Wm. Finley. Col. 
Gardner, R. W. Reford, Anson MeKim, 
W. I. Gear, Geo. Sumner, J. H. Gordon, 
Frank Posey, H. J. Lyman, J. Osier, 
Geo. Hadrill, David Seath, M.P., Fen- 
nell, and H. T. Meldrum. 

The pieces of silver plate presented 
were massive silver bowls, inscribed 
with names and date of office, as being 
given by "representatives of trade or- 
ganizations of the city in recognition of 
invaluable services rendered to the 
port," and there was added on each one 
the Latin motto: "Si momentum re- 
quiris circumsi^ice portum." 

© 

MANY SHIPS STRIKE. 

/ "p HE St. Lawrence River and our in- 
land lakes and rivers have a bad 
"hoodoo" again this year. A string of 
ships have come to grief already this 
season, and there are three months yet 
before the ice comes and blocks naviga- 
tion. The most serious accidents occur- 
red on one day when the Lake Mani- 
toba crashed into the Isle of Orleans in 
a fog' and damaged her bottom so badly 
that she had to go to New York to dry 
dock. The previous evening, the Crown 
of Cordova cut into a passenger ship, 
the Lady of Gaspe, injuring the latter so 
seriously that the captain had to run 
ashore. The Cordova had to drydock 
at Quebec with a hole in a how plate. 
Then the Pretorian hit a submerged 
wreck while outward bound in the low- 
er river and had to lose a trip. 

On inland waters, Lake St. Louis 
holds the record for small disasters. 
The Majestic and the Whittaker went 
aground off Lachine, while recently the 
Stormount stuck fast off Dorval Island. 
The John Sharpies staggered into port 
150 



one evening with a huge hole in her bot- 
tom, made when she hit a rock at Chi- 
coutimi. Then the Duchess of York 
sheared into a rock while running the 
Lachine Rapids and made port in a ser- 
ious condition. 

Other more trivial accidents have oc- 
curred along the rivers at different 
places. 

@ 

STEAMERS COLLIDE ON THE ST. 

LAWRENCE. 
'"pHE steamship Lady of Gaspe, which 
■*■ left Montreal about 4 o 'clock on the 
afternoon of July 28, with more than a 
hundred passengers and a heavy cargo 
bound for Gulf of St. Lawrence ports, 
was badly damaged about midnight in 
collision with the steamer Crown of 
Cordova. The passengers and crew 
were all safely put ashore at Cap Mag- 
dalene in life-boats and eared for by 
formers. 

The Crown of Cordova had left Mon- 
treal about ten minutes after the Lady 
of Gaspe, and overtook the latter, be- 
low Cap Magdalene, riding at anchor on 
account of the dense fog. The Crown of 
Cordova struck the other boat amid- 
ships, cutting a large hole, and Capt. 
Vesina of the Lady of Gaspe at once 
saw that the only hope of saving his 
ship was to drive her ashore. He ran 
her on to the beach and the passengers 
were taken off in the life-boats. 

The Crown of Cordova, was on her 
way to Quebec to take on lumber for 
London. After telegraphing to Quebec 
for assistance she proceeded under her 
own steam, and was later met by the 
tug J. H. Hackett and assisted to port. 

An inquiry into the cause of the dis- 
aster, and in order to apportion the 
blame has been held and concluded, but 
as we go to press, the decision has not 
been made public. 

® 

GRAIN CONGESTION AT MONT- 
REAL. 

f \ NE of the problems at present be- 
^-^ fore the Montreal Harbor Commis- 
sion, according to Mr. Farquhar Robert- 
son, Commissioner, is the discovery of 
some means to prevent local grain eleva- 
tors from being used as storage eleva- 
tors by dealers who wish to wait for a 
rise in the market. Whether the solu- 
tion would likely take the form of in- 
crease in storage rates after a certain 
number of days, or- the placing of a time 
limit on the use of bins, Mr. Robertson 
was unable to say, but intimated that 
the matter would receive immediate con- 
sideration at the hands of the Commis- 
sion, who could be depended upon to 
lake whatever steps they thought neces- 
sary to prevent, in so far as was pos- 
sible, the congestion of grain at this 
port. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



LINES OF DEVELOPMENT FOR 
CANADIAN ROUTE. 

T N his report to the Harbor Commis- 
*■ sion, Mr. W. G. Ross, the chairman, 
states that three broad lines of develop- 
ment are necessary on the Canadian 
route for grain, and that unless all three 
are looked after at once, Montreal and 
the St. Lawrence can never hope to cope 
with American cities. The necessary 
lines of development are: 

(1) . — Ocean tonnage from Montreal. 

(2) . — Storage capacity at lake and 
seaports. 

(3) . — Canadian lake vessels. 

Of the 44,510,182 bushels of wheat 
shipped from Fort William and Port 
Arthur via American ports in 1912, 
only 333,829 bushels were transported 
in Canadian-owned vessels. The Cana- 
dian marine lost this transportation to 
the American lower ports by its scarcity 
of vessels, a scarcity which a deejD-water 
channel to the sea would soon not only 
make adequate, but would divert to 
Montreal and other Canadian ports the 
greater portion of the grain trade which 
now seeks American ports. 

Until Canada has a westbound trade 
capable of supporting and warranting 
the building of vessels on a par with 
American boats, she cannot control the 
carrying trade from the upper lake 
ports, says Mr. Ross. Until Canada 
furnishes a deep-water channel to Mon- 
treal to tap her eastern coal fields, 
Americans will control the bulk of the 
grain shipments. 

@ 

BRITISH WRECKS IN JUNE. 

'TpHE number and net tonnage of Brit- 
ish vessels respecting whose loss 
reports were received at the Board of 
Trade during the month of June, 1913. 
and the number of lives lost are as fol- 
lows : — 

Net Lives. 
Number. Tonnage. Lost 
Sailing .... 25 1,034 2 

Steam 13 9,600 2 



Total .... 38 10,634 8 
The above table is a record of "re- 
ports received ! ' in the month, and not 
of wrecks which occurred during the 
month. Many of the reports received in 
June relate to casualties which occur- 
red in previous months. The figures 
include the losses of 9 sailing vessels of 
484 tons, and 4 steamers of 1,109 tons, 
belonging to British possessions abroad, 
involving the loss of the lives of 7 per- 
sons, of whom 1 was lost in a sailing 
vessel, and 6 in steamers. Casualties 
not resulting in total loss of vessels and 
the lives lost by such casualties are not 
included. 

Trial Trip. — The Andania, built by 
Scott's Shipbuilding Co., Greenock, for 



the Cunard Co., went to sea for her of- 
ficial trial trip recently. The vessel 
measures 540 ft. in length, 64 ft. in 
breadth, and 46 ft. in depth. Her ton- 
nage is 13,300, and accommodation is 
provided for 2,140 passengers. The trial 
trip proved satisfactory. 

© 

TO BUILD POWER LIFE BOAT. 

qpHE firm of V. M. Dafoe & Co., Van- 
couver, B.C., has secured the con- 
tract for the building of a power boat 
for service at Clayoquot, Vancouver Is- 
land, and will start construction at an 
early date. The boat will be 36 feet 
long, and 8 feet 7 inches broad, with a 
beam of 4 feet 2y 2 inches, and will be 
self-righting and self -bailing. She will 
be practically unsinkable, a row of air- 
tight compartments being provided on 
either side, and a series of bailing tubes 
for draining off the water taken aboard 
in rough seas. 

The craft will be of the staunchest 
possible construction with gun-metal fit- 
tings throughout, and will be built of 
Honduras mahogany and white pine, 
carefully selected and planked diagon- 
ally. She will be equipped with a 25- 
horsepower engine with special magneto 
and ignition features. The cost of her 
construction will probably run about 
$12,000. 

She was designed by Capt. McLellan 
of the United States life-boat construc- 
tion department, who has designed 
twelve similar craft for service in the 
American Republic. Ten of the United 
States boats are to be used on the At- 
lantic coast and two on the Pacific. 

The boat has been ordered by the Do- 
minion Marine and Fisheries Depart- 
ment. 

© 

COAL UNLOADER WRECKED. 

O TRUCK by the full force of a small 
cyclone, which cut a swath across 
the col^ntry on the night of August 21, 
and which heralded one of the worst 
electric storms in years, the new $60,000 
coal unloader, the construction of which 
had only been completed two hours pre- 
viously, was blown down at the new 
Ontario dock, Sault Ste. Marie. 

By almost a miracle there were no 
fatalities. A gang of five men was just 
about to approach the unloader, when 
the recollection of the way in which the 
lightning played around the steel work 
in a previous storm prompted them to 
remain in the adjacent office until the 
storm was over. 

The unloader was of the double tram- 
way type, and was one of the most up- 
to-date on the Great Lakes. With its 
great capacity it would have unloaded 
an 8,000 ton vessel in one day. 

151 



C.P.R. PUBLICITY AGENT. 

A N official bulletin signed by G. M. 

Bosworth, vice-president of the 
C.P.R. , and approved by Sir Thomas 
Shaughnessy, was issued at the Windsor 
Stree offices, Montreal, a few days ago, 
announcing the appointment of John M. 
Gibbon to succeed W. T. Robson, re- 
signed, in the office of general publicity 
agent. 

Mr. Gibbon was born in Udewelle, 
Ceylon, of Scotch parents. He was edu- 
cated at Aberdeen, Gottingen, and Ox- 
ford Universities, graduating at the lat- 
ter. He studied art in Paris and later 
became the editor of the illustrated 
British publication, Black and White. 
He joined the London office of the 
C.P.R. six years ago to organize a Euro- 
pean publicity office. He is the author 
of "Scots in Canada," and a popular 
history of Scottish settlement. 

@ 

BRITAIN'S MERCANTILE SUPRE- 
MACY. 

TUf ORE than one-half of the mercan- 
tile tonnage of the whole world 
flies the British flag. Fifty years ago, 
the proportion was 56.4 per cent.; to- 
day it is 59.2 per cent. There were times 
during the intervening period when it 
was much greater, but the remarkable 
fact remains that all the other nations 
of the earth can only muster 40 per 
cent, of the world's shipping between 
them. 

Taking steamships only, the British 
flag floats from the masthead of 60.5 per 
cent., thus leaving even less than 40 per 
cent, for the rest of the world to share. 

ALLAN LINE IN WINTER. 

THE Allan Line management report 
that a greatly improved (winter 
service is to be inaugurated at the close 
of the present St. Lawrence season. 
There will be a weekly service to and 
from Glasgow, sailings from this side 
being alternately from Portland and 
Boston, instead of a fortnightly service 
as has been the case in previous winters. 
The service will be maintained by the 
following steamers: Grampian, Hes- 
parian, Scandinavian, Scotian, and 
Ionian. The first sailing will be that 
of the Scandinavian from Portland on 
December 4. 

@ 

Clyde Shipbuilding. — Although the 
output of the Clyde shipbuilding yards 
during July was interfered with by the 
fair holidays, the total was over 30,000 
tons. This is considerably below the 
monthly average for the year to date, 
but the twelve months still promises to 
eclipse all records. The aggregate for 
the seven months is over 40,000 tons in 
excess of that for the corresponding 
period of last year. 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



The MacLean Publishing Company 

LIMITED 

(ESTABLISHED 1888.) 
JOHN BAYNE MACLEAN ... President 
H. T. HUNTER - General Manager 

PUBLISHERS 

MarjneEngineering 

of Canada 

A monthly journal dealing with the progress and develop- 
ment of Merchant and Naval Marine Engineering, Shipbuilding, 
the building of Harbors and Docks, and containing a record of 
the latest and best practice throughout the Sea-going World. 



H. V. TYRRELL,, Toronto 
PETER BAIN, M.E., Toronto 



Business Manager 
Editor 



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Vol. Ill 



AUGUST. 1913 



No. 



The Shipbuilding Plant of G. T. Davie & Sons, Levis, P. Q. 141-142 
General 142-143 

Welland Canal Mishap Record Day's Output for the 

"Corozal" Two Quick Repair Jobs. .. .Injury to the 

"Lake Manitoba." 

Launch of a Powerful Bucket Dredge at Collingwood, Ont. 144 

St. Lawrence Kiver Water Level 144-145 

General 145-146 

French Line Drops Montreal. .. .Richelieu River Lights 
....The Cunard Liner Lusitania .... Impressive .... 

Richelieu it Ontario Lloyd's Wreck Statistics for 

1912. ... Canadian Government Subsidies to Steamships. 

Pacific Coast 147-148 

A Pacific Coast Shipbuilding Industry. ... Ship's Name 
Explained C.P.R. Pacific Coast Steamship Appoint- 
ment. ... Pacific Coast Wreck .... Fishery Cruiser 
Launched .... Half a Century at Sea . . . . Harbor Board 
Inspection .... Coaling Plant at Halifax. .. .Location of 
New Elevator at Montreal. 

Ex-Harbor Commissioners of Montreal Honored 149-150 

Many Ships Strike 150 

Steamers Collids on the St. Lawrence 150 

drain Congestion at Montreal 150 

Lines of Development for Canadian Route 151 

British Wrecks in June 161 

To Build Power Life Boat 151 

Coal Unloader Wrecked 151 

C.P.R. Publicity Agent 151 

Britain's Mercantile Supremacy 151 

Allan Line in Winter 151 

Clyde Shipbuilding 151 

Editorial 152 

Marine News, Every Source 153-154 

Oil Cargo Kept Her Afloat 154 

North Atlantic lie Patrol Reports for the Season of 1913 .. 155-157 

I bulling Dock for the Upper Bosphoms 157 

Association and Personal 158 

C.P.R. Turbine Steamship "St .George (Advtg. Section).... 21 
"Lake Manitoba" Stranding (Advtg. Section) 21 



GRAIN STORAGE AND SHIPMENT INVESTIGATION. 

MOT FOR a long time, if ever, in the realm of trans- 
portation by water, at least so far as Canada is con- 
cerned, has so thorough an investigation been carried out, 
and so complete a record of facts and figures been com- 
piled and presented in so concise and telling a manner. 



relative to the storage of grain, the feature product of the 
Prairies Provinces of our Dominion, as that just recently 
published for the guidance and general information of the 
Montreal Harbor Commission, towards their shaping a 
policy to meet the now known conditions, and. incidentally, 
to reflect the accruing benefits on the country as a whole. 

The present chairman of the Montreal Harbor Com- 
mission, has shown himself to be a worthy successor to the 
previous appointee, Major G. W. Stephens, and, in pass- 
ing, let us remark, that if example be still a potent factor 
in present-day civilization, then, the myriad nonentities 
who play only to the gallery in our municipal, political 
and public life generally can secure an object lesson by 
studying the activities and achievements of the past and 
present Montreal Harbor Commissions, individually and 
collectively. The policy of the old Board is being con- 
tinued and further developed, and one has only to read 
the account of the recent tangible recognition of the 
work of that body, which appears on another page of this 
issue of Marine Engineering of Canada, to note the unan- 
imity which men of all shades of opinion, political and 
otherwise, displayed in recognizing the personal worth of 
its individual components. 

An ultimate settlement of the vexed question of ship- 
. ping Canadian-grown grain to American ports, in Amer- 
ican bottoms, and thence by American railroads for ocean 
shipment to consumer was undoubtedly the object aimed 
at in pursuing the investigation, and, it is neither a strain- 
ing of the imagination nor an attempt to assume the role of 
a prophet, on the part of those who are directly interested, 
to express their firm conviction that a reversal of exist- 
ing transportation conditions has, as a result of the data 
collected, become imminent, and a near future certain 
accomplishment. The very reliability, not to speak of the 
long felt necessity of the information collected, will 
awaken to a new ideal and purpose, the many interests in- 
volved, and direct more than will the creation of a Cana- 
dian Navy on our shores, increased regard for and atten- 
tion to the kindred industries of marine engineering and 
shipbuilding. Elevator accommodation has been found to 
be hopelessly deficient , in spite "of the many fine structures 
of this nature to be found at our principal ports, and last, 
but in nowise least, the need for an ocean vessel waterway 
from our Great Lakes to the sea is pointed out in no un- 
certain manner. 

The lack of return cargoes westward is a feature re- 
ferred to in the report, and is a question which gives adddd 
point to the argument for deep waterway construction 
from lake to ocean. The coal and iron industries of our 
Eastern Provinces do not play that part in the develop- 
ment and upbuilding of the West which we have a right 
to expect, and which they can perform quite as fitly as 
those on the American side; and, certainly, so long as 
dependence on railroad transportation beyond and west 
of Montreal, or the reshipment of coal at that port from 
ocean vessel to Lachine Canal Packet, are disabilities 
allowed to exist and prevail, just so long will that reci- 
procity of mutual benefit between our provinces be denied 
birth. 

We hope to see during the coming off-season of navi- 
gation on our lakes and rivers, a comprehensive scheme 
launched by those having the matter in hand, whereby the 
altogether humiliating conditions existent will, for 
the most part, if not entirely, cease. There is no question 
as to the capacity of the men who are sponsors for the 
undertaking, stupendous, even though it /appear, and 
neither money nor really influential support will be lack- 
ing in bringing to an end what is meantime a national 
reproach. 




MabineNew& 



William Gilbert, Government light- 
keeper and storm signal agent at Wiar- 
ton, Ont., for six years, died recently, 
aged 85 years. 

Vancouver, B.C. — The Dominion Gov- 
ernment has awarded the Vancouver 
Ship Yard Limited, the contract for the 
construction of three gasoline launches. 

Edmund Bristol,, M.P., and Grant 
Morden have retired in favor of J. M. 
Norcross, of Toronto, and J. P. Steed- 
man, of Hamilton, from the Richelieu 
directorate. 

Ottawa, Ont. — The contract for a 
modern power lifeboat, it is expected, 
will be awarded to V. M. Dafoe, of Van- 
couver, the price mentioned being in the 
neighborhood of $10,000. 

Ottawa, Ont. — Departmental engin- 
eers have been asked to report on an ap- 
plication for a subsidy for a drydock 
and repair plant to cost upwards of $2,- 
000,000, at Vancouver, B.C. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The Northern Naviga- 
tion Co., has just completed a plant at 
Port Edward, Ont., costing $50,000. It 
includes a laundry and an up-to-date re- 
frigeration plant for storing food. 

Vancouver Harbor, B.C. — At a Cabinet 
meeting held in Ottawa, on August 8, 
the new Vancouver Harbor Commis- 
sioners were appointed as follows : Hon. 
P. Carter-Cotton, Capt. Fullerton and 
S. McClay. 

Amherstburg, Ont. — The steamer 
Maritana of the Pittsburg Co. fleet lost 
a propeller blade while passing up Bal- 
lard's Reef channel on August 20, and 
was forced to go to the Great Lakes En- 
gineering Works for repairs. 

Sarnia, Ont. — A number of old piers 
that have become submerged are report- 
ed along the Canadian side of the river. 
An effort will be made to have them re- 
moved, as they are a menace both to 
American and Canadian shipping. 

Victoria, B.C. — Smashing her own 
record by at least 10 hours, the 20 knot 
C. P. R. turbine liner Empress of Rus- 
sia reached port at 3 a.m., August 2, on 
her second voyage from the Orient. This 
sets a new mark of 17 days 18 hours 
from Yokohama. 





LyER/ Source 




Transatlantic Record. — A new record, 
three days and nineteen hours from 
land to land for trans-Atlantic travel, 
has been established. The vessel, which 
has just cut several hours off previous 
records is the Royal George, the fastest 
ship in the line of the Canadian Nor- 
thern Railroad Co. 

New Westminster, B.C. — The Depart- 
ment of Public Works will erect two 
new wharves, work to start at once — 
one on Pitt River, 40 x 60 feet, and with 
180 feet approach, and one at Baruston 
Island, same size. The contract for 
dredging Pitt River has been let to the 
Pacific Dredging Co. 

Montreal, Que. — The Customs returns 
for July, 1913, $2,529,201, constitute a 
new record in the history of the port, 
showing an increase of $277,542.55 over 
the returns for the corresponding month 
of 1912, and an increase of $133,124.57 
over the previous record, which was 
made in May of this year. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The ship graveyard in 
Sarnia Bay is considered a menace to 
navigation. The attention of the De- 
partment of Marine and Fisheries has 
been called to the number of useless old 
wrecks rotting away there. When a 
vessel becomes useless she is usually 
towed into the bay and left there. 

Chatham, Ont. — During the month 

of July, Customs receipts at the port of 
Chatham total $41,271.59, which is over 
thirteen thousand more than for July, 
1912. Almost every sub-port in the dis- 
trict shows an increase for the month. 
The local collector, D. R. Farquharson, 
is authority for the statement that this 
is a record for collections here. 

Levis, 'Que. — The Dominion Coal Co. 
liner Wabana, which has been repairing 
at the Levis graving dock of Messrs. 
Davis & Sons, was undocked recently, 
with all repairs executed, after being in 
the dock 32 consecutive clays, inclusive 
of five Sundays. The Wabana ground- 
ed in the St. Lawrence below Matane. 
while bound from Sydney to Montreal 
with coal. 

Ottawa, Ontt. — The Cabinet Council 
awarded the following contracts on July 
31: To the Pacific Dredging Co. at Pitt 
River, B.C., $158,220; to Broley and 
153 



Martin, New Westminster, B.C., for 
completion of the jetty at Stevestin, 
B.C., $83,500; to Piersin U. Bar Co., for 
greenhouses and hot water heating in 
connection with experimental farm, 
$19,447. 

New Westminster, B.C. — The fishery 
protection boat "Restless," Captain 
Moore, has cleared from New Westmin- 
ster harbor for up coast where she will 
remain all season assisting in patrol and 
inspection work. She will run straight 
to Alert Bay, and for a month or so this 
will be her headquarters, while taking 
the government overseers over the fish- 
ing grounds of the district, and later will 
go even further northward. 

Sarnia, Ont. — The concrete founda- 
tion for the new light station on Ecorse 
Point, St. Clair River, has been com- 
pleted. Because of the fact that pass- 
ing steamers have refused to slow down, 
the construction crew experienced great 
difficulty, as, time and again, both ma- 
terial and equipment were washed 
away. The steel superstructure has also 
been completed, and is now ready to re- 
ceive the illuminating apparatus. 

Coquitlam, B.C. — L. D. Shafner, 
president and managing director of the 
Coquitlam Shipbuilding and Marine 
Railway Co., Ltd., has received official 
information that their tender for the 
new snag-boat required by the Domin- 
ion Government to take the place of the 
Samson on the Fraser River, has been 
accepted. The contract price is $21,000. 
The snagboat will be 111 feet long and 
30 feet wide, and will be designed on 
the lines of the old Samson. 

Montreal, Que. — A new grain elevator 
especially for export trade, with a ca- 
pacity of nearly three million bushels, 
will be built by the Harbor Commis- 
sioners. This will bring the total ca- 
pacity of the elevators of the port to 
10,732,000 bushels. Although the site 
has not been decided upon, it was an- 
nounced by an official of the Harbor 
Commissioners that the new elevator 
will be situated in the east end in such 
a way that boats can be unloaded on 
one side and loaded on the other. 

The Allan Line has recently been able 
to dispose of two of its single-screw 



MARINE ENGINEERING OF CANADA 



steamships. These are first, the Hun- 
garian, built in 1902 at Glasgow by 
Napier & Miller. She is a vessel of 4,- 
508 tons gross register, fitted with a set 
of triple-expansion engines by Duns- 
muir & Jackson. The other is the On- 
tarian, a couple of hundred tons small- 
er. She was built at Port Glasgow by 
Robert Duncan & Co., in the year 1900. 
The last-named vessel is, it is under- 
stood, purchased by the Chargeurs Re- 
unis of Havre. 

Ice-Breaker for St. Lawrence. — The 

Minister of Marine and Fisheries has 
decided to order another ice-breaking 
steamer for the St. Lawrence, about 275 
feet long, 57*4 feet beam, and 30 feet 
deep, drawing- 20 feet, with engines of 
8.000 indicated horse power. It is pro- 
posed to make the form forward similar 
to that of the celebrated Russian ice- 
breaker, Ermack. 

Prince Rupert, B.C. — Operations have 
commenced on the Prince Rupert dry- 
dock buildings by the Wineland Con- 
struction Co., Vancouver, general con- 
tractors. The work includes the power 
house, 104 x 108 feet, with steel frame 
chimney of fireproof construction, 11 ft. 
in diameter, and 200 ft. in height; a 
shipbuilding shed, 160 x 300 feet, with 
10-ton travelling crane; boiler and 
blacksmith shop, 76 x 150 feet, with 
concrete flooring; 15-ton travelling- 
crane; six 400 h.p. water tube boilers; 
a machine shop, 76 x 150 feet, with com- 
plete equipment of tools. 

Halifax, N.S. — After an absence of 
fifty-four years from Halifax, its birth- 
place, the Cunard Line will once more 
return to the home of its nativity. A 
cablegram received at the local office 
of Cunard & Co., is to the effect that 
the ships of the line which have during 
the past two summers conducted a ser- 
vice between Southampton and St. Law- 
rence ports will make Halifax a port of 
call. The magnificent new liners An- 
dania and Araunia, launched this year 
and constructed especially for the Can- 
adian service, will call at Halifax dur- 
ing the coming winter season. 

Great Lakes and Gulf of Mexico. — 

The first regular waterway service be- 
tween the Great Lakes and the Gulf of 
Mexico will be inaugurated by Septem- 
ber 1, according to the plans announced 
of a Chicago Transportation Co. The 
proposed service will be for both pas- 
senger and freight. The plans of the 
company provide for transporting 
freight and passengers from Chicago to 
La Salle, 111., by barges, routed through 
the drainage canal and the Illinois and 
Michigan Canal. At La Salle a trans- 
fer will be made from the barges to 
steamers, which will continue down the 



Illinois and Mississippi Rivers to New 
Orleans. 

Privy Council Judgment. — A cable 
received from Francis King, K.C., of 
Kingston, Ont., states that the Privy 
Council has rendered judgment relieving 
the steamer Kinmount of the Montreal 
Transportation Company and Mount 
Stephen of the Inland Navigation Co. 
from all damages entailed to the Mea- 
ford Elevator Co. for injuries caused to 
its elevator through disturbance of the 
water when the Kinmount entered the 
river at Go.derich and passed the Mount 
Stephen at the elevator with the leg in 
her hatches. Several damage cases re- 
sulted, and both companies were held 
liable in the Canadian courts. 

Smith's Dock Co., South Bank-on- 
Tees, England, recently launched the 
Keyvive; 250 by 42.6 by 20 ft. Built for 
service on the Great Lakes and the St. 
Lawrence. The vessel is classed to 
Lloyd's Register, and carries a dead- 
weight of about 2300 tons on the light 
draught necessary for going through the 
Welland Canal. She is of the usual lake 
steamer type with machinery aft, and is 
fitted with four special steam winches, 
steam windlass, and st«am steering-gear, 
with the usual cargo derricks. The ma- 
chinery, also being- constructed by 
Messrs. Smith's Dock Co., will consist of 
engines with cylinders 16, 26, and 43 in., 
by 33 in. stroke, and two boilers. 

Capt. J. McCannell is now commodore 
of the C.P.R. upper lakes fleet, and flies 
his pennant on the steamer Assiniboia. 
The reason for the shift lies in the fact 
that about a fortnight ago Capt. Louis 
Pyette, the commodore, was stricken 
with a partial paralysis which made it 
impossible for him to retain the com- 
mand or in fact to sail the vessel. As 
a consequence Capt. McCannell of the 
Athabasca became captain of the flag- 
ship, and the place vacated by him went 
to Capt. Jack B. Currie, who is very 
popular in the fleet. Capt. Pyette is 
now in Owen Sound, and hopes to be 
able to yet resume his seafaring duties, 
and his many friends will hope for the 
speedy return of his usual robust 
health. 

Amherstburg, Ont. — With the com- 
pletion of dredging work in Ballard's 
Reef channel in the lower Detroit River, 
next summer navigation interests on the 
great lakes- will be given a 600-foot 
channel, with a mean depth of 21 feet 
at low water. During the last week of 
the present month, the United States 
Engineers' Department will begin work 
on the western half of the channel, mak- 
ing the last step in the work, which has 
been in progress for several years. The 
completed channel will be a mile and a 
half long. At present all up-bound ves- 
154 



sels have been taking the westerly chan- 
nel while the work was in progress in 
the easterly. Notice has been given that 
after August 23 all vessels might ply in 
the other half of the channel and be 
guided by buoys, which will be moved 
to the proper places, instead of the Mai- 
den Ranges on shore. 

Fort William, Ont. — The new terminal 
elevator being built for the Fort Wil- 
liam Elevator Co. at West Fort William 
is fast assuming a finished appearance. 
The building when completed will be one 
of the most modern and up-to-date grain 
handling plants on the Continent. The 
storage house consists of 48 round tanks 
and 35 interspace bins, 90 feet in height, 
with a capacity of 1,500,000 bushels. 
The work house portion contains 32 cir- 
cular bins and 16 outer-space bins, with 
a capacity of 500,000 bushels, so that 
the total capacity of the elevator will 
be 2,000,000 bushels. The special fea- 
ture of the elevator is the drying plant 
to be used for the treatment of tough or 
damp wheat, 1,000 bushels of grain per 
hour can be put through the drying pro- 
cess without difficulty. The big ter- 
minal elevator of the Dominion Govern- 
ment, with a capacity of 3,500,000 
bushels, is nearing completion, and will 
be used to assist in handling this year's 
crop. 

@ 

OIL CARGO KEPT HER AFLOAT. 

a CALCUTTA daily paper is respon- 
sible for an extraordinary story 
told to its representative by Captain 
Burn, of the oil steamer Saranac, be- 
longing to the Tank Storage and Car- 
riage Co. 

She was laden with 6,300 tons of oil 
from New York for Calcutta. On May 
28th, when seven miles from Point de 
Galle, Ceylon, and three miles out from 
shore, she struck an uncharted rock 
three times, and it was found that two 
of the tanks in the middle of the ship 
were letting in water. Water came in 
and lifted the oil to the top of the tank, 
and there it stopped, and in this condi- 
tion the vessel was navigated up to Cal- 
cutta, a journey which took five days. 

When the cargo of oil had been pump- 
ed out the vessel went into dry dock, 
and it was only then that the extent of 
the damage was discovered. Fore and 
aft were two huge rents in the plates, 
many of which had been started, and in 
the middle of the hull was a gash 20 ft. 
long and 1 in. wide, while here and there 
were huge dents big enough for a man 
to put his hea,d through. Any ordinary 
steamer so damaged would have gone 
down in a very short while, but in the 
case of the Saranac the oil kept the 
water out, and, according to the cap- 
tain, the vessel floated almost as well as 
though nothing had happened. 



North Atlantic Ice Patrol Reports for the Season of 1913 

Being Statistics and "Deductions" from observations made by the United States Revenue 
Cutter, "Seneca/' Captain C. E. Johnston, while cruising in the Ice Region, from May 31 
to June 16, 1918. We are indebted to the Hydrographic Bulletin for the data. 



A LL of the ice seen on or near the 
Grand Bank this season has been 
of the Greenland type in berg- form. 
No ice of the field or slob variety was 
seen or reported, except near the coast 
of Newfoundland. During the month 
of April I had reports of about 100 
bergs south of latitude 50 degrees north, 
mostly in a congested area around 
Flemish Cap, and thence westward to 
the Grand Bank. Scattering bergs 
were reported as far east as 48 degrees 
50 feet N., 40 degrees 40 feet W. ; south 
to 44 degrees 07 feet N., 48 degrees 32 
feet W.; west to 44 degrees 50 feet N., 

49 degrees 10 feet W. In May there 
were reported to me 114 bergs south of 
latitude 50 degrees. They had moved 
westward and southward, and were 
mostly on or near the eastern side of 
the Grand Bank, many being grounded 
thereon; eastern limit for May, 48 de- 
grees N., 40 degrees 18 feet W. ; south- 
ern limit, 43 degrees 18 feet N., 48 de- 
grees 33 feet W. ; western limit, 44 de- 
grees 56 feet N., 49 degrees 16 feet W. 

Up to June 16, I had reports for that 
month of 35 bergs south of latitude 50 
degrees, mostly confined between 48 de- 
grees and 49 degrees N., 45 degrees and 

50 degrees W. A few scattering bergs 
were reported as far east as 49 degrees 
30 feet N., 41 degrees 45 feet W. ; south 
to 43 degrees 02 feet N., 42 degrees 49 
W.; west to 48 degrees 28 feet N., 49 
degrees 33 feet W. Many bergs were 
reported off St. Johns, ' Newfoundland, 
and grounded near that port. Through- 
out the season there have been reports 
of numerous bergs north of 50 degrees, 
but I have kept no account of them. 

The largest berg we saw was about 
400 feet long by ^300 feet wide by 70 
feet high out of water; the smallest was 
about 225 feet long, 100 feet wide, and 
35 feet high. All were Avhite in color, 
some having one or more distinct veins 
of blue ice running through them, these 
veins ranging from 18 inches to 6 feet 
in width. As to shape no two bore any 
striking resemblance to each other. 
There were round tops, flat tops, slop- 
ing tops, and pinnacled tops; sloping 
sides, sheer sides, craggy sides; regular 
shapes and extremely irregular shapes. 
The only type we did not see is the kind 
popularly pictured in school books, with 
high, overhanging, craggy pinnacles. I 
have read in recent newspapers of ships 
reporting bergs half a mile long and 
300 feet high. I am not prepared to re- 
fute such statements, but we saw no- 
thing of that size. I estimate 150 feet 



as the highest berg we saw. It looked 
at a distance like the pictures of Mat- 
terhorn. 

Visibility of Ice and Means of Detecting 
Its Presence. 

The greatest distance we observed 
ice was 18 miles. The day was clear, 
with light easterly winds, and a ten- 
dency to mirage. It seemed to sudden- 
ly jump into view, and could be plainly 
seen from the bridge as soon as from 
the crow's nest. On ordinary clear days 



$ 



the average berg can be seen 12 to 15 
miles from the bridge, about a mile 
farther from the crow's nest, and a 
mile still farther from the signal yard. 
On a cloudy day, with good visibility, 
deduct about 2 miles from the fore- 
going. In clear weather, with hazy 
horizon, we have seen a big berg 11 
miles, its top being visible well above 
the horizon; in light fog, 2 miles; dense 
fog, 200 yards; drizzling rain, 2V2 miles. 
In bright moonlight, with naked eye, 
2 1 v miles; moon shining through thin 
mackerel clouds, 2 miles; starlight, 1 
mile with naked eye, 2 miles with 
glasses; overcast and dark, but with 
horizon visible, one-half mile with 
glasses. In the last case, the berg 
looms up dark; in the other cases its 
effulgence shows lighter than the sur- 
rounding space. 

With the searchlight we were able to 
see a berg about 3 miles on a dimly 
moonlight night, and 2 miles after the 
moon set. In using the searchlight, we 
155 



found that an observer standing behind 
or under the beam could see practic